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Terms Definitions
Neuron A specialized cell that is directly involved in mental processes and behavior
One way to classify the many different types of Neurons is? In terms of their functions as either sensory (afferent) neurons, interneurons, or motor (efferent Neurons)
In humans, when are most of the brains Neurons present? At Birth
How frequently do Neurons die At about 10,000 per day
What % of the original supply of Neurons is lost by age 70? 2%
What are Chemical substances that are released from Neuron Axon terminals? Neurotransmitters
What does a Neurotransmitter produce? How? It produces excitation or inhibition in a post synoptic cell by altering the permeability of the cells membrane
What are some examples of Neurotransmitters? Name 5 Acetylcholine, Catecholemines, Serotonin, Gama Aminobuturic Acid (GABA) and Endorphins
Acetylcholine Cholinergenic Neurons. It is found in the neuromuscular junction. (The Junction between the Neuron and the muscle) and it causes muscles to contract. It is also involved in memoryand Alzheimers Dementia is associated with a deterioration of Ach-Secreting neurons in the brain
Catecholemines The catecholemines include norepinephrine (noradrenalyn), epinephrine (adrenalyn), and Dopamine
What functions are the above listed catecholemines-norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine involved in? Involved in a number of functions including personality, mood, and drive states.
What is the Catecholemine Hypothesis? According to the Catecholemine Hypothesis some forms of depression are due to a deficiency in Norepinephrine while mania is due to excessive norepinephrine
What has excessive Dopamine been linked to? Schizophrenia
What has most recent research implicated regarding elevated levels of norepinephrine and Serotonin? More recent research has implicated elevated levels of norepinephrine and Serotonin in the development of Schizophrenia
True or False: Dopamine is also involved in the regulation of movement? True
A lack of Dopamine resulting from a degeneration of Neurons that secrete it, underlies the muscular rigidity and tremors of (A)_________ Parkinson's Disease
What has Serotonin been linked to? Name 8 areas. Personality
Mood States
Hunger
Temperature Regulation
Sexual Activity
Aggression
Arousal
Onset of Sleep
What have elevated levels of Serotonin been linked to? Schizophrenia and Autistic Disorder
In terms of mood states, what does "permissive theory" propose. It proposes that serotonin interacts with other neurotransmitters (especially norepinephrine and Dopamine) to produce mood disorders.
What have low levels of Serotonin been linked to? Suicide and Violent Suicide Attempts
What is GABA (Gammaaminobutyric Acid) It is an inhibitory Neurotransmitter
What are deficits of GABA in the motor regions of the brain associated with? Huntingtons Diseas
True or False: GABA is often used as a treatment for Huntington's Disease True
What may underlie anxiety and Schizophrenia Low levels of GABA
Endorphins Endorphins are inhibitory neuromodulators that lower the sensitivity of postsynaptic neurons to neurotranmitters
Consists of Numerous highly interrelated components The Nervous System
The primary divisions of the nervous system The Peripheral Nervous System
The Central Nervous System
True or False: The Primary Nervous System consist of all neural tissue outside he Central Nervous system. True
True or False: The Central Nervous System consists of the Spinal Cord and the Brain. True
What relays messages between the CNS and the body's sensory organs, muscles, and glands? The Peripheral Nervous System
What consists of 31 pairs of spinal nerves that connect with the spinal cord and 12 pairs of cranial nerves that connect directly to the brain The Peripheral Nervous System
How many groups are the spinal nerves divided into and what are they? Five-Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacral, and Coccygeal nerves
How is the PNS divided The Somatic and Autonomic Nervous System
Somatic Nervous System The SNS carries information between the CNS and the body's sensory systems and skeletal muscles. It governs activities that are ordinarily considered voluntary.
Autonomic Nervous System Regulates the activities of the visceral muscles (Heart, Blood Vessels, Intestines,etc and Glands) Although the ANS is associated primarily with involuntary movements, research on biofeedback hypnosis and other techniques suggests that some autonomic activities can be brought under voluntary control.
