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Terms Definitions
When was archaeology established as an academic field in the US? late 19th century
how many fields is anthropology divided into? 4
what is ethnography? the descriptive study of human studies
what is an artifact? any object used or modified or made by humans
what are features? non-portable artifacts
what are ecofacts? Non-artifactual material remains that have cultural relevance
what is a region? the largest spatial clusters of archaeological sites
what are the three types of surveys? aerial, subsurface, surface
when is a surface survey useful? when difficult topography is encountered
what is a draw back of a surface survey? they can be biased
what is the difference between and unsystematic and a systematic survey? systematic requires a sampling strategy and provides a more complete and unbiased look at the distribution of sites
this sampling strategy is not systematic and based on specific research interestthe results can be very biased judgement sampling
Sampling units in the form of long strips Component of random samplingFairly representative sample transects
what is subsurface sampling? Intrusive approach to find archaeological remains hidden by ground cover or buried.
what is it called when you explore vertically? stratigraphy
what is it called when you explore horizontally? site margins
when are shovel tests useful? if there are remains close to the surface
this is Used to create maps of subsurface human activities and is non-intrusive geophysical survey
what are 3 important things to record post-survey? the size of the unit
what are 3 important things to record post survey? reasons for choosing to excavate a particular site, size of the unit,relationships between artifacts and features
what are some features of vertical excavation? Diachronic perspectiveCulture sequence Small excavation areaLimited view of cultural processe
the laying down or depositing of strata or layers one above another – based on the law of superposition: The underlying layer was deposited first and therefore older than the overlaying deposit. stratigraphy
what are some of the features of a horizontal excavation? Synchronic perspectiveSpatial distribution of artifactsExtensive view of cultural processFocus on activity areas
what are activity areas? Locations where some particular behavior occurred once or repeatedly, leaving identifiable evidence.
what are subdivisions in strata based on natural divisions in the sediment called? natural levels
what are subdivisions in strata based on unnatural features called non arbitrary
what are subdivisions in strata based on the lack of natural strata called? arbitrary
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