Complete List of Terms and Definitions for 1-Abio Unit on Nucleic Acids

Terms Definitions
Beta Galactosidase an example of gene regulation in prokaryotes
# of DNA Strands 2
P53 Tumor P53 genes stop tumor forming cells from divide. If a person only inherits one of these genes, they are at a higher risk for developing cancer.
Translation creates proteins
Translation decoding mRNA message into polypeptide chain
Multigene Families encode proteins with similar sequences such as hemoglobin
Duplication of several ancestors
DNA Complementary Bases A=T, C=G
Ribosomal RNA thought to help form peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids
Role of Repressor blocks transcription of lac genes
Process of Replication (DNA)-Step 2 DNA Polymerase reads template and pairs a complementary nucleotide to the exposed nitrogen base
Messenger RNA carries information from DNA into cytoplasm to ribosome for protein synthesis
Deletion when one nucleotide is removed
Operon group of genes that code for proteins with related funtions
DNA the master plans
Complement New strand that is produced using the template
Promoter RNA polymerase binding site that signals the beginning of the gene
Process of Replication (DNA)-Step 4 Ligase fills in the gaps on the sugar phosphate backbone
Process of Transcription- Step 3 when complete, the mRNA strand separates from the DNA strand
RNA Sugar Ribose
Addition when one nucleotide base is added
Small Subunit binds mRNA
RNA Function transmits genetic information
Structural Genes code for polypeptide, protein/enzyme
Elongation amino acids continue to be added to the growing polypeptide chain
Anticodons (Translation) 3 consecutive nucleotides that code for 1 amino acid
Found on tRNA
Frame Shift Poing Mutation changes the DNA strand from that point on (addition/deletion)
Double Helix twisted ladder shape-2 strands of DNA were wound around each other in a helical shape
Ribosome Structure large and small subunit
DNA composition of Gene
Codons (Translation) 3 consecutive nucleotides that code for 1 amino acid
found on mRNA
Nitrogen Bases Purines and Pyrimidines
DNA Replication copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA
A & G more complex-purines (2 rings)
Sugar Phosphate Backbone makes of sides of Double helix (ladder)
Substitution (type of point mutation) 1 nucleotide is substitued for another
DNA Nitrogen Bases A,T,C, and G
Template The complementary bases are joined to the ________.
1 DNA is transcribed more than __ because only the part that codes for that particular protein
Regions of the Lac Operon promoter
operator
structural genes
Phosphate phosphorus and 4 oxygen atoms
A Site holds a tRNA molecule that is carrying its specific amino acid attached to growing polypeptide chain
Point Mutations mutation that occurs at a single nucleotide
Mutagen cause of mutation
DNA Polymerase (Role of Enzymes in DNA Replication) joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule and "proofreads" the new DNA to insure that there are no mistakes (mutation)
T & C simpler, pyrimidine (1 ring)
P53 Tumor mapped to chromosom 17
Operator between promoter and structural genes/controls RNA polymerase's access to structural genes acting like a switch turning on or off the transcription of the gene
Process of Replication (DNA)-Step 3 continues until 2 complete molecules have been produced
Termination stop codon which has no amino acid attached
the ribosome complex falls apart and the newly made protein is released into the cell
Function of Gene determines a trait: Contains genetic information that codes for a trait of characteristic
Transposition Gene Transposons move around on the chromosome "jumping genes"
Importance of Transposition Gene useful to researchers because they allow DNA to be altered
Sugar Molecule 5-Carbon Sugar deoxyribose
RNA Nitrogen Bases 5-A, Uracil, C, and G
Specialized Cells only need to make certain proteins
Helicase (Role of Enzymes in DNA Replication) catalyzes reaction that breaks H bonds joining nitrogen bases
Purines adenine and guanine
Intron intervening sequence of DNA, does NOT code for protein
# of RNA Strands 1
DNA Function stores genetic information
Uncoiled DNA transcription occurs
Beneficial Mutations can lead to adaptations which can allow organsims to live longer, reproduce more so more of the beneficial genes exist in the gene population
Nucleotides monomer of nucleic acids
DNA Sugar deoxyribose
Cells have DNA coding for every protein an organism needs to make
Process of Replication (DNA)-Step 1 DNA helicase breaks bond between nitrogen bases and DNA unwinds
Enzymes Used in Transcription RNA polymerase binds to DNA and separates DNA
Process of Transcription- Step 1 A portion of DNA unzips (the portion that codes for a protein)
Parts of a Nucleotide 5-carbon sugar, nitrogen base, and phosphate base
Process of Transcription- Step 2 RNA polymerase bonds to DNA and allows complementary RNA nucleotide to bond to DNA
Exon expressed portion of DNA codes for a protein
P Site holds a tRNA molecule that is carrying its specific amino acid
RNA a working copy
Coiled DNA no transcription
Pyrimidines cytosine and thymine
No Are both strands of DNA transcribed
Base-Pairing Rules adenine-thymine
guanine-cytosin
Lac Operon to hydrolyze lactose into galactose and glucose
Nucleotides (A, T, C, G) Rungs of Double Helix (ladder) made by
Initiation start codon positioned in P site, tRNA brings in second amino acid and a peptide bond forms
Steps of Protein Synthesis 1. Initiation
2. Elongation
3. Termination
RNA Location in Cell Cytoplasm, Nucleus, Ribosome
TATA Box thought to position RNA polymerase (genes are often interrupted by these)
mRNA result of transcription
Transfer RNA transports each amino acid to the ribosome as it's coded in messages from mRNA
Large Subunit A and P site
DNA Location in Cell Nucleus
Hydrogen Bonds Rungs of Double Helix (ladder) held together by
Evolution change in DNA
Template strand of DNA used a a "model" for building the "new" strand
RNA Complementary Bases A=U, C=G