Complete List of Terms and Definitions for Agriculture

Terms Definitions
Sawah floodfield
Aztreonam Azactam
Desyrel Trazodone
baby goat kid
Cefepime Maxipime *pseudomonal
el codo elbow
el ojo eye
Lower Leg Posterior Gastrocnemius
sensory erectile organ Clitoris
Type 3 Antigen- Antibody
parecer to look/seem like
F1 Hybrid first hybrid cross
giberellins cause plant to grow
Spermatogenesis production of haploid sperm
Product Transformation Curve upward shift
Amobarbital (Amytal) Barbiturate
USE: sedative, hypnotic
ONSET: 60 min DURATION: 8 hrs (intermediate)
Physostigmiine (Eserine-generic) AChE inhibitors reversible
acabar de to have just...
Basque *location- southern spain, northern france
 
*kinship, gender roles- 3 generations live together(communalism), community depends on each other, live by the egalitarian principle- they are all equal.
Men take sheep to mountain, older women work in the house, younger women work in the field, competition in cheese making.
 
*subsistence economy- cheese
 
*religion- old farm(old spirit) and new farm(new spirit), catholic
 
*social organization- priest is head of community
*impact of globalization- younger people traveling to get better jobs. Construction of new roads. Education. 
sugar crops sugar cane, sugar beet
Name for immature female pig Gilt
term for meat from pigs pork
Cevimeline (Evoxac) Muscarinic Agonists
USE: Sjogren's (dry mouth)
Oxazepam (Serax) Benzodiazepine
USE: anxiety, alcohol withdrawal
ONSET: 12 min DURATION: 12-18 hrs (short)
Rats Rattus novegicus or Rattus rattus
This Carthaginians invasion from 218-203 BCE caused a ripple affect creating both a crisis on the land and in the military Hannible
Hunting and Gathering Characterizes activities whereby people feed themselves by killing wild animals and gathering fruits, roots, nuts, and other edible plants.
foraging picking berries, fruits, nuts. Hunting small animals, picking & hunting then go to the city to sell it.
Ammonium nitrate (33-0-0) sells for $12.80 for a 50 pound bag at the local co-op. The cost per pound of N would be approximately $0.78
Upper arm muscle located most posterior Triceps
time which a female is pregnant Gestation
external portion of the female reproductive tract; protects system from infection Vulva
Soybeans are primarily considered a good dietary source of: Protein
Growth Implants commercial products that contain anabolic steroids to enhance muscling. Usually complement the animal's own hormones.
Isoquant combines all factor combinations which give the same output (capital on y-axis, labor on x-axis, first half of U graph)
Fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem) Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)
What age are pups weaned? 6-8 weeks
Streaked, silvered foliage results from feeding by:
a) mites
b) lace bugs
c) fungus gnats
d) thrips
d) thrips
Claudius broke with his predecessors and expanded the empire to include this island in 43 Ce Britain
Amazon Basin Lima beans were found here approximately 6,000 BC
livestock ranching the raising of domesticated animals for the production of meat and other byproducts such as leather and wool
Food Manufacturing Adding economic value to agricultural products through a range of treatments-processing, canning, refining, packing, packaging, and so on occuring off the farm and before the products reach the market.
Luxury crops Non-subsistence crops such as tea, cacao, coffee, and tobacco
historic globalization worldwide, global; spread of religion, political factors, economic factors, intellectual factors...
origin to start, when and how something begins
Give and example of a mechanical method of weed management mowing
ruminant a mammal that digests plant material with either a 3 chamber or 4 chamber digestive system
herbaceous plants soft succulents, little cambium layer growth
transports eggs from ovary to uterus and is the site of fertilization Oviducts
Show Jumping o Extreme of hunters o Judged on accuracy and speed o Jumps include: water jumps o Walls, verticals o Gates
Extreme Outbreeding crossing different species within a genus. Allows the widest genetic diversity possible. Like crossing Bos Taurus with Bos Indicus.
