Show Complete List in Table format Hide Complete List in Table format
Terms Definitions
cognition mental activity associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating information
concept mental grouping of similar objects, events, or people; superordinate is the broadest (car), basic is inbetween (toyota), and subordinate is narrow (Camry)
prototype best example of a particular category
algorithm methodical, logical procedure that guarantees success; it is sometimes time consuming
heuristic "rule of thumb" or simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently; more efficient but does not always guarantee success and sometimes impedes problem solving
representative heuristic tendency to judge the likelihood of thinges in terms of their usual functions or how it matches a prototype
availiability heuristic based on estimating the probability of certain events in terms of how readily they come to mind
insight sudden and often novel realization of the solution of the problem; contrasts with trial and error and may often follow unsuccessful episode of trial and error
confirmation bias obstacle in problem solving in which people tend to search for information that validates their preconceptions
fixation inability to see a problem in a new way
mental set tendency to continue applying a particular problem solving strategy even when it is no longer helpful
functional fixedness type of fixation in which a person can think of things only in terms of their usual functions
overconfidence the tendency to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgements
framing way an issue or question is posed can affect one's perception of the issue or answer to the question
belief bias tendency for a persons preexisting beliefs to distort his/her logical reasoning
belief preseverance tendency for people to cling to a particular belief even after the information that led to the formation of the belief is discredited
inductive reasoning form concepts about a large group based upon specific examples
deductive reasoning form concepts or thoughts about a specific group based on a larger group. Ex. women are bad drivers. laura is a woman, therefore she is a bad driver.
artificial intelligence science of designing and programming computer systems to do intelligent things and to stimulate human thought processes
computer neural networks computer circuits that stimulate the brain's interconnected neural cells and perform task such as learning to recognize visual patterns and smells
language spoken, written, or gestured words and how we combine them to communicate meaning
phonemes smallest units of sound in a language that are distintive for speakers of the language
morphemes smallest units of language that convey meaning
grammar system of rules that enable us to communicate with and understand others
semantics aspects of grammar that specifies the rules used to derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language (add -ed to a verb to represent the past tense)
syntax aspect of grammar specifying the rules for combining words into grammatical sentences in a given language
one word stage typical of a one year old but may occur between age 1 and 2
two word stage typical of a two year old
telegraphic speech economical, telegram-like speech of children in two word stage; mostly nouns and verbs and are normally in the correct order showing the child has learned some language and syntactic rules; ex. want cookie
linguistic determination Benjamin Whorfs hypothesis that language determines the way we think
intelligence ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new solutions
intelligence test measure peoples mental aptitudes and compare them to others' through numerical scores
mental age chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance; concept introduced by Binet
Stanford-Binet Lewis Terman's widely used revision of Binet's original intelligence test
Intelligence Quotient defined originally as the ratio of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100.
factor analysis statistical procedure that identifies factors, or clusters of related items, that seems to define a common ability
general intelligence (g factor) underlying each of the more specific mental abilities identified through factor analysis; identified by Spearman
Savant person with a very low intelligence score yet possesses one exceptional ability such as music or math
prodigy person with an average intelligence score yet possesses one exceptional ability in one area
emotional intelligence ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions
creativity refers to an ability to generate novel and valuable ideas; people with high IQ's may or may not be creative, which indicates that intelligence is only one component of creativity
divergent thinker think about as many ways to use something as possible
convergent thinker think about the most efficient way or best way of doing something
aptitude tests designed to predict future performance and measures your capacity to learn new information rather than measuring what you already know
achievement tests measure a person's current knowledge
crystallized intelligence aspects of intellectual ability and learned knowledge; increases with age
fluid intelligence cognitive abilities that require speed and rapid learning which will decrease with age
Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale WAIS-most widely used intelligence test; individually administered, contains 11 subjects, and yields separate verbal and intelligence scores, as well as an overall intelligence score
Normal Curve bell-shaped curve that represents the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes; curve is symmetrical with most scores near the average and fewer scores near the extremes
standardization process of defining meaningful scores on a test by pretesting a large representative example of people
reliability extent to which a test produces consistent results
validity degree to which a test measures what it is supposed to
content validity test samples the behavior that is of interest
criterion the behavior the test is designed to predict
predictive validity extent to which a test predicts the behavior it is supposed to predict
Flynn Effect IQ has increased over time so tests have to be renormed so more questions need to be answered correctly to earn the same score
stereotype threat phenomenon in which a person's concern that he or she will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype is actually followed by lower performance
mental retardation/impairment an IQ below 70 and difficulty adapting to the normal demands of independent living
down syndrome result of an extra chromosome in which the person's genetic makeup; a common cause of severe impairment and associated with physical disorders
Sir Francis Galton believed intelligence is inherited, can be quantitatively measured, and popularized the phrase "nature and nurture"
Binet and Simon created separate norms for students according to their choronological age (called mental age) suggesting that intelligence is relative to age
Binet father of modern intelligence testing
Terman founder of the Stanford-Binet test
Stern derived the intelligence quotient- mental age divided by chronological age x 100
Spearman used factor analysis and identified the g factor
Wechsler created a series of age based intelligence tests (WPPSI, WISC, WAIS)
Study this Flashcard on your Mobile Device Look at our list of Apps