##### Statistics 9
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#### Complete list of Terms and Definitions for Statistics 9

Terms Definitions
temporal pertaining to time
_x = ? sample mean
Median "Midpoint of frequency distribution, 50th percentile"
multiplication rule method for finding the&nbsp;probability&nbsp;that both of two&nbsp;events&nbsp;occur
null hypothesis hypothesis to be tested
Descriptive Statistics Statistical procedures used to describe characteristics and responses of groups of subjects
Constant "A characteristic that does not change, but is the same for every individual."
Hypothesis A testable statement of the relationship between two or more variables.
proportion comparative relation between things or magnitudes as to size, quantity or number; ratio
regression process of finding a regression equation
Placebo effect Improvement due to expectation of improving because they're receiving treatment
Variable a characteristic of interest for the elements
Measurement Assignent of numbers or labels to objects or events.
perhaps the most important measure of location is the __________ mean
probability likelihood of the occurrence of an event
ensure to secure or guarantee; to make certain
bias systematic as opposed to a random distortion of a statistic as a result of sampling procedure
bell-shaped curve frequency curve that resembles the outline of a bell, as the normal curve
Cross-sectional Studies A study in which a statistically significant sample of a population is used to estimate the relationship between an outcome of interest and population variables as they exist at one particular time. Since both the outcome and the variables are measured at the one time these studies are not strong at showing cause-effect relationships.
Confounding When the levels of one factor are associated with the levels of another factor
Constantswhen adding/subtracting a constant to every score in a distribution, what effect on:1) measures of central tendency2) measures of variabilitywhen multiplying/dividing each score in a distribution by a constant, what 1) increase/decrease2) no change3) increase/decrease4) increase/decrease
NONSAMPLING ERROR occurs when the sample data are incorrectly collected, recorded, or analyzed (such as by selecting a biased sample, using a defective measure instrument, or copying the data incorrectly).
utah a state in the W United States. 1,461,037; 84,916 sq. mi. (219,930 sq. km).
accumulate to gather or collect, often in gradual degrees; heap up
conditional probability the probability that an event will occur under the condition that another event occurs first: equal to the probability that both will occur divided by the probability that the first will occur.
sample to study a sample of the total population
Completely randomized design Subjects randomly assigned to groups then the groups are randomly assigned to treatments; can compare any number of treatments; can have more then one factor
Nominal Scale when the scale of measurement data for a variable consist of labels or names used to identify an attribute of the element, the scale
regression line a line through the averages which has a slope of r times SDy/SDx
range set of all values attained by a given function throughout its domain
probability distribution distribution of all values of a random variable with an indication of their probabilities
APA (American Psychological Association) This company advances psychology as a science and profession and as a means of promoting health, education, and human welfare
Definitions and Symbols: Cluster Sampling Cluster Sampling = randomly selected larger units of all (elementary schools, hospitals, etc.)
antiphrasis the use of a word in a sense opposite to its proper meaning
parametric and nonparametric trests share in common what assumption about samples random SELECTION of sample from the population(NOT random assignment)
VOUNTARY RESPONSE SAMPLE or (self-selected sample) is one in which the respondents themselves decide whether to be included.
what two assumptions do the parametric and non-parametric tests share 1) sample has been randomly selected from population2) observations are independent (subject's performance on DV is NOT affected by performance of any other subject)
what determines whether to use a one or two-tailed test the alternative hypothesisif it is nondirection, use a two-tailedif it is directional, use a one-tailed
Talk about WWII and need for assessment. They first give an exam before and after basic training to determine the areas a soldier would be best suited for. Ex. Submarines stay under water now for six months. This is an example of ability testing.