Country that produces the most Horse Meat China
Which of hormone is NOT associated with milk SYNTHESIS Oxytocin
Dihydroergotamine D.H.E (Migranal, D.H.E. 45) Ergot Alkaloids
USE: migranes
MOA: agonist and/or antagonist effects of 5-HT and a1 receptors
Terrier Group have distinctive personality. BRed to hunt and eliminate small predators. Have little tolerance for other animals including other dogs. Make engaging pets but needs an owner with determination
The formula, radius squared times 3.14, is used to determine the area of a:
a) trapezoid
b) triangle
c) golf course fairway
d) circle
d) circle
Romulus Augustus was the last emperor of the western Roman Empire before he was overthrown by this German mercenary in 476. Odoacer
animal domestication genetic modification of an animal such that it is rendered more amenable to human control
Plantation is a large farm that specilaizes in one or two crops
Commercial Agriculture System in which farmers produce crops and animals primarily for sale rether than for direct consumption by themselves and their families.
Long-lot survey system that divided land into narrow parcels stretching back from rivers,roads, or canals
4 types of archaeological sites *game sites
*burial sites
*mass grave sites
*kill sites
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) integrating many different strategies to manage a pest. focuses on long term management/prevention of pests.
1. Identify the pest, and beneficial insects/organisms that may be present
2. Determination of economic threshold
Thrips primarily attack cotton c. In early vegetative stages
A soil test recommendation calls for 120lbs/A of nitrogen for a wheat crop. How much of a fertilizer material with analysis of 33-0-0 would need to be applied per acre to meet his recommendation 360 lbs
The horse gait "canter" would be classified as 3-beat gait
what term describes the act of waiting two weeks between slaughtering an animal and then processing the resulting carcass? Aging
Generation Interval (G), negative effect. How long until next generation reproduces
leading cause of death and injury for persons 1 to 37 years of age accidents
Can dogs learn human behaviors and how to read them and interact with people? yes
An aggregation of economic goods used for personal purposes, pleasure, or investment. Capital Asset
This cultural technique can reduce spittlebug numbers.
a) daily irrigation
b) lowering mowing height
c) raising mowing height
d) proper dethatching
d) proper dethatching
WHAT IS THE ACCEPTABLE DISTANCE YOU CAN BURN IN RELATIONSHIP TO A SMOKE SENSITIVE AREA? 3/4 MILE
Diogenes, Epicurus and Zeno were the most influential teachers of this age, emphasizing the individual. Hellenistic Age
tract an expanse or area of land, water, etc.; region; stretch.
rectangular survey system also called the public land survey, the system was used by the US land Office survey to parcel land west of the Appalachian Mountains. The system divides land into a series of rectangular parcels.
Nontraditional Agricultural Exports(NTAE's) New export crops that contrast with traditional exports, such as sugar and coffee.
Capital is more varied of the groups of inputs and includes everything from ferilizer and seeds to oxen/tractors to crop measurments sometimes divided into physical and financial capital
Julius Sachs discovered in the 1860s he could grow plants successfully in a mixture of 3 salts: Calcium Nitrate, Potassium Phosphate, and Magnesium Sulfate
Insect, disease and weed pests are best managed using a system of biological, cultural, chemical, and other tools otherwise known as Integrated Pest Management
Of the following, which is not a characteristic of peanut family poaceae
trap crop planted to attract pests away from a main crop.
