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Terms Definitions
goal a desired outcome
Pavlov CR: SalivationUR: SalivationCS: BellUS: Food
Prejudice an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feeligs, and a predisposition to discriminatory action
emblem nonverbal gesture that have well-understood definitions within a given culture; ex: OK sign
culture the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
Normative Social Influence To gain group approval
conformity adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
deindividualism the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
Social cognition - explores interpersonal perception, self-perception, attribution- how people think about themselves and the social world; specifically, how people select, interpret, remember and use social information to make judgements and decisions
social leadership leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support
Heightened Arousal Excitation Transfer Theory. More likely to aggress if aroused
meta-contrast principle group members exaggerate similarities within the group ('we are all the same') and differences with other groups ('we are very different from them')
negotiation A form of communication between opposing sides in a conflict in which offers and counteroffers are made and a solution occurs only when both parties agree
Reciprocity Acting kindly towards others because they might do same for us someday.
racism prejudice and discrimination based on a person's racial background, or institutional and cultural practices that promote the domination of one racial group over another.
informational social influence influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality
Superordinate Goals Shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation.
Altruism unselfish regard for the welfare of others
mirror-image perceptions the negative, mutual views that conflicting people often hold about one another
In-Group Favoritism A cognitive bias involving the predisposition to attribute more positive characteristics to members of in-groups that to those of out-gruops.
Underuse baserate info We don't used statistical information
Ethics Moral and legal responsiblity to abide by ethical principles. Milgrim - People electrocute others
standards ideas (concepts) of how things might possibly be
Animals that have successfully fought to get food or mates become increasingly ferocious.  This best illustrates that aggression is influenced by
A. superordinate goals.
B. scapegoating.
C. frustration.
D. reinforcement.
E. group polarization.
D. reinforcement.
belief an estimate of the probability that something is true
-attitudes are based on sets of beliefs
symptoms of groupthink illusion of invulnerability, don't permit deviations from the group, illusion of unanimity, belief that group is good)
field research research done in natural, real-life settings outside the laboratory
Self-Awareness May explain isolation when we are depressed or struggling
Explicit stereotypes Beliefs about the characteristics of an out-group about which we are aware
Reducing prejudice Equal-status contact under the ideal conditions of no economic conflict can and does produce increased understanding and diminution of prejudice. Psychology of inevitability can and does set up pressures to reduce prejudiced attitudes and can set the stage for smooth, nonviolent school desegregation. Integrated neighborhoods. Interdependence. Empathy. Jigsaw technique (placing students in small, racially mixed cooperative groups)
bystander effect the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
Diffusion of Responsibility reduction in sense of responsibility often felt by individuals in a group; may be responsible for the bystander effect/.
Groupthink the mode of thinking that occures whan the desire for harmony in a decision - making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
Social Trap a situation in which the conflicting parties become aught in mutually destructive behavior
self serving bias Tendency in explaining one's own behavior to rationzalize your mistake and taking credit for good action
self-fulfilling prophecy a prediction made about some future behavior or event that modifies interactions so as to produce what is expected
looking-glass self the idea that people learn about themselves by imagining how they appear to others
self-discrepancy theory a theory that appropriate behavior is motivated by cultural and moral standards regarding the ideal self and the ought self. Violations of those standards produce emotions such as guilt and shame
actor-oberserver difference a difference in attribution based on who is making the causal assessment: the actor( who is relatively disposed to make situational attributions) or the observer (who is relatively disposed to make dispositional attributions)
causes:
1. assumptions about what it is that needs explaining can vary for actors/observers
2. ther perceptual salience of the actor and the surrounding situation is different for the actor and the observer
3. differ in the amount and kind of information they have about the actor and the actor's behavior
The invention and transmission of dating and courtship customs best illustrate
A. personal space.
B. cultural influence.
C. the priming process.
D. the reciprocity norm.
E. self-disclosure.
B. cultural influence.
illusory correlation the belief that two variables are associated with one another when in fact there is little or no actual association (bad stereotypes with minorities)
Halo Effect We tend to assume that conventionally attractive people posses other positive qualities as well without justification
The sum total of a person's thoughts and feelings that defines the self as an object self-concept
Obedience Following the commands of a person in authority.
risky shift effect