How is the Autonomic Nervous System Subdivided? It is subdivided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system
True or False: With some exceptions the visceral muscles and glands are innervated by both systems which generally work in opposition to control such functions as respiration circulation, and digestion? True
Sympathetic Division of the ANS The Sympathetic division of the ANS is associated with arousal and the expenditure of energy and tends to act as a unit. In reaction to an external threat, for instance, the Sympathetic division might cause dilation of the pupils, inhibition of presistalsis, dry mouth, sweating, and increased blood pressure and heart rate in order to ready the body for fight or flight.
Parasympathetic Division The Parasymapthetic division of the ANS is involved in the conservation of energy. It is active during periods of rest and relaxation.
True or False: The parasympathetic division is more specific in it's actions than the Sympathetic branch. For example, a cinder in the eye causes tearing only, not tearing, salivation, slowed heart rate, and decreased blood pressure. True
True or False: Structures in the CNS include the brain and Spinal cord True
True or False: GABA is often used as a treatment for Huntingtons disease? True
What may underlie anxiety and Schizophrenia? Low levels of GABA
Endorphins Are inhibitory Neurotransmitters that lower the sensitivity of post synamptic neurons to neurotransmitters.
Properties of Endorphins -Analgesic (Pain Killing)
-May be responsable for the pain relief produced by Accupuncture.
What Neurotransmitter has been implicated in certain pleasureable experiences (eg. the runners high) and the control of emotions, memory, and learning, and sexual behavior. Endorphins
What consist of numerous substructures that are highly interrelated in terms of function? The human brain
What is made up of bundles of myelinated axons (nerve tracts) as well as dendrites, cell bodies, and inter neurons The spinal cord
What does the spinal cord do? It carries information between the brain and the PNS coordinates the activities of the left and right sides of the bodies and controls simple reflexes that do not involve the brain.
What type of messages do nerve fibers carry in the superior portion of the spinal cord, the dorsal horns They carry Afferant (Sensory)
What type of messages do nerve fibers transmit in the inferior portion of the spinal cord, the ventral horns They transmit efferent (motor) messages
What has been found to play a role in 50-70% of all physical illnesses? Stress
True or False: Selye investigated the physiological reactions to stress and concluded that people respond to all type of stressful situations in the same manner? True
The response, listed above, was named what by Selye? The General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
How is the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) mediated? Primarily by the adrenal cortex and pituitury gland
What are the three stages of G.A.S. (General Adaptation Syndrome) Alarm Reaction
Resistance
Exhaustion
Alarm Reaction of G. A. A. (General Adaptation Syndrome) In response to Stress the CNS activates the Sympathetic Nervous System and causes the Adrenal cortex to increase it's release of epinephrine. As a result, the bodies glucose level increases and heart and respiration rates accelerate, thereby increasing the bodies energy level
Resistance stage of G.A.S (General Adaptation Syndrome) If stress persists, the body appears to return to normal. However, levels of epinephrine and ActH (Hormone released by the pituitory gland) remain elevated. High ACTh levels lower the bodies resistance to infection and disease
Exhaustion stage of G.A.S. (General Adaptation Syndrome) With prolonged stress, the pituitory gland and the adrenal cortex lose their ability to maintain elevated hormone levels and physiological processes begin to break down.
What may occur during the Exhaustion stage of the General Adaptation Syndrome? Depression and illness(Ulcers, essential hypertension) or in extreme case death may occur.
What is the name of stress that elicits good feelings and provides the short term energy needed to function at an optimal level? Eustress
True or False: Stress can cause immunosuppression resulting in an increased risk for illness and premature birth? True
Which body system consist of a number of glands that produce chemical substances known as hormones? The Endocrine System
True or False: A number of disorders are associated with abnormalities in hormonal output? True
What are the major Endorcrine Glands? (Hint-4) The Pituitary, The Thyroid, The Adrenal, Pancreas
The Pituitary Gland Referred to as the "Master Gland" because of it's influence on the other endocrine glands. Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) acts in the kidneys to mediate fluid retention. Hyposecretion of ADH produces Diabetes Insipidus (excessive water loss)
The Thyroid Gland The primary secretion of the Thyroid is Thyroxine which regulates general metabolism. Hypersecretion produces hyperthyroidism (Graves Disease)
Hyperthyroidism (Graves Disease) Characterized by a speeded up metabolism, increased body temperature, heat intolerance, increased appetite with weight loss, accelerated Heart Rate, Nervousness, agitation, fatigue, and insomnia.