consists of horns and a body; site of embryonic growth and placental and fetal development; varies among species Uterus
Birth weight of lambs single: 10-12 pounds twins: 7-9 pounds
Meat consumer trends less beef, more chicken, less pork, more turkey
a unit for expressing the ratio of two amounts of electric or acoustic signal power equal to 10 times the common logarithm of this ratio decibel
Nicitating membrane a 3rd membrane that goes across the eye
The repayment of a loan with a regular series of payments over a specified period of time. Amortization
Shot holes in dogwood leaves are caused by:
a) Septoria (Italics) leaf spot
b) spot anthracnose
c) dogwood rust
d) powdery mildew
b) spot anthracnose
this event according to Roman myths led directly to the expulsion of Tarquinius Superbus and the Tarquin kings, and the Roman hatred of kings Rape of Lucretia
Slash and Burn Agriculture framers clear land for planting by slashing vegetation and burning the debris
Mechanical Control of Weeds oldest and most familiar method. hand weeding, using a hoe. mechanical cultivation
Function of K+ exists in the plant primarily in ionic form, functions in electrolyte balance, manages the opening and closing of stomates
One of the major fiber properties of cotton is a measure of resistance to breakage, measured in grams/tex, and is referred to as d. Fiber strength
Apical Meristem the growing point at the top of a dicot plant
As presented in class, which of the following is done about 2 weeks before a female pig is due to give birth an be moved into the farrowing barn? De-worm pregnant females
How many teats/glands does a cow have? 4 teats, 4 glands
Average Fixed Cost (AFC) fixed cost divided by level of output
Intra-specific aggression in cats more smoke than fire, normal after copulation
To describe the age (or size) of an insect nymph or larva, you would use the word:
a) instar
b) generation
c) superstar
d) molt
a) instar
how does conservation tillage reduce erosion and water runoff, and improve water quality leaving organic matter, using less pesticides
Bollworms in cotton are best managed by an integrated pest management approach
Lambing Interval Farm Flock 8 months (3 lambings every 2 years, out of season)
Implications of perfectly competitive markets Firms will earn zero economic profit in the LR.
Consumers consider only price when choosing which firm to buy from.
Any firm that rises price above market will lose all sales.
Firms can freely enter and exit industries.`
Phytotoxicity is usually characterized by:
a) shot-hole-type damage to foliage
b) abnormal growth, foliar burn, leaf drop and discolored or spotted leaves
c) growths resembling cankers
d) wet, slimy areas on foliage
b) abnormal growth, foliar burn, leaf drop and discolored or spotted leaves
HOW DOES PRESCRIBED BURNING IMPROVE WILDLIFE HABITATS? REDUCES PREDATOR COVER, EXPOSES HIDDEN FOOD SOURCES, INCREASES LOW BROWSE GROWTH.
how does conservation tillage reduce fuel requirements less tillage so it reduces fuel requirements
production of corn for grain and silage are similar, except that for silage production plant population should be slightly higher and the crop harvested is earlier
What is the term for giving birth in swine? farrowing, or to farrow
What is the primary thing you should do to reduce the chances of having a biting dog? socialize them as a puppy
Which of the following should not be done to prevent diseases caused by viruses?
a) control insects which spread the diseases
b) practice good sanitation
c) frequently irrigate affected plants
d) avoid wounding plants
c) frequently irrigate affected plants
WHAT FACTORS MUST BE CONSIDERED WHEN PLANNING A PRESCRIBED BURN? FUEL CONDITIONS, WEATHER, SEASON OF THE YEAR, TIME OF DAY, TYPE OF FIRE
Inbreeding (self-pollination) of corn for a few generations leads to a. A lowering of yield and plant vigor and increased uniformity
Which of the following is true? baby pigs have little body fat and need a heat source warmer than the sow to be comfortable
List three vocalizations and what they mean? growl: back off I'm uncomfortable with you, sneeze:something new irritating ,or unusual. whine: let me out, feed me
All of the following are symptoms of nematode injury except:
a) swelling of roots
b) stippling and spotting of foliage
c) wilting
d) stunting of plant growth
b) stippling and spotting of foliage
The major function of the subsoiler or chisel plow is to break up deep hardpans or compacted layers
4-5 Weeks of age in dogs can learn but not at an adult rate. introduce new experiences and objects to pups at this period.
