Complete List of Terms and Definitions for Ruminant Anatomy

Terms Definitions
Where is the rumen? Left of median plane; Extends from diaphragm to pelvic inlet; From hypaxial lumbar mm (D) to abd floor (V) (attaches to lumbar mm)
Describe the curvature of the omasum. Convex & on the right
What is the shape of the lung in sheep & pigs? Basal edge ascends Cd'ly more gently, from 6th costochondral junction to angle of rib 11
What is the corresponding groove of the Cr pillar? Cr groove
Where does the most forestomach activity occur? Ruminoreticulum
Describe the omasal laminae. How many are in the sheep? Ox? Leaf-like, Sickle-shaped, of variable length; ~90; ~100
What is the lesser omentum a remnant of? Ventral Mesogastrium
What is the relative size of the clinical lung field in the ox? Small
How many ruminal contractions should be heard per minute? 2 (3)
Where is the left tracheobronchial ln? btw Aortic Arch & Pulmonary a.; Cr to left bronchus
What demarcates blind sacs of the rumen? What are the blind sacs? D & V Coronary grooves; CdD & CdV blind sacs
The diaphragmatic line of pleural reflection is ____, esp. in bovine. Steep
What do the azygous vv drain? Cr lumbar area & thoracic wall by means of the lumbar vv & D intercostal vv, respectively.
What age group has a larger thymus gland? Young animals
What is unique about the ligamentum nuchae of the ox? Extends well into the thoracic region & slants ventrolaterally over the summits of the sp's (therefore friction over spine summits is not as great as in the horse)
What are the 2 leaves of the greater omentum? S & D
What part of the rhomboideus m. is particularly large in the Bos indicus breeds of cattle? Give some examples of the zebu breeds. Rhomboideus cervicis m. (forms hump lying over the withers); Brahman, Afrikander
Describe the thymus of the ox. Large & Lobulated in young; Extends from larynx to pericardium
What is the ruminoreticular ostium? Opening btw rumen & reticulum
The mucosa of the abomasum contains part of the ______. Gastric groove
Where is the Cr lung field? Cr to TL in 1st 3 ICS
Which pillar is incomplete? R
Where does the external jugular v. lie in ungulates? In a muscular groove (jugular groove/sulcus jugularis)
What lnn are examined @ meat inspection? L (+/- R), Middle, Cr Tracheobronchial; Pulmonary; Cr, Middle, Cd Mediastinal; Thoracic aortic
How far does the R sac of the cupula pleura extend beyond the 1st rib in the bovine? Sheep? 60-70mm/6-7cm; Similar to bovine
What is the R Cr lung lobe further divided into in ruminants? Cr & Cd parts (Cranio-Cr & Caudo-Cr)
What encloses the thoracic cavity? Thorax
What does the deep fascia of the trunk surround completely? What does it cover the external surface of? EAO, IAO; TA, RA
wrt the Ascending Aorta in ruminants & horses, what major artery runs Cr'ly? Brachiocephalic Trunk
Is the sternocephalicus m. an extrinsic m. of the TL? No
How many lobes does the thyroid have? What is the color? Bilobed; Red-brown
What are the main parts of the larynx? Vestibule, Glottis, Infraglottic Cavity
What are the major blood vessels of the thorax? Azygous vv.