What does Hyposecretion of Thyroxine produce? Hypothyroidism which involves a slow metabolism
Hypothyroidism Involves a slow metabolism, reduced appetite with weight gain, slowed Heart Rate, decreased body temperature, depression, decreased libido, lethargy, and impaired concentration and memory.
The Adrenal Cortex Secretes Glucocortisoids (Cortisol) and mineral corticods (eg. Aldosterone). The forms are involved in the regulation of glucose levels and the suppression of inflammatory responses to tissue injury and the latter regulate the concentration of minerals in the extracellular fluid.
What does Hyposecretion of Cortisol and Aldosterone produce? Addison's Disease
Addison's Disease Involves weakness, drowsiness, weight loss, lowered body temperature, suspiciousness, irritability, and depression
What does Hypersecretion of Cortisol result in? Cushings Disease
Cushings Disease Characterized by Obesity, memory loss, emotional lability, depression, and somatic delusions
Some people suffering from chronic pain have been found to have abnormally low levels of (A)________in their cerebrospinal fluid: Endorphins
According to Selye some kinds of stress are good because They provide the short term energy needed to function at an optimal level
Chest pain, tingling and numbness in the hands and feet, dizziness, tinnitus, faintness, and impaired concentration and memory are most suggestive of Hypervientilation Syndrome
Hyposecretion of ADH (Antidiuretic Hormone) is associated with Diabetes Insipidus
A woman suffering from migraine headaches would be best advised to Avoid certain foods
Essential Hypertension is (more/less) common among females than males and (more/less) common among blacks than whites less
more
The Catecholemine Hypothesis attributes depression to deficient norepinephrine
According to the Dopamine Hypothesis, __________is related to overactivity at Dopamine recepters Schizophrenia
Psychophysiological disorders are charecterized by physical symptoms that are caused, maintained, or exacerbated by __________factors Emotional (Psychological)
Some investigators regard psychophysiological disorders to be the result of a combination of diathesis-which refers to a(n)____________ to a particular organ weakness---and stress Congenital Predisposition
What are the three stages of G.A.S. (General Adaptation Syndrome) Alarm Reaction
Resistance
Exhaustion
Alarm Reaction of G. A. A. (General Adaptation Syndrome) In response to Stress the CNS activates the Sympathetic Nervous System and causes the Adrenal cortex to increase it's release of epinephrine. As a result, the bodies glucose level increases and heart and respiration rates accelerate, thereby increasing the bodies energy level
Resistance stage of G.A.S (General Adaptation Syndrome) If stress persists, the body appears to return to normal. However, levels of epinephrine and ActH (Hormone released by the pituitory gland) remain elevated. High ACTh levels lower the bodies resistance to infection and disease
Exhaustion stage of G.A.S. (General Adaptation Syndrome) With prolonged stress, the pituitory gland and the adrenal cortex lose their ability to maintain elevated hormone levels and physiological processes begin to break down.
What may occur during the Exhaustion stage of the General Adaptation Syndrome? Depression and illness(Ulcers, essential hypertension) or in extreme case death may occur.
What is the name of stress that elicits good feelings and provides the short term energy needed to function at an optimal level? Eustress
True or False: Stress can cause immunosuppression resulting in an increased risk for illness and premature birth? True
Which body system consist of a number of glands that produce chemical substances known as hormones? The Endocrine System
True or False: A number of disorders are associated with abnormalities in hormonal output? True
What are the major Endorcrine Glands? (Hint-4) The Pituitary, The Thyroid, The Adrenal, Pancreas
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