Most crown gall occur:
a) at or below the soil line
b) primarily on herbaceous ornamentals
c) on young plants
d) during cool weather
a) at or below the soil line
Lysine is said to be a limiting amino acid in swine diets. What does this mean? It means that it hinders protein production Also they are unable to utilize it if there is too much in their system
To avoid root rot, the following is not recommended:
a) install healthy plants
b) locate plants in a well-drained area
c) apply a fungicide drench to the base of the affected plant
d) remove diseased plants
c) apply a fungicide drench to the base of the affected plant
A bushel of soybean weighs 60 pounds and can be processed into 48 pounds of high protein meal and 11 pounds of oil
The best times to sample for white grubs are:
a) early spring and late fall
b) at noon and at dusk
c) in the spring after the soil warms up and mid-July to early August
d) early spring to mid-July
c) in the spring after the soil warms up and mid-July to early August
Cefaclor Ceclor
Lamictal Lamotrigine
Solanaceae tomatoes, tobacco
Piperacillin/Tazobactam Zosyn (IV)
el/la medico doctor
la muneca wrist
Micronaire the fiber diameter
Clitoris sensory erectile organ
Production Function upward shift
el dolor the pain
fertile capable of producing vegetation
Xerophytes love very dry climates
Genes functional units of inheritance
Total Cost Curve rightward shift
Secobarbital (Seconal) Barbiturate
USE: insomnia, pre-anesthesia
ONSET: 15 min DURATION: 4 hrs (short)
Sarin AChE inhibitors irreversible (cholinergic poisons, nerve gases)
5 hours before permanent
cerrar la herida wound closure
3 attributes that paleoanthropologist look out for in the analysis of skeletal remains *fracture
*age
 *gender
*diets
most grasses have _________ emergence hypogeal
Name for Mature female pig Sow
Lesser $ Pork Cuts Side, Shoulder
Carbachol (Isopto-Carbachol) Muscarinic Agonists
Quaternary amine and non-selective muscarinic and nicotinic agonist
USE: Glaucoma
Alprazolam (Xanax) Benzodiazepine
USE: anxiety, panic disorder
ONSET: 12 min DURATION: 24 hrs (medium)
Ipratropium (Atrovent) Anticholinergic
USE: asthma, COPD: decrease bronchial contraction and secretions
Citalopram (Celexa) Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)
How many fish total? 24 million
Plato credited Protagoras with creating this philosophy, criticized by socrates for its belief that, "man is the measure of all things" realitivism
Famine Acute starvation associated with a sharp increase in mortality.
globalization exchange of similarities & differences of economic, traditional cultures
Based on annual precipitation, Alabama is in the crop region best described as Humid
Skeletal Muscle Voluntary or consciously controlled and striated.
hypogeal emergence the cotyledons remain below ground.
The epicotyl (stem above the cotyledons) grows and raises the plumule out of the soil.
FOOD SOURCE BELOW GROUND
Penis passageway for semen and urine; deposits semen in the female
reproductive tract
What is the expected dressing percentage of hogs? 70-72%
Growth increase in body weight until maturity. Increased mass of structural tissue and organs
When evaluating "sex linked" traits not exhibited by one gender ( such as milk production) we often compare offspring of the individuals, what term do we call the offspring we compare? Contemporaries
Agriculture Farming, raising and tending plants and animals for food
Varenicline (Chantix) Nicotinic a4b2 partial agonist
USE: smoking cessation aid
Hearing range in cats 20- 60,000 Hz
Regularly used granular spreaders should be calibrated:
a) weekly
b) monthly
c) by different people to verify accuracy
d) only when a different size of granule is to be applied
a) weekly
His conversion to Christianity paved the way for Theodosius to make it the state religion of Rome in the late 4th century. Constantine
hydrogen a colorless, odorless, flammable gas that combines chemically with oxygen to form water: the lightest of the known elements.
secondary economic activity economic activity involving the processing of raw materials and their transformation into finished industrial products; the manufacturing sector
Mechanizing Replacement of human farm labor with machines.
Yellow fever a disease transmitted by mosquitoes: its symptoms inclued high fever and vomiting
moiety divide kinship into two lineages to avoid incest , endogamy
inelastic consumers are not responsive to price change ex: milk, gas, meds,
Weed Classification 1. Perennial vs. Annuals
2. Broadleaf vs. Grasses
one of the major fiber-properties of cotton is fiber diameter, an indicator of fiber maturity, and is referred to as the micronaire
radicle develops into the primary root at germination
transports sperm from the epididymis to the uretha. Vas Deferens
serves as a birth canal at parturition; separated from the uterus by the cervix; receptacle for the penis during copulation Vagina
Asian Horses selected for riding speed and endurance. Anscestors of current "hot blooded" breeds
Pre-Natal Growth primarily cell division and protein synthesis. 1st and 2nd trimester --> hyperplasia and 3rd trimester --> increase in cell size
What age are dairy calves weaned? 6-8 weeks
what should be the body conditioning score for a dry cow? 3.5
What does CMT stand for? California Mastitis Test
Inhibits mitosis, may also inhibit RNA and DNA synthesis Griseofulvin
when do cats go through puberty? 6-8 months
Most ornamental diseases are caused by:
a) nematodes
b) fungi
c) viruses
d) bacteria
b) fungi
After putting down the jewish revolt, his armies hailed him as emperor but he still asked the senate to confirm his position Vespian
Mexico Zea mays is native to southern or western...