Is the subcutis of ruminants softer or firmer? More or less mobile? Firmer & Less Mobile
What are the main curvatures of the rumen? D & V
Where is the V br of L2 blocked? V to tip of L4
Comment on the visceral space of the neck in ruminants compared to the horse & dog. Same
What is "sweet bread?" Thymus Gland
Describe the reticular groove in sucklings. The lips form a tube or tunnel that bypasses the rumen, reticulum, & omasum, & thus transports milk from the esophagus directly into abomasum
Where does the heart lie in all domestic spp? Btw ribs 3-6, virtually median, although apex is Cd-V inclined to left
What animals have thick, intact mediastinal pleura? What is it supported by? Ox & Goat; Submesothelial CT
Where does the L azygous descend & open into? Descends @ 6th rib level into RA where it opens into coronary sinus
What are fistulations used in? Rumen physiology experiments
What is characteristic of the lungs in bovine? Well-lobated & Well-lobulated
What are the parts of the brachiocephalicus m? Cleidobrachialis & Cleidocephalicus
What is a difference in the subcutis of fat-tailed sheep? Fat deposits in the tail
What animals have the Left Tracheobronchial ln? All spp
What is given off by the brachiocephalic trunk? L & R Subclavian, Bicarotid Trunk
What are the surfaces of the omasum? Parietal & Visceral
How does the ligamentum nuchae attach to the sp's in the ox? In a tangential manner
What is the omasum largely covered by? Lesser omentum on the R
How many L vert does the dog have? 7
Why is topography of the esophagus important? Blockage --> Bloat
What are the external grooves of the rumen defined as internally? Raised pillars or columns
In ruminants, _____ surfaces of the limbs, & _____ surfaces of the trunk are much thicker. Extensor; Lateral
Which lung is relatively larger in all domestic mammals? R
Where are the subCd glands? What animals have them? 2 glands under base of tail; Goats (Buck taint?)
Describe the lobes of the thymus in ruminants. 2 cervical lobes VL to trachea, from rib 1 to larynx; linked by an intermediate lobe/isthmus to the thoracic lobes in V Mediastinum
In non-bovine animals, describe the body of the thyroid. Smooth-surfaced
Where are ruminotomies? Paralumbar fossa into the D (+/- CdD blind) sac
What is the 3rd flexion of the esophagus? D curvature; in middle of thoracic cavity, over base of heart, btw tracheal bifurcation; D convexity & permanent flexion
Where does the lesser omentum extend in ruminants? From lesser curvature of abomasum to curvature & neck of omasum, & D'ly to visceral surface of liver
What is another name for the subcutis? Hypodermis
Where is thoracocentesis performed in ruminants? Horse? Dog? 6th or 7th ICS; 7th; 7th or 8th
What does the Tracheal Bronchus predispose? R Cr Lobe to infection & inhalation pneumonia
Which segment of the gastric groove is best developed? Reticular groove
What attaches the pericardium to the sternum in ruminants & horses? 2 separate sternopericardiac ligg
What are the crowding structures in esophageal obstruction Cr to the base of the heart? Esophagus, Trachea, Large blood vessels (Hence, Vascular Ring Dz)
How many flexions are along the curved path of the esophagus? 3
What is the subclavius m. attached to in the ox? M surface of brachiocephalicus m.
Which coronary a. is larger in ruminants, & is the major blood supply to the heart? What other animal has the same? L Coronary a.; Dog
What type of block is done on L3 to anesthetize the mammary gland? Paraverterbal
What are the ruminal pillars/columns? Infoldings of the ruminal wall, minus serosa
Which cupula pleura(e) extend(s) beyond the 1st rib in ruminants? R sac only
What are the parts of the abomasum? Parietal & Visceral surfaces, Fundus, Body, Greater & Lesser curvatures, Pyloric part, Pylorus
What is the most Cr segment of the forestomach? Reticulum
What is the insular ruminis bounded by? R Longitudinal & Accessory grooves
Give an example of a ruminotomy. Hardware dz
Describe the Cd group of deep cervical lnn. Well-devo in all domestic mammals (except dog); @ Thoracic inlet, V to trachea
What borders the jugular groove in ox/goat? Cleidomastoideus m. D'ly; Sternomandibularis m. V'ly; Sternomastoideus m. M'ly
What are the main lobes of the L lung? Cr & Cd
What aspects of the thorax are similar among spp? Different? Walls & boundaries; Shape & volume
What is the shape of the body of the thyroid in small animals? Oval
What v. is used for IV inj. in lg animals? Therefore, ____ is important. Ext. Jugular v; Topography
Where does the lesser omentum extend in ruminants? From lesser curvature of abomasum to curvature & neck of omasum, & D'ly to visceral surface of liver
Describe the foot pads. Digital pads (tori digitalis); Distal ends of digits; Hoof pads or bulbs
What does the gastric groove consist of? 3 segments linking the forestomach w/ the glandular stomach
What are the 3 unpaired aa. off the abdominal aorta? Celiac, Cr & Cd Mesenteric aa.
