##### AP Physics B: First Semester Review - Terms
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#### Complete List of Terms and Definitions for AP Physics B: First Semester Review - Terms

Terms Definitions
Free body diagram a sketch showing all external forces acting on an object (objects are depicted as uniform boxes)
Nonconservative Forces converts mechanical energy into other forms of energy an vice versa (path does matter - work cannot be stored)
Newton's Second Law an object with mass "m" has an acceleration "a" given by the net force divided by "m". (F = ma)
Electric Potential Energy the stored energy a charge has based on it's location in an electric field; work is done whenever an object moves with/against the field
Fluid Flow The speed of a fluid changes as the cross - sectional area of the pipe through which it flows changes
Apparent weight force felt from contact with the floor or a a scale in an an acceleratin system
Charge the quantity (scalar) of unbalanced electricity in a body (either positive or negative)
Atmospheric Pressure the pressue exerted by the atmosphere
Vector a quantity with both a magnitude and a direction (Ex: displacement, velocity, and acceleration)
Thermal Contact objects are in thermal contact if heat can flow between them
Temperature a measure of the concentration of an object's internal energy
Power rate at which work is done (Units: Watt [w])
Thermal Efficiency ratio of what we get to what we put in
Kinetic Molecular Theory matter is made up of atoms which are in continual random motion which is related to temperature
Buoyant Force The force a fluid exerts in a net upward direction
Inelastic Collisions Momntum is conserved but Kinetic Energy is not (usually lost) [majority - STICK]
Equipotential Lines lines that show the same potential; lines are dotted and perpendicular to the electric field lines
Conservation of Momentum In the absence of an outside force, the total momentum will be conserved.
Heat Transfer always goes from Hot to Cold
Bernoulli's equation The net work done on a fluid is equal to the changes in kinetic and potential energy of the fluid in terms of quantities per volume
Archimedes' Principle An object completely or partially submerged in a fluid is buoyed upward by a force whose magnitude is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object
Energy the ability to make an object move (scalar - measurement) (Units: Joules [J])
Centripetal Force the force applied to give an object it's circular motion (acts perpendicular to the motion)
Zero launch angle a projectile launched horizontally from a point at height "h" and initial speed "v"
(V vs. T) Slowing Down (V vs. T) getting closer to t-axis
Momentum inertia in motion (vector)
Kinetic Friction friction experienced by surfaces that are in contact and moving relative to one another
Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation The force of gravity between two point masses (every mass attracts other masses)
Carnot's Theorem if an engine operating between two constant - temperature resevoirs is to have maximum efficiency, it must be an engine in which all processes are reversible
Pressure at a depth in fluids the pressure of a fluid in static equilibrium increases with depth; all points at the same depth have the same pressure
Weight gravitational force exerted by the earth on an object
Elastic Collisions Momentum and Kinetic Energy are both conserved [minority - DONT STICK]
Distance the length of travel (units: meters[m])
Coulomb's Law electric charges exert forces on one another along the line connecting them; like charges repel, opposite charges attract
Work - Energy Theorem Total work is ewual to the change in energy (mainly kinetic energy)
Total Process in P-V Diagram ΔU = 0, ΔQ = W = +
Kepler's Second Law Planets sweep out equal area in equal time
Pressure the amount of force perpendicular per area
Conduction heat transfer by contact
Electric Potential (Voltage) a measure of the energy/charge
Coefficient of Friction represents the nature of surfaces
Projectile motion the path of an object after it has been launched into the air
Vertical loop a look that is in the vertical plane where the velocity is not necessairly constant
Bernoulli's principle Faster moving fluids produce lower pressures
Potential Energy stored energy based off of location - can be converted to kinetico or other forms of energy
Instantaneous velocity the velocity at an instance of time (units: meters per second [m/s])
Velocity displacement over time (vector = speed + direction) (units: meters per second [m/s])
Newton's First Law (Law of Inertia) if the net force on an object is zero, it's velocity is constant.
Fluid any liquid or gas
(V vs. T) Forward Motion (V vs. T) line is above t-axis
Uniform Circular Motion objects moving in a circle with constant speed (acceleration results in a change of direction)
(D vs. T) Constant Velocity (D vs. T) constant slope (no acceleration)
Rotational Inertia An object's resistance to a change in rotation; the farther the mass is from the rotation point, the greater RI
Rotational Equilibrium sum of all torques acting on an object is zero
Kelvin scale water freezes @ 273.15K; water boils @ 373.15K; absolute zero @ 0K
Impulse change in momentum (vector) (Unit: Kg m/s)
Heat Engine uses heat to produce work; uses 2nd Law of Thermodynamics to produce work
Keper's Third Law The period of a planet's orbit is propotional to the 3/2 power of its average distance from the sun.
