Complete List of Terms and Definitions for chemistry gibson 4

Terms Definitions
chemical formula a representation of a substance using symbols for its constituent elements
octet rule States that atoms lose, gain or share electrons in order to acquire a full set of eight valence electrons
VSEPR theory a theory that predicts some molecular shapes based on the idea that pairs of valence electrons surrounding an atom repel each other.
diatomic molecule a molecule composed of two atoms
polar having a pair of equal and opposite charges
hybrid orbitals orbitals of equal energy produced by the combination of two or more orbitals on the same atom
single bond a covalent bond in which two atoms share one pair of electrons.
molecular compound a chemical compound whose simplest units are molecules
electron-dot notation an electron-configuration notation in wich only the valence elctrons of an atom of a particular element are shown, indicated by dots placed around the element's symbol
surface tension the uneven forces acting on the particles on the surface of a liquid; as if a thin film was stretch across the surface
bond length the average distance between the nuclei of two bonded atoms
covalent bonding a type of chemical bonding that results from the sharing of electron pairs between two atoms
double bond a covalent bond in which two pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms
ductile Capable of being drawn out, as into wire or a thread.
dipole-dipole force a force of attraction between polar molecules
malleability the property of a metal that indicates that it can be bent and rolled into sheets
cohesion the intermolecular force that holds together the molecules in a solid or liquid
crystal lattice a 3-dimensional geometric arrangement of the atoms or molecules or ions composing a crystal, a 3-dimensional geometric arrangement of the atoms or molecules or ions composing a crystal
bond energy the energy required to break a chemical bond and form neutral isolated atoms
crystalline solid solids in which the particles are arranged in a repeating, 3-D pattern, has a specific melting point
nonpolar-covalent bond a covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are shared equally by the bonded atoms, resulting in a balanced distribution of electrical charge
electronegativity the tendency of an atom or radical to attract electrons in the formation of an ionic bond
valence electron an electron in the outer shell of an atom which can combine with other atoms to form molecules
polyatomic ion a charged group of covalently bonded atoms
intermolecular force the force of attraction between molecules
lone pair chemical bonding that results from the electrical attraction between cations and anions, Pair of electrons associated with one atom in a molecule and not involved in bonding.
resonance the response of a standing wave to another wave of the same frequency.
ionic bonding chemical bonding that results from the electrical attraction between cations and anions
ionic compound composed of positive and negative ions that are combined so that the numbers of positive and negative charges are equal
lattice energy the energy relased when one mole of an ionic crystalline compound is formed from gaseous ions
hydrogen bonding the force of attraction between a hydrogen molecule with a partial positive charge and another atom or molecule with a partial or full negative charge
molecular polarity the uneven distribution of molecular charge
london dispersion forces intermolecular attractions resulting from the constant motion of electrons and the creation of instantaneous dipoles
Van der Waals forces slight attraction that develops between oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules
chemical bond an electrical force linking atoms
formula unit the simplest collection of atoms from which an ionic compound's formula can be established
adhesion attraction between unlike molecules
polar-covalent bond a covalent bond in which the bond ed atoms have an unequal attraction for the shared electons
multiple bond a bond in which the atoms share more than one pair of electrons, such as a double bond or a triple bond.
hybridization the mixing of two or more atomic orbitals of similar energies on the same atom to produce new orbitals of equal energies
molecule the simplest structural unit of an element or compound
structural formula an expanded molecular formula showing the arrangement of atoms within the molecule
triple bond a covalent bond in which two atoms share three pairs of electrons
lewis structure a formula in which atomic symbols represent nuclei and inner-shell electrons, dot-pairs or dashes between two atomic symbols represent electron pairs in cvalent bonds, and dots adjacent to only one atomic symbol represent unshared electrons
molecular formula a chemical formula that shows the number and kinds of atoms in a molecule, but not the arrangement of the atoms.
orbital a three dimensional region around the nucleus that indicates the probable location of an electron
dipole a pair of equal and opposite electric charges or magnetic poles separated by a small distance