tertiary economic activity economic activity associated with the provision of services-such as transportation, banking, retailing, education, and routine office-based jobs
Prime Agriculture Land as urban areas sprawl intote surronding countryside
Food Security A person, household, or country has assured access to enough food at all times to ensure active and healthy lives.
Second Agricultural Revolution tools and equipment were modified, methods of soil preparation, fertilization, crop care, and harvesting improved the general organization of agriculture made more efficient
Agent a substance that exerts some force or effect
No till complete lack of tillage. planting a crop directly into existing plant debris
Correcting soil compaction deep tillage, particularly deeper than normal, using a subsoiler or chisel plow
The first structure to emerge from a germinating seed in both dicots and monocots it the: Radicle
blister-like mass on the surface of an ovary containing a developing ovum Follicle
the most common form of permanently identifying individual swine in the U.S. is: Tissue Notches
Largest meat processing company Tyson Foods, in Springdale Arkansas
Loci the location of a gene on a chromosome
the condition of being safe from risk or danger safety
Buspirone (Buspar) USE: anxiety
ONSET of efficacy is 1-2 weeks
MOA: serotonin receptor agonist, no effect on GABA receptor or GABA binding to GABA receptor
Hounds follow game by scent or sight and track it down for humans
One where large supplies and/or poor demand cause a decline in price. Bear Market
Which stage of scale insects is easiest to control?
a) egg
b) crawler
c) adult
d) larva
b) crawler
Perhaps the most important components of spray equipment to inspect before calibration are:
a) hoses
b) tank agitators
c) nozzle tips
d) filter
c) nozzle tips
He was Charlemagne’s chief advisor and established a school in the palace at Aachen Alcuin of York
the story is that he fiddled while Rome burned; his mother cried to her assassins, "Stab my womb" Nero
shuck to remove or discard as or like shucks; peel off:
Köppen climatic classification system developed by Wladimir Köppen, a system for classifying the world's climates on the basis of temperature and precipitation
Agricultural Industrialization Process where the farm has moved from being the center of agricultural production to being one part of an integrated multilevel(or vertically organized) industrial process including production, storaging, proccesing, distribution, marketing, and retailing.
broad spectrum revolution char. of an economy that existed around sedented economy that was 12-8 kya
Weeds are classified according to life cycle (annual vs. perennial) and broadleaf vs. grasses
peg what the pod of a peanut is attached to underground
companion crop also called nurse crop. helps in the establishment of the main crop. example: oat provides protection against weed for alfalfa
forms after ovum is released from the follicle and produces progesterone Corpus Luteum
what is a reasonable lamb crop for a well managed range flock 125%
Australia and New Zealand combined are major world producers of what? lamb and mutton
Bone Growth bone is an active living tissue. which is formed and reformed throughout life
lists cautions, hazards, protection equipment to wear and first aid procedures marerial safety data sheet (msds)
how many dogs are in a rural dog pack? 2-5
The gain (loss) realizedfrom the sale of a capital asset when the asset is sold for more (less) than its initial purchase price or adjusted basis. Capital Gains (Loss)
The most serious disease of roses is:
a) black spot
b) cedar-rose rust
c) powdery mildew
d) Entomosporium (Italics) leaf spot
a) black spot
Boom height affects:
a) spray pattern uniformity
b) nozzle wear
c) pesticide dilution
d) droplet size
a) spray pattern uniformity
If the cities were the centre of the Roman world in the Pax Romana, then these became the centres in the last centuries of the Empire. latifundias
Third Agricultural Revolution currently in the progress, it has as its principal orientation the development of genetically modified organisms
Anhydrous Ammonia source of nitrogen. Gas. 82% N you can inject this into the soil. relatively cheap and easy to handle, generally only for crop fields, mainly for corn
cranial Toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body; above
In range flocks, where are the ewes most likely to be located during the shearing season? Winter Headquarters (ELECTRICITY!!)