Where are the Cr & Middle groups of deep cervical lnn? Lie on trachea, & CrD to thyroid glands in ox
Describe lung lobulation in sheep/goats. Lobules are small, & lobulation is poorly defined
The cleidocephalicus m. has ___ part(s) in horses. In bovine/ovine/pig, the parts are: ______. 1; Cleidooccipitalis & Cleidomastoideus
Is the abdominal wall clinically important in the bovine? Yes, wrt Sx & some other procedures
Compared to the dog, is the skin of larger ungulates thicker or thinner? Thicker
Where is the heart placed in ruminants? Pig & Dog? Vertically; 45 degrees
In what animals is the subclavius m. well developed? Absent? Vestigial? Horse & Goat; Carnivores; Ox
What encloses the thoracic cavity? Thorax
Where is the Cr tracheobronchial ln? Cr to Tracheal Bronchus
Where is trocarization/ruminal paracentesis performed? Central part of the paralumbar fossa
In what animal does the mediastinum display an occasional opening? Sheep
What happens when the Left Tracheobronchial ln is enlarged? Puts pressure on L Recurrent Laryngeal n. as it is pressed against the pulsating aorta; May cause roaring
What is the recessus ruminis? Cr part of V sac
What is the fundus of the reticulum? Free V part
In the cow, what do L1 + 2 supply? Skin of Cr surface of udder/mamma
Where is the diaphragmatic line of pleural reflection in the ox? Curvature from 7th or 8th costochondral junction to mid portion of the 11th rib, & to the angle/prox part of the last rib
Where is the cardiac notch of ruminants in the R lung? btw 3rd & 4th ICS
What is another name for L1? L2? L3? Iliohypogastric; Ilioinguinal; Genitofemoral
What separates the ruminoreticulum from the abomasum? a lock-gate, the Omasum
What type of secretions do the preputial glands produce? Waxy
What is the gastric groove? A direct route running from the cardia (esophageal opening) to the pylorus of the abomasum
What are the deep cervical ln groups? Cr, Middle, Cd
What are the main surfaces of the rumen? Parietal (L) & Visceral (R)
What is the Cr Tracheobronchial ln associated w? Tracheal Bronchus
What type of tube is the esophagus? Musculomembranous
What are areas of major thickness in the bovine? Pig? Horse? Dewlap; V surface of neck; D surface of tail
Where is the esophagus located? Left Cd neck region, close to surface of neck (Sx intervention in this area)
How does the ruminant's ligamentum nuchae (laminar part) differ from that of the horse? Cr part paired; Cd part unpaired
What is the lung structure in ruminants? Well-lobated; well-fissured
What covers the EAO? Deep fascia of trunk
Where is the middle tracheobronchial ln? DCd to the tracheal bifurcation
What is another name for horns? Cornua
What are the bronchial lnn? Name them. Tracheobronchial group of lnn; Left, Right, Middle, & Cranial Tracheobronchial
What is the paralumbar fossa? a concavity immediately Cd to the last rib; Prominent in ruminants
What is the corresponding groove of the ruminoreticular fold? Ruminoreticular Groove
What do the V cutaneous nn of the genitofemoral n innervate in the bull? Prepuce, Scrotum, inguinal skin
What animals have a glandular thyroid isthmus? Fibrous? Ox, Pig, Dog; Sm rum's, Horse, Cat
Where does the deep leaf of the omentum run? Cr'ly, attaching to R Ruminal longitudinal groove, up to R surface of atrium ruminis; subsequently moves to R, upwards to abd roof, & attaches to superficial leaf & V surface of descending duodenum, up to Cd duodenal flexure
Describe the azygous vv embryologically & later in development. L & R present in all spp; One v. subsequently develops fully/other disappears completely or regresses partially
What are the mammary glands? What animals have them? Modified sweat glands; All mammals
