##### AP Physics B: First Semester Review - Terms
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#### Complete list of Terms and Definitions for AP Physics B: First Semester Review - Terms

Terms Definitions
Elastic Collisions Momentum and Kinetic Energy are both conserved [minority - DONT STICK]
Thermal Efficiency ratio of what we get to what we put in
Pascal's Principle An external pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted unchanged to every point within the field
(V vs. T) Slowing Down (V vs. T) getting closer to t-axis
Acceleration due to gravity 9.8 m/s²
Carnot's Theorem if an engine operating between two constant - temperature resevoirs is to have maximum efficiency, it must be an engine in which all processes are reversible
Pressure at a depth in fluids the pressure of a fluid in static equilibrium increases with depth; all points at the same depth have the same pressure
Fluid any liquid or gas
Friction forces due to the microscopic roughness of surfaces in contact [opposite to motion, parallel to surface]
Heat The energy transferred between objects because of a temperature difference
Inertia's relationship with Centripetal force Inertia keeps the velocity vector constant, while the centripetal force acts perpendicular to the velocity vector and maintains a change in direction due to acceleration
Nonconservative Forces converts mechanical energy into other forms of energy an vice versa (path does matter - work cannot be stored)
(V vs. T) Standing Still (V vs. T) line is @ t-axis [v=0]
Static Friction friction experienced by surfaces that are in static contact (maximum must be overcome to get an object to slide)
Kepler's First Law The orbits of the planets are ellipses, with the sun at one focus
1st Law of Thermodynamics A statement of the conservation of energy including heat
Thermal Equilibrium objects that are in thermal contact, but have no heat exchange between them
Conduction charging a conductor by contact (no rubbing necessary) [complete transfer]
Archimedes' Principle An object completely or partially submerged in a fluid is buoyed upward by a force whose magnitude is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object
Entropy measure of disorder in a system; in the universe - positive
Inclined Forces certain forces contain components (rotate coordinate system to parallel surface)
Zero launch angle a projectile launched horizontally from a point at height "h" and initial speed "v"
Apparent weight force felt from contact with the floor or a a scale in an an acceleratin system
Momentum inertia in motion (vector)
(V vs. T) Forward Motion (V vs. T) line is above t-axis
Second Law of Thermodynamics Spontaneous(natural) heat transfer always goes from hot to cold
Density mass over volume
Kelvin scale water freezes @ 273.15K; water boils @ 373.15K; absolute zero @ 0K
Uniform Circular Motion objects moving in a circle with constant speed (acceleration results in a change of direction)
Temperature a measure of the concentration of an object's internal energy
(D vs. T) Constant Velocity (D vs. T) constant slope (no acceleration)
Newton's Second Law an object with mass "m" has an acceleration "a" given by the net force divided by "m". (F = ma)
Law of action/reaction forces always come in pairs - result of contact forces
Buoyant Force The force a fluid exerts in a net upward direction
Fluid Flow The speed of a fluid changes as the cross - sectional area of the pipe through which it flows changes
Conservation of Momentum In the absence of an outside force, the total momentum will be conserved.
Radiation heat transfer by electromagnetic radiation such as infrared rays and light
Heat Transfer always goes from Hot to Cold
(V vs. T) Speeding Up (V vs. T) getting farther away from t-axis
Deceleration object with speed decreasing (velocity and acceleration have opposite signs) (units: meters per second squared [m/s²])
Average velocity net displacement over time (units: meters per second [m/s])
Thermodynamics The study of physical processes involving the transfer of heat
Equipotential Lines lines that show the same potential; lines are dotted and perpendicular to the electric field lines
Static Friction Which is greater, Static or Kinetic Friction?
Kinetic Molecular Theory matter is made up of atoms which are in continual random motion which is related to temperature
Free body diagram a sketch showing all external forces acting on an object (objects are depicted as uniform boxes)
Bernoulli's principle Faster moving fluids produce lower pressures
Impulse change in momentum (vector) (Unit: Kg m/s)
Specific Gravity density of an object compared to the density of water
Thermal Contact objects are in thermal contact if heat can flow between them
Inelastic Collisions Momntum is conserved but Kinetic Energy is not (usually lost) [majority - STICK]
Distance the length of travel (units: meters[m])
Isothermal process the temperature is the same [T = constant, ΔT = 0; ΔU = 0, Q = -W]
Projectile motion the path of an object after it has been launched into the air
Static Equilibrium object at rest
Thermal Expansion most objects expand when heated
Adiabatic process heat is equal to zero [ΔU = W]
Translational Equilibrium sum of all forces acting on an object is zero
Speed distance over time (scalar) (units: meters per second [m/s])
Coulomb's Law electric charges exert forces on one another along the line connecting them; like charges repel, opposite charges attract
Force a push or pull that causes acceleration (vector: magnitude and direction) (Unit: Newton [N])
Gauge Pressure the difference between the actual pressure and the atmospheric pressure
Inertia an object's resistance to a change in motion (object's like to keep doing what they're doing)
(D vs. T) Instantaneous Velocity (D vs. T) slope @ specific point
Vertical loop a look that is in the vertical plane where the velocity is not necessairly constant
(D vs. T) Forward Motion (D vs. T) slope: positive
Atmospheric Pressure the pressue exerted by the atmosphere
Kepler's Laws describe the motion of planets (consequence of newton's law of gravitation)
Free falling objects move under the influence of gravity alone
Electric Potential Energy the stored energy a charge has based on it's location in an electric field; work is done whenever an object moves with/against the field
Keper's Third Law The period of a planet's orbit is propotional to the 3/2 power of its average distance from the sun.