 people make riskier decisions in groups than alone- 




Consensus information Information about the extent to which other people behave the same way toward the same stimulus as the actor does
episodic acute stress -----refers to repeated episodes of acute stress, such as having to work at more than one job every day, having to spend time with a difficult in-law, or needing to meet a recurring monthly deadline.
Irrevocability once you are bound to a decision (usually by money) you are more likely to reduce dissonance and more actively support your decision because you cannot go back and change it. People frequently become more certain that they have made a wise decision after there is nothing they can do about it. Gilbert (2006): Studentsgot too choose between two photographs that they took. One condition had the option to exchange photo within 5 days and other in which their first choice was their final option and irrevocable; those who had the option to exchange liked the one they ended up with less than those who made the final choice on the first day
central route persuasion occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts
Social Psychology the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
casual attribution theory -consensus: is this behavior shared by many people?- consistency: does person act the same way to the same stimulus every time?- distinctiveness: the extent to which a person preforms a behavior only during a particular type of event or toward a particular person or thing (bill doesn't praise often, but he likes the club; it must be good)
Self-Discrepancy theory (Higgins 1987) 1. Actual Self
2. Ideal Self
3. Ought Self (how we think we should be)
Self-concept The content of the self; that is, our knowledge about who we are
self-serving bias a pattern in which people claim credit for success but deny blame for failure
What "movement" or term took place from 1920 to 1950 that said stimuli drives behavior?
(Stimuli--> Nothing --> Response)
Empiricism
(people are passive)
Upward Social Comparison Comparing ourselves to people who are better than we are on a particular trait or ability
Physical proximity the distance of one person to another person
Ironic Processes Wegner: The harder we try to inhibit a thought, feeling, or behavior the less likely we are to succeed.
emotional context when judging a facial expression of an individual, collectivists were more influenced by facial expressions of other people in scene.
Aggression: Role of Testosterone - strong positive correlation between testosterone levels and aggression
- but correlation is not causation
Relative deprivation the perception that you or your group have less than you deserve, less than you have been led to expect, or less than people similar to you have. (race riots)
Difficult Judgments; Easy Judgments As discovered by Robert Baron (with his modern version of Asch's conformity experiment), we are much more likely to conform when making ___________________ than when making _______________. This demonstrates the importance of Informational Social Influence.
nonverbal communication and gender girls r better at reading pplgirls better at production of nonverbal clues
theory of evolution a theory proposed by Charles Darwin to explain how change occurs in nature
Some situations are more likely to evoke self-presentation behaviors than others. Discuss the situational factors related to the goals of appearing likable, appearing competent, and conveying status and power. Appearing likable: friendship settings, when interacting with people in powerfulpositions. Appearing competent: when competence matters. Conveying status and power: when self-image is threatened; when new valuable resources are available.
Pluralistic Ignorance A lot of people witness an event, but not one does another b/c they look at each other and no one else is alarmed
What is resonance When what you see in reality is congruent with what is shown on TV
What is the out-group homogeneity effect and what does it have to do with stereotype formation? What are two reasons for the out-group homogeneity effect? Tendency to perceive more variability among in-groups than out-groupsWe ignore individual differences except for our own groupWhy does it happenMore opportunities to learn about in-groupsEasier to think of in-group individuals
what is instrumental behavior? "cool"  agression that is a means to some end.
examples: war

 Main Idea of Nisbett and Wilson (1977) – “Telling more than we know”

 

o      Reacting to common assumption that you can ask people why they behaved the way they did (self-reports). They review a huge literature showing that people have little insight into the causes of their behavior
§       People always have reasons, usually rational, defensible ones. But they’re often, even usually, the wrong reasons
§       People have limited insight into the true causes of their behavior
Basically of you want to understand human behavior you can’t just ask somebody

 
Normative conformity A tendency to go along with a group in order to fulfil expectations and gain acceptance
define " distributive justice" and how is changes through out cultures Definition: The conditions under which the allocation of a resource or the outcome of an event would be judged as just or unjust ?concepts of Distributive justice differ between cultures - for example : one streal a ticket to a train, the other does not delivery rings to a freinds weddings - the first is undesirable breach of justice rights volations, where as teh second is violating interpresonal responsibilities . Indian see's interpersonal responsibilities as more important that voilations of rights - USA the opposit
You are new to the company, and you want your co-workers to LIKE you. Based on your knowledge about self-presentation, what tactics would you employ? List and explain three specific tactics, and give a concrete example of how you would use each one. Tactics: ingratiation, creating similarity, and projecting modesty. Ingratiation is an attempt to get others to like us. Creating similarity involves pointing out or creating things in common with your co-workers, such as conforming your opinions to theirs, emphasizing shared tastes in movies, food, and by dressing in a similar fashion. Projecting modesty may involve giving co-workers credit for your successes andminimizing your own past successes or achievements.
Four examples of how behavior is contagious 1) One person laughs, coughs, or yawns, and others in the group soon do the same. This also affects chimps.
2) A cluster of people stand gazing upward, and passerby pause to do likewise.
3) Bartenders and street musicians know to "seed" their tip containers with money to suggest that others have given.
4) "Sickness" can also be psychologically contagious. In the anxious 9/11 aftermath, more than two dozen elementary and middle schools had outbreaks of children reporting red rashes.
Name and describe the two person factors that can impact the desire for accuracy. Issue involvement: if higher (if issue is personally relevant), then accuracy motivation ishigher.Mood: Sad moods tend to increase the desire to acquire accurate attitudes and beliefs.
What is process loss? What three phenomena demonstrate process loss? Any aspect of group interaction that inhibits good problem solvingFocus on common knowledge, not unique knowledge of group membersThree main typesGroup polarizationGroupthinkSocial dilemmas
What is the authority norm? How does this norm relate to advertising? Norm: Do what authority figures say.Ad examples:9 out of 10 dentists agreeUsing athletes to sell sport-specific products
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