What borders the jugular groove in sheep? D border: CleidomastoideusV: SternocephalicusCr: no muscular border
Where are the Cd mediastinal ln? Describe them in the ruminant. Cd Mediastinum, btw aorta (D) & esophagus (V); Single & Quite Large
What is located internally @ the omaso-abomasal orifice? Transverse Omasal Pillar
Describe the carpal & tarsal pads. What is another name for them? Modified; development varies from sp to sp; Tori carpeus/tarseus
What type of stomach do ruminants have? Compound
Where is the intermediate groove/sulcus of the heart? Cd surface of LV
Describe the infraorbital sinus. Lies rostral to the eyes, waxy, straw-colored secretion
What does the adb cavity make into the thorax? Incursion, thus reducing the volume of the thorax, though not externally
What relationship is important in hardware dz in the bovine? Accessory lobe of R lung & mediastinal recess are related Cd'ly to the region of the reticulum
What does the relative largeness of the R lung do to the Cd mediastinum? Displaces it to the left of the median plane
What is a difference in the subcutis of zebu/Bos indicus breeds of cattle? Fat deposits in hump
Where does the uterus lie in late pregnancy? Supraomental recess
What animals have the Right Tracheobronchial ln? Ox (Absent in Sheep)
What are the most common sites of obstruction in the ox? Junction btw pharynx & esophagus; Thoracic Inlet; Esophageal Hiatus
What animals have Cr Tracheobronchial ln? Ruminants & Pigs
How do the mm. of the pectoral girdle of ruminants compare to those of the horse & dog? Generally similar
What is the muscular nature of the esophagus in ruminants? Entirely lined by striated m. (voluntary)
Which pillar is highly papillated? Ruminoreticular Fold
In the ruminoreticulum, where does the serosa invest? External suraces of the rumen & reticulum, except at the grooves (reflected as omentum), & D'ly @ attachment of rumen to abd roof
Where is the V br of L1 blocked? Below tip of L2 tp
What do V Cutaneous nn from T13, L1, L2 emerge near? What do they supply in the bull? V midline; V abdominal skin, prepuce & scrotum
What is a difference in the subcutis of stallions? Fat deposits in subcutis in crest of neck
Where are the subiliac lnn in ruminants situated? Cr border of tensor fasciae latae m., prox to stifle jt
What animals lack Cr & Middle groups of deep cervical lnn? Small ruminants & pig
What is the corresponding groove of the Cd pillar? Cd groove
What is the origin of the Cd preputial mm? Deep fascia
What do the fibrous rings surrounding the aorta contain? 2 cartilages (cartilago cordis)
Where are the superficial cervical ln(n)? Lie CrD to shoulder jt; under cover of brachiocephalicus & omotransversarius; Developed in all domestic spp; Palpable
Describe the mucosa of the reticulum. Thrown into cells (honeycombed) reticular cells (cellulae reticuli); Lined by conical reticular papillae (papillae reticuli)
What is the relation of the diaphragmatic line of pleural reflection to the costal arch in the ox? Relatively far apart, so that the pleural cavity is in contact w/ a much restricted part of the Cd thoracic wall
Where are the D Cutaneous nn? What do they innervate? Emerge btw longissimus & iliocostalis mm; Innervate skin of D 1/3 of abd
Do the azygous vv have valves? No; Valveless
Where is the omasum? R of median plane
Which mediastinal ln is present in all spp? Cr
What is the laminar part of the ligamentum nuchae divided into? Cr & Cd parts
What are the fermentation chambers of the stomach? What do they form? Rumen & Reticulum; Biologic unit: Ruminoreticulum
What is contained in the superficial fascia of the trunk? Cutaneous m.