Average acceleration rate of change of velocity over time (vector) (units: meters per second squared [m/s²])
(D vs. T) Slowing Down (D vs. T) slopes decreasing
Kepler's Second Law Planets sweep out equal area in equal time
(D vs. T) Speeding Up (D vs. T) slopes increasing
(D vs. T) Backward Motion (D vs. T) slope: negative
Electric Fields the force per charge at a given location in space; points in the direction of a force experienced by a positive test charge (vector)
Normal Force force exerted by surface that is perpendicularto the surface
Induction charging through polarization without contact (seperates charges); neutral objects attract [movement of charges]
Work Done whenever a force causes motion or a change in motion (scalar - measurement) (Units: Joules [J])
Instantaneous velocity the velocity at an instance of time (units: meters per second [m/s])
Energy the ability to make an object move (scalar - measurement) (Units: Joules [J])
Bernoulli's equation The net work done on a fluid is equal to the changes in kinetic and potential energy of the fluid in terms of quantities per volume
Parallel - Plate Capacitor field is uniform
Coefficient of Friction represents the nature of surfaces
Isobaric (Isochoric) process pressure is constant
Carnot Engine "perfect cycle" - applicable in reversible engine
Rotational Inertia An object's resistance to a change in rotation; the farther the mass is from the rotation point, the greater RI
Potential Energy stored energy based off of location - can be converted to kinetico or other forms of energy
Pressure the amount of force perpendicular per area
Kinetic Friction friction experienced by surfaces that are in contact and moving relative to one another
Electric Field Lines point in the direction of the electric field vector (away from positive, and towards negative)
Torque "rotational equivalent of force"; a force applied so as to cause an angular acceleration
Rotational Equilibrium sum of all torques acting on an object is zero
Power rate at which work is done (Units: Watt [w])
Total Process in P-V Diagram ΔU = 0, ΔQ = W = +
Isometric (Isovolumetric) process volume is constant [W = 0, ΔU = Q]
(D vs. T) Standing Still (D vs. T) slope: zero
(V vs. T) Constant Velocity (V vs. T) slope: zero
Conductors charges are free to move (form at points)
Conduction heat transfer by contact
Mechanical Energy energy dealing with movement - sum of two types: Kinetic and Potential
Insulators charges restricted as to movement (form evenly)
Tension in string & friction btw. tires and the road What are two examples of centripetal forces?
Convection heat transfer by a fluid
Center of Mass an object balances when it is supported at its center of mass
Flow rate volume of fluid that passes a particular point per time
Electric Potential (Voltage) a measure of the energy/charge
Average speed total distance over time (units: meters per second [m/s])
Conservative Forces conserve the mechanical energy of a system - path doesn't matter
Work - Energy Theorem Total work is ewual to the change in energy (mainly kinetic energy)
Heat Engine uses heat to produce work; uses 2nd Law of Thermodynamics to produce work
Centripetal Force the force applied to give an object it's circular motion (acts perpendicular to the motion)
Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation The force of gravity between two point masses (every mass attracts other masses)
Vector a quantity with both a magnitude and a direction (Ex: displacement, velocity, and acceleration)
Displacement a change in position (units: meters[m])
Newton's First Law (Law of Inertia) if the net force on an object is zero, it's velocity is constant.
Friction (charging) the transfer of a charge by rubbing electrons of one object and putting it on another; occurs between insulators
Weight gravitational force exerted by the earth on an object
Internal Energy the sum of all individual kinetic energies
Newton's Third Law For every force that acts on an object, there is a reaction force acting on a different object that is equal in magnitude and acts in opposite direction.
(V vs. T) Backward Motion (V vs. T) line is below t-axis
(D vs. T) Average Velocity (D vs. T) slope of secant line between two points
Conservation of Energy Energy can be transferred but not created/destroyed
Scalar a number with appropriate units (Ex: time & length)
Velocity displacement over time (vector = speed + direction) (units: meters per second [m/s])
(V vs. T) Displacement (V vs. T) area of the graph to the t-axis
Celsius scale water freezes @ 0 °C; water boils @ 100°C; absolute zero @ 273.15°
Ideal gas a simplified model of a gas where interactions between molecules are ignored
Charge the quantity (scalar) of unbalanced electricity in a body (either positive or negative)