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#### Complete list of Terms and Definitions for statistics 4

Terms Definitions
mean expected value.
Descriptive Statistics describe the sample
coherent logically connected and consistent
What is the reliability coefficient? T/(T+E)
sufficient adequate for the purpose; enough
Sample For statistical purposes a small collection of individual units taken from the population which is under investigation on the assumption that they represent the characteristics of the entire population.
state your name for the record STAURND
PARAMETER is a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a population.
phenomenon a fact, occurrence, or circumstance observed; something that is impressive or extraordinary
Longitudinal Study Research that follows a particular group of individuals (usually selected as a sample representing a population as a whole) over the course of time, often over many years.
Trial sequence of events that we are pretending will take place
Dependent Variables variables that measured or observed for change
QUANTITATIVE DATA consist of numbers representing counts or measurements.
bell-shaped curve frequency curve that resembles the outline of a bell, as the normal curve
probability the relative possibility that an event will occur, as expressed by the ratio of the number of actual occurrences to the total number of possible occurrences.
opposition the action of resisting, or combating; a person or group of people opposing, criticizing, or protesting something
box plot data display that shows the five-number summary
Least squares regression Minimizes the vertical distance. Passes through xbar and y bar.
cross-sectional study study in which a representative cross section of the population is tested or surveyed at one specific time
Concerns with variation between two or more raters who measure the same group of subjects is know as? Interrater reliability
molt cast or shed the feathers, skin, or the like, that will be replaced by a new growth
superordinate of higher degree in condition or rank; related to a particular proposition of the same quality and containing the same terms in the same order
mutually exclusive events that have no outcomes in common
How to: Histogram Choose the classes; Count the individuals in each class; Draw the histogram
Manipulation & Random Assignment 2 things an experiment must have
central limit theorem applies to what type of distribution sampling distribution(frequency distribution of the means of a large number of equal size samples from a population)
This test is used with continuous data when doing one comparison between two groups in a matched sample. Matched T-Test
impose to be put upon by an authority, such as a penalty
Rules of probability Any probability is a number between 0-1; All possible outcomes together must have probability 1; If two events have no outcomes in common, the probability that one or the other occurs is the sum of their individual probabilities.; The probability that an
Attribute independent variables are: 1. fixed - not manipulated by researcher (i.e. socioecomonic status). 2. organismic(i.e. age, gender). 3. response (i.e. scores on tests).
RATIO LEVEL OF MEASUREMENT is the interval level with the additional property that there is also a natural zero starting point (where zero indicates that none of the quantity is present). For values at this level, differences and ratios are both meaningful.
Random selection of subjects VS. 1. identifies sample from population. 2. establishes external validity. (The sample cannot be generalized to the population without random selection.)
Definitions and Symbols: Median Median is what is called the middle score of the distribution (what is between the lowest and highest score),
Simple random sample A sample size in which each set of n elements in the population has an equal chance of selection
what are reseved powers powers not given to the govt but are given to state.
Classic Model of Scientific Process Steps 1. Begin with theory. 2. Deduce a hypothesis. 3. Design study and operationalize concepts. 4. Conduct study & collect data. 5. Analyze data to accept/reject hypothesis. 6. Support/modify/reject initial theory.
Talk about WWI and need for assessment. The advent of WWI created a need to do psych assessment. They used it to know where to place soldiers. This was even more important in WWII.
factor explanatory variable
Skewness of Mean negatively skewed
hearsay unverified, unofficial information gained or acquired from another and not part of one's direct knowledge
what is reprieves postponement of sentence
valid sound, just, well-founded; effective and authoritative
Reliability The dependability of an experimental procedure, indicating that the procedure consistently yields the same results as long as it is administered in the same way each time.
state your first and last name STAUFRN*
Type of Data - Non parametric ordermedianmode
normal distribution a theoretical frequency distribution represented by a normal curve.
extant still existing, not destroyed or lost
Correlation Coefficient A measure of statistical association that ranges from -1 (perfect inverse relationship) to 0 (no relation) to +1 (perfect positive relationship).
Randomization The best defense against bias; each individual is given a fair, random chance of selection
Population the total set of individuals of interest
STATISTICS is a collection of methods for planning studies and experiments, obtaining data, an dthen organizing, summarizing, presenting, analyzing, interpreting, and drawing conclusings baded on the data.
addition rule method for finding the probability that either or both of two events occurs
median noting or pertaining to a plane dividing something into two equal parts, esp. one dividing an animal into right and left halves.
connotation the set of attributes constituting the meaning of a term, determining the range of objects to which that term may be applied
correlated degree to which two variables are associated
r^2 Fraction of the variation in the values of y that is explaned by the least- squares regression of y on x. Indicates how well your regression line actually fits the points. High values indicate that your line describes the relationship very well. The rest
Standard deviation Average extent to which the scores vary from the mean of the scores
Parametric statistics VS.Non-parametric statistics parametric statistics are most often used with interval or ratio (quantitative) data. non-parametric statistics are most often used with nominal (qualitative) or ordinal data.
If an instrument is capable of measuring a variable with consistency it is said to have? Test-retest reliability
Inferential Statisics the branch of stats that involves using a sample to draw conclusions about a population. A basic tool in the study of inferential stats is probability.
hew strike forcibly with an ax, sword, or other cutting instrument
jurisprudence the science or philosophy of law, a body or system of laws
percentile value of a variable below which a certain percent of observations fall
Extrapolation The use of a regression line for predicting outside the range of values of the explanatory variable that you used to obtain the line. Dont predict values too far outside your data set. Ex. If you have data on the growth of a child from 3-8yo then you woul
What is homoscedasticity variances of the populations that the different groups represent are equal
dutties in office 1. comaner and chief of military2. power to grant reprieves and pardon
advocate to speak or write in favor of; support or urge by argument; recommend publicly
Continuous probability model A probability model with a sample space made up of infinitely possible values; Assigns probabilities as areas under a density curve. The area under the curve and above any range of values on the horizontal axis is the probability of an outcome in that ran
Active independent variables VS. are: 1. manipulated by researcher (i.e. treatment type), or 2. potentially manipulable (i.e. subject matter studied.)
Descriptive Analysis look at the past, describe - in proper shorthand or model - based on known behavior or data distributions (i.e. - skewness, kurtosis (peakedness of the distr), mean, median, and the mode. [describe the set of data]
Liberal statistical test VS. 1. more likely to find statistical significance. 2. has more power. 3. more given to chance. 4. more likely to make Type I error. 5. less likely to make Type II error.
Definitions and Symbols: Skewed Skewed = majority of people score in low range or high range (as compared with normal distribution)
regression to the mean The tendency of a very high or very low scores on one measure to be closer to the mean on other measures.
what are state powers not alowed to do?(hint 4 answers) 1.make treaties2.coin money3.keep an army4.declare war
Formula for Addition Law P(A U B) = P(A) + P(B) - P(A & B)
Example pg 61) A recent survey of a sample of MBA'S reported that the average salary for a MBA is more than 82,000. Answer: Because the average of 82,000 is based on a subset of the population, it is a (SAMPLE STATISTIC)