In local anesthesia of the flank region, what must be blocked? V br's of T13-L2
What is the atrium ruminis? Cr part of D sac
What is btw the rumen & reticulum? Ruminoreticular groove
Where is the V br of T13 blocked? Under tip of L1 tp (incision btw L13 & L1 nn)
What bronchus supplies the R Cr lobe in ruminants & pigs? Tracheal Bronchus
Where is the cardiac notch of ruminants in the L lung? Extends from 3rd to 5th ICS
What is the true stomach? Abomasum
Name the mediastinal lnn. Cr, Middle, Cd
Where is the diaphragmatic line of pleural reflection in the goat? Gentle curve from level of 6th costochondral junction up to V border of last rib
Where is the Costoabdominal n? What do they innervate? T13; V cutaneous nn; supply preputial skin & mucous membrane or prepuce
Which lung field is of greater significance? Cd
Which azygous v. develops fully in ruminants & pigs? L
What is the location of incision for C-section in ruminants? Paralumbar fossa
Where are the Cd/Coccygeal Glands? What animals have them? D aspect of root of tail; Carnivores
In what ruminants is the R azygous v. occasionally fully present? Sheep & Goat
What is another name for the metacarpal/metatarsal pads? Tori metacarpeus/metatarseus
Which heart groove of the ox is not present in the horse? Intermediate
What is the Cd lung field bounded by? Tricipital line Cr'ly, Epaxial mm D'ly
What branches D'ly from the longitudinal grooves? Which one is better developed? L & R Accessory grooves; L
What may accumulate in the subcutis? Especially in what animal? Fat; Pigs (Panniculus Adiposus)
What are the lung fields? Cr & Cd
What are the spaces btw the omasal leaves? Interlaminar Recesses
What is inside the omental bursa? Nothing
What is the deep fascia of the trunk known as? Why? Yellow abdominal tunic; yellow elastic content
Name the 3 segments of the gastric groove. Reticular Groove, Omasal Groove, Abomasal Groove
What are the parts of the rhomboideus m. in the horse & ox? Cervical & Thoracic
What is the laminar part of the ligamentum nuchae divided into? Cr & Cd parts
What is the shape of the ruminoreticular groove? U-shaped
What is the shape of the omasum? Spherical & Flattened from the sides
What animal has cutaneous sinuses/pouches? What are they? Name them. Sheep; Diverticula or out-pocketing of the skin w/ glands in their walls; Infraorbital, Inguinal, Interdigital
Where does the reticular groove extend? V'ly from cardia, on lesser curvature (R wall) of reticulum to the reticulo-omasal orifice
Where are the horn glands? What animals have them? Cd part of horn; Goat & Sheep
What is the reticular groove a portion of? Gastric Groove
Where are the deep cervical lnn most likely to be found? Cd group
Where is pericardiocentesis performed in horses & ruminants? 4th ICS @ level of costochondral junction
What guards the omaso-abomasal opening? 2 mucosal folds (abomasal vela)
What muscle makes up the bulk of the zebu hump? Rhomboideus cervicis
What does the investment of the serosa in the reticulorumen/abd roof do? Increases latitude for mvmt during contraction
What is the intraruminal ostium/opening? Large opening encircled by most of the pillars btw D & V ruminal sacs of rumen
Where is the cardiac field in ruminants? Left side, ICS 3-5
What is disbudding? Removing germinal tissue so the horn does not grow
What is the corresponding groove of the R/L Longitudinal Pillars? R/L Longitudinal Grooves
In the ox, sheep, & goat, where does the diaphragmatic line of pleural reflection terminate? 12th ICS
What animal has the worst lung lobulation? Horse
Is the gastric groove involved in swallowing? Regurgitation? Eructation? Transport of Fluid? No, No, No; Yes
What is unique about the carotid sheath contents in ruminants? Content as in the horse + Internal Jugular v. (V'ly)