(D vs. T) Backward Motion (D vs. T) slope: negative
Entropy measure of disorder in a system; in the universe - positive
Kepler's First Law The orbits of the planets are ellipses, with the sun at one focus
Celsius scale water freezes @ 0 °C; water boils @ 100°C; absolute zero @ 273.15°
Ideal gas a simplified model of a gas where interactions between molecules are ignored
Normal Force force exerted by surface that is perpendicularto the surface
Inclined Forces certain forces contain components (rotate coordinate system to parallel surface)
Tension in string & friction btw. tires and the road What are two examples of centripetal forces?
Second Law of Thermodynamics Spontaneous(natural) heat transfer always goes from hot to cold
(D vs. T) Standing Still (D vs. T) slope: zero
Static Friction Which is greater, Static or Kinetic Friction?
Torque "rotational equivalent of force"; a force applied so as to cause an angular acceleration
Thermal Expansion most objects expand when heated
Conservative Forces conserve the mechanical energy of a system - path doesn't matter
(V vs. T) Constant Velocity (V vs. T) slope: zero
Conductors charges are free to move (form at points)
Pascal's Principle An external pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted unchanged to every point within the field
(V vs. T) Displacement (V vs. T) area of the graph to the t-axis
Average acceleration rate of change of velocity over time (vector) (units: meters per second squared [m/s²])
Scalar a number with appropriate units (Ex: time & length)
Induction charging through polarization without contact (seperates charges); neutral objects attract [movement of charges]
(D vs. T) Slowing Down (D vs. T) slopes decreasing
1st Law of Thermodynamics A statement of the conservation of energy including heat
Electric Fields the force per charge at a given location in space; points in the direction of a force experienced by a positive test charge (vector)
Kepler's Laws describe the motion of planets (consequence of newton's law of gravitation)
Force a push or pull that causes acceleration (vector: magnitude and direction) (Unit: Newton [N])
Friction forces due to the microscopic roughness of surfaces in contact [opposite to motion, parallel to surface]
Static Friction friction experienced by surfaces that are in static contact (maximum must be overcome to get an object to slide)
Thermal Equilibrium objects that are in thermal contact, but have no heat exchange between them
Flow rate volume of fluid that passes a particular point per time
Adiabatic process heat is equal to zero [ΔU = W]
Translational Equilibrium sum of all forces acting on an object is zero
Electric Field Lines point in the direction of the electric field vector (away from positive, and towards negative)
(V vs. T) Backward Motion (V vs. T) line is below t-axis
Conduction charging a conductor by contact (no rubbing necessary) [complete transfer]
Newton's Third Law For every force that acts on an object, there is a reaction force acting on a different object that is equal in magnitude and acts in opposite direction.
(D vs. T) Speeding Up (D vs. T) slopes increasing
Displacement a change in position (units: meters[m])
Carnot Engine "perfect cycle" - applicable in reversible engine
Work Done whenever a force causes motion or a change in motion (scalar - measurement) (Units: Joules [J])
(V vs. T) Standing Still (V vs. T) line is @ t-axis [v=0]
Radiation heat transfer by electromagnetic radiation such as infrared rays and light
Center of Mass an object balances when it is supported at its center of mass
Insulators charges restricted as to movement (form evenly)
Thermodynamics The study of physical processes involving the transfer of heat
Deceleration object with speed decreasing (velocity and acceleration have opposite signs) (units: meters per second squared [m/s²])
Acceleration due to gravity 9.8 m/s²
Inertia an object's resistance to a change in motion (object's like to keep doing what they're doing)
Law of action/reaction forces always come in pairs - result of contact forces
Internal Energy the sum of all individual kinetic energies
(V vs. T) Speeding Up (V vs. T) getting farther away from t-axis
Free falling objects move under the influence of gravity alone
Isometric (Isovolumetric) process volume is constant [W = 0, ΔU = Q]
Isothermal process the temperature is the same [T = constant, ΔT = 0; ΔU = 0, Q = -W]
Parallel - Plate Capacitor field is uniform
Inertia's relationship with Centripetal force Inertia keeps the velocity vector constant, while the centripetal force acts perpendicular to the velocity vector and maintains a change in direction due to acceleration
Heat The energy transferred between objects because of a temperature difference
Average velocity net displacement over time (units: meters per second [m/s])
Mechanical Energy energy dealing with movement - sum of two types: Kinetic and Potential
Conservation of Energy Energy can be transferred but not created/destroyed
Gauge Pressure the difference between the actual pressure and the atmospheric pressure
Density mass over volume
Specific Gravity density of an object compared to the density of water
Isobaric (Isochoric) process pressure is constant
(D vs. T) Instantaneous Velocity (D vs. T) slope @ specific point
Average speed total distance over time (units: meters per second [m/s])
Convection heat transfer by a fluid
Speed distance over time (scalar) (units: meters per second [m/s])
Friction (charging) the transfer of a charge by rubbing electrons of one object and putting it on another; occurs between insulators
(D vs. T) Forward Motion (D vs. T) slope: positive
(D vs. T) Average Velocity (D vs. T) slope of secant line between two points
Static Equilibrium object at rest