As described in class, when does the SLOWEST rate of growth occur in an individual's life? Birth to Puberty
Short run supply curve represented by the portion of the short run marginal cost curve that lies above minimum AVC
Sense of Smell developed at birth, use it more than humans. dogs may be more that 100,000 times better than man
What organization does the majority of dog registration in the US? AKC- American Kennel Club
Sawfly larvae usually can be distinguished from caterpillars by:
a) their number of prolegs
b) their feeding damage
c) their mouthparts
d) the time of year when they become numerous
a) their number of prolegs
3 reasons why archaeology is a relevant field of study *helps history
*helps changes in environment
*helps us to know who we are by knowing where we came from
the three major tools of the plant breeder are introduction, selection, and hybridization
peanut is more sensitive to calcium deficiency than most crops and more likely to show symptoms in soils of low pH
if a horse was advertised as smooth mouthed, what's the youngest you would expect it to be? 10 years of age
Sex Limited Traits both sexes carry the gene but only one sex can express it. For example only a female can express traits for milk production
The root does not serve as:
a) an anchor for the plant
b) a site of uptake for moisture and nutrients
c) a reproductive organ
d) a storage site for carbohydrates
c) a reproductive organ
how does conservation tillage increase soul water-holding capacity increase organic matter so that soil will hold more water
one production advantage grain sorghum has over corn is more tolerance to drought and acid soils
What is the expected ADG for lambs fed only concentrated feeds (like grain pellets)? 0.6 - 0.7 lb/day
How to avoid dog bits do not run away, back away slowly. Avoid eye contact. keep hands up do not offer to let the dog sniff
This turf pest is also a major pest of ornamental trees and shrubs:
a) sod webworm
b) masked Oriental beetle
c) wild billbug
d) Japanese beetle
d) Japanese beetle
Wheat is superior to other small grains as a product for making bread because c. It contains a protein called gluten, that has elastic properties when mixed with water
Top States, Number of Dairy Cows 1. California 2. Wisconsin 3. New York 4. Pennsylvania 5. Idaho
List 3 ways cats mark their territory Urine, feces, and glands behind their ears
Which of the following is not considered a safety precaution when treating on slopes near sensitive areas?
a) do not treat if rainfall is imminent
b) maintain a buffer zone
c) use a larger nozzle opening size
d)use the lowest effective rate of applica
c) use a larger nozzle opening size
how does conservation tillage help remove CO2 from the atmosphere more carbon left in the soil, less in the atmosphere
Tell me 3 facts about Rivers and Oceans: 1. Many port cities have developed where rivers meet the seas
2. Rivers flow across the piedmont and coastal plain to the Atlantic Ocean
3. Swimming, fishing and boating are popular water sports here
If a mimosa tree is diagnosed with a severe case of vascular wilt, the best solution is to:
a)treat the tree with an appropriate fungicide
b)irrigate until symptoms disappear
c) remove the tree, including roots
d) prune out the diseased parts
c) remove the tree, including roots
1
The reason you should not save your own seed and replant with corn seed from an F hybrid is
2
b. Loss of vigor, yield and uniformity due to genetic segregation in the F generation
Which of the following does not describe cutworms?
a) they are mostly hairless
b) they are rarely more than 1 inch long when fully grown
c) they can appear greasy
d) they ofter coil into a spiral when disturbed
b) they are rarely more than 1 inch long when fully grown
The one single factor that most influences the nitrogen recommendation for wheat in Alabama is b. Whether the wheat is to be used for grain or forage production
What is the pet with least cost in the first year and lowest environmental impact? goldfish: $200, Cat $1000, Dog $1300 *bigger the dog, bigger the impact