Where is the basal border of the lung? 3-4cm above actual border of lung which is too thin & straight
What is thoracocentesis? Withdrawal of abnormally high amt of fluid in the thorax
How is the facial profile of the goat? Sheep? Concave; Convex
At full regression, what part of the thymus disappears in ruminants? Cervical part disappears; Cd part is fibrotic
Describe the Cr preputial mm in ruminants. What are they derived from? Well-devo; Cutaneous Trunci
Where does milk run in young ruminants? From cardia through gastric groove into abomasum
Describe the wattles/tassels/appendices colli of the goat. Elongated, Narrow, ~15cm long, Cartilage bar containing skin derivatives; Project vertically, Cd to angle of jaw
Why is the Cr lamina nuchae paired? Why is the Cd unpaired? Funiculus nuchae is paired; Only 1 sp, in median plane
Where are the middle mediastinal ln? What animal has none? How many are in the ox? base of heart, R of aortic arch, trachea & esophagus; Pig; 1-5 (may be lg)
Describe the abomasal folds. Large, oblique folds in the fundus & body (lesser curvature has no folds but forms abomasal groove)
Where are the Cr Mediastinal ln? What animal are they large in? in Cr Mediastinum; around trachea, esophagus, & lg blood vessels; Ox
Where is the thyroid gland located? Cd to larynx, on the sides of the trachea
What are horns/cornua derivatives of? Skin
What is the 1st flexion of the esophagus? D curvature; @ junction btw head & neck (specifically btw pharynx & esophagus)
Where is the V br of L3 blocked? Close to vertebral bodies
Where is the base of the omasum? Left, CrV
What surrounds the 3rd flexion of the esophagus? Great blood vessels
What animals have wattles or tassels? What is another name for them? What is their function? Usually goat (rarely sheep & pig); Appendices colli; Unknown
Describe the body of the thyroid in the ox. Lobulated & Flattened
Describe lung lobulation in the ox. Very clearly defined by thick CT
What does L3 supply in the cow? Skin of middle part of udder & all glandular tissue of the udder
What divides the D from V sac of the rumen? L & R Longitudinal grooves; Cr & Cd Transverse grooves
What does the reticular groove comprise? a floor of the reticular groove & 2 lips (L & R)
What happens with age to the cartilago cordis? They ossify to become ossa cordis (formed early in the ox from the cartilages)
When is it important to know the positions & extent of ruminal pillars? Fore-stomach exploration, following ruminotomy
Where is the omasal groove? What does it join together? Base of omasum; Reticulo-omasal ostium to Omaso-abomasal ostium
What animals have 2 divisions of the sternocephalicus? What are they? What animals have an undivided sternocephalicus? Ox, Goat, Carnivore; Sternomastoideus & Sternomandibularis; Sheep & Horse
What is the direction of growth of the thymus gland? Cr-Cd
Generally, how does the ruminant's ligamentum nuchae compare to that of the horse? Similar
Describe the lesser omentum of the pig. Similar to that of Dog
What are the surfaces of the reticulum? Diaphragmatic (Cr) & Visceral (Cd)
Why is the Cr lung field of less significance? Inaccessible (covered by TL)
What does the reticulum look like? Honeycomb
What are the V br's of the lumbar spinal nn important in? abd mm in ruminants - supply DL wall
What is ruminal palpation, percussion, & auscultation done for? Ruminal contraction & sounds of ruminal content (usually gas in the D sac: cause fluid-moving sounds)
What is the action of the reticular groove in young? In adults? Neurohumoral; Iatrogenically controlled by oral admin of salts (copper sulfate sol'n in sheep/10% sodium bicarbonate in cattle)
Where is the reticulum auscultated? V aspects of left 6th/7th ICS
In sheep, what does the tendon of insertion of the cleidomastoideus m. fuse with? Sternocephalicus m.
