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Terms Definitions
Nucleotides monomer of nucleic acids
Parts of a Nucleotide 5-carbon sugar, nitrogen base, and phosphate base
Sugar Molecule 5-Carbon Sugar deoxyribose
Nitrogen Bases Purines and Pyrimidines
Purines adenine and guanine
Pyrimidines cytosine and thymine
Phosphate phosphorus and 4 oxygen atoms
Base-Pairing Rules adenine-thymine
guanine-cytosin
Double Helix twisted ladder shape-2 strands of DNA were wound around each other in a helical shape
Sugar Phosphate Backbone makes of sides of Double helix (ladder)
Nucleotides (A, T, C, G) Rungs of Double Helix (ladder) made by
Hydrogen Bonds Rungs of Double Helix (ladder) held together by
DNA Replication copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA
Helicase (Role of Enzymes in DNA Replication) catalyzes reaction that breaks H bonds joining nitrogen bases
DNA Polymerase (Role of Enzymes in DNA Replication) joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule and "proofreads" the new DNA to insure that there are no mistakes (mutation)
Process of Replication (DNA)-Step 1 DNA helicase breaks bond between nitrogen bases and DNA unwinds
Process of Replication (DNA)-Step 2 DNA Polymerase reads template and pairs a complementary nucleotide to the exposed nitrogen base
Process of Replication (DNA)-Step 3 continues until 2 complete molecules have been produced
Process of Replication (DNA)-Step 4 Ligase fills in the gaps on the sugar phosphate backbone
Template strand of DNA used a a "model" for building the "new" strand
Complement New strand that is produced using the template
Template The complementary bases are joined to the ________.
DNA composition of Gene
Function of Gene determines a trait: Contains genetic information that codes for a trait of characteristic
Intron intervening sequence of DNA, does NOT code for protein
Exon expressed portion of DNA codes for a protein
Multigene Families encode proteins with similar sequences such as hemoglobin
Duplication of several ancestors
Transposition Gene Transposons move around on the chromosome "jumping genes"
Importance of Transposition Gene useful to researchers because they allow DNA to be altered
P53 Tumor P53 genes stop tumor forming cells from divide. If a person only inherits one of these genes, they are at a higher risk for developing cancer.
P53 Tumor mapped to chromosom 17
DNA the master plans
RNA a working copy
DNA Sugar deoxyribose
RNA Sugar Ribose
DNA Nitrogen Bases A,T,C, and G
RNA Nitrogen Bases 5-A, Uracil, C, and G
# of DNA Strands 2
# of RNA Strands 1
DNA Complementary Bases A=T, C=G
RNA Complementary Bases A=U, C=G
DNA Location in Cell Nucleus
RNA Location in Cell Cytoplasm, Nucleus, Ribosome
DNA Function stores genetic information
RNA Function transmits genetic information
Messenger RNA carries information from DNA into cytoplasm to ribosome for protein synthesis
Transfer RNA transports each amino acid to the ribosome as it's coded in messages from mRNA
Ribosomal RNA thought to help form peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids
Enzymes Used in Transcription RNA polymerase binds to DNA and separates DNA
Process of Transcription- Step 1 A portion of DNA unzips (the portion that codes for a protein)
Process of Transcription- Step 2 RNA polymerase bonds to DNA and allows complementary RNA nucleotide to bond to DNA
Process of Transcription- Step 3 when complete, the mRNA strand separates from the DNA strand
1 DNA is transcribed more than __ because only the part that codes for that particular protein
No Are both strands of DNA transcribed
mRNA result of transcription
Translation decoding mRNA message into polypeptide chain
Translation creates proteins
Codons (Translation) 3 consecutive nucleotides that code for 1 amino acid
found on mRNA
Anticodons (Translation) 3 consecutive nucleotides that code for 1 amino acid
Found on tRNA
Ribosome Structure large and small subunit
Large Subunit A and P site
A Site holds a tRNA molecule that is carrying its specific amino acid attached to growing polypeptide chain
P Site holds a tRNA molecule that is carrying its specific amino acid
Small Subunit binds mRNA
Steps of Protein Synthesis 1. Initiation
2. Elongation
3. Termination
Initiation start codon positioned in P site, tRNA brings in second amino acid and a peptide bond forms
Elongation amino acids continue to be added to the growing polypeptide chain
Termination stop codon which has no amino acid attached
the ribosome complex falls apart and the newly made protein is released into the cell
Lac Operon to hydrolyze lactose into galactose and glucose
Operon group of genes that code for proteins with related funtions
Beta Galactosidase an example of gene regulation in prokaryotes
Regions of the Lac Operon promoter
operator
structural genes
Promoter RNA polymerase binding site that signals the beginning of the gene
Operator between promoter and structural genes/controls RNA polymerase's access to structural genes acting like a switch turning on or off the transcription of the gene
Structural Genes code for polypeptide, protein/enzyme
Role of Repressor blocks transcription of lac genes
Cells have DNA coding for every protein an organism needs to make
Specialized Cells only need to make certain proteins
Coiled DNA no transcription
Uncoiled DNA transcription occurs
TATA Box thought to position RNA polymerase (genes are often interrupted by these)
Mutagen cause of mutation
Evolution change in DNA
Beneficial Mutations can lead to adaptations which can allow organsims to live longer, reproduce more so more of the beneficial genes exist in the gene population
Point Mutations mutation that occurs at a single nucleotide
Substitution (type of point mutation) 1 nucleotide is substitued for another
Frame Shift Poing Mutation changes the DNA strand from that point on (addition/deletion)
Addition when one nucleotide base is added
Deletion when one nucleotide is removed
T & C simpler, pyrimidine (1 ring)
A & G more complex-purines (2 rings)
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