What type of innervation do the mammary glands have? Sympathetic
Where is expansion of the esophagus very limited? Esophageal hiatus
Where is the diaphragmatic line of pleural reflection in the sheep? Gently curves from 9th costochondral junction to middle of last rib, & from there to Cr border of tp of L1
What are the cupula pleurae? Cr limit of the pleural sacs
What is the epiploic foramen? Opening into omental bursa
What is another name for the omasum? Manyplies
What animal has no preputial mm? Horse
What are the extremities of the rumen? Cr & Cd
Describe the inguinal sinus. On either side of the scrotum or mammary gland; Shallow; Secretions stain hairs & skin of the area
Pillars are devoid of ____ with ____ exception(s). Papillae; 1
What happens to the non-permanent flexures when the animal lowers its head (at grazing)? Obliterated
What do the azygous vv also anastomose with? Venous network in the vertebral canal, as well as the Cd VC
What are the 4 sites of esophageal obstruction? Junction btw pharynx & esophagus; Thoracic inlet; Cr to base of heart; Esophageal Hiatus/Hiatus Esophageus
What are the most common sites of obstruction in the dog? Esophageal Hiatus; Region Cr to base of heart
What are the grooves/sulci of the heart in the ox? Paraconal, Subsinuosal, & Intermediate
How do L1, L2, & L3 course? Cd'ly
Can the difference btw a goat & sheep be determined by wool? No
What is the 2nd flexion of the esophagus? V curvature; @ Thoracic inlet, D concavity
What are the cartilages of the larynx? Cricoid, Arytenoid, Thyroid, Epiglottic
In ruminants, where does the superficial layer of the greater omentum extend? Greater curvature of abomasum & V border of duodenum, up to Cd flexure, running V'ly & to left of median plane to attach to L longitudinal groove of rumen
Which flexions of the esophagus are/are not permanent? 1 & 2 are not; 3 is
What is lymphadenitis? Enlarged lnn
Why is the Cr lamina nuchae paired? Why is the Cd unpaired? Funiculus nuchae is paired; Only 1 sp, in median plane
What animals have preputial glands? All spp
What animals have the Middle Tracheobronchial ln? Inconstant in ox; Absent in sheep
What are the components of the fore-stomach/proventriculus? Rumen, Reticulum, Omasum
Describe the interdigital sinus. All 4 limbs; Curved tube @ ~prox interphalangeal jt; Waxy but colorless secretions
What are the main lobes of the R lung in ruminants? Cr, Middle, Cd, Accessory
Name the ruminoreticular pillars/columns. Cr & Cd Pillars, R/L Longitudinal Pillars; Ruminoreticular fold
What is the function of the preputial mm? Protraction/Retraction of the prepuce
What happens w/ the Cd mediastinal ln in bovine TB or lymphadenitis? Compresses esophagus; Could cause choking or damage to the vagal trunks
What do the horns develop from? Cornual process of frontal bone
What is the horn process covered by? Cornual dermis @ the base of the horn
What is another name for hardware dz? Traumatic Reticulitis
What wrt the azygous vv. may develop partially in ox & pig? a small R Cr portion "Hemi-azygous" (descends @ 6th rib level to open into terminal part of Cr VC)
What is the cardiac skeleton? CT that separates the atria from ventricles, but surrounds AV & arterial openings, as fibrous rings (anuli fibrosi)
What normally happens to a bolus of grass? Falls through the cardia into the atrium of the rumen
Compared to other domestic ungulates (incl. horse), is bovine skin thinner or thicker? Thicker
What is the shape of the lung in the ox? Basal edge is relatively straight, extending from 6th costochondral junction to V border of epaxial mm in 11th ICS