Complete List of Terms and Definitions for Human Anatomy & Physiology Chapters 1-8 Marieb 8th Ed
|T/F DNA transcription is another word for DNA replication.||False|
|T/F Apoptosis is programmed cell suicide, but cancer cells fail to undergo apoptosis.||True.|
|In certain kinds of muscle cells, calcium ions are stored ________.||In the smooth ER.|
|The twisting of a long bone is prevented by:||Circumferential lamella expands all around long bones and prevents the twisting of long bones. Lamella of Haversian systems are also effective in resisting twist. The alternating arrangement of collagen fibers among lamella layers of any kind resists torsion.|
|T/F: Chondromalacia patellae is hardening of the articular cartilage on the posterior patella surface.||False.|
|Blood flows in one direction through the heart because the heart has valves that prevent backflow. This phenomenon exemplifies:||the principle of complementarity of structure and function.|
|In the epiphyseal plate, cartilage grows ________.||by pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis|
|What is the most deep of the skull bones that forms the bony area between the nasal cavity and the orbis?||Ethmoid Bone|
|The chemical symbol O=O means ________.||The atoms are double bonded.|
|A condition that produces a reduction in bone mass sufficient to compromise normal function is:||Osteoporosis, or porous bone, occurs when the rate of bone reabsorption exceeds the rate of bone formation. The loss of bone mass makes bones so porous and weakened that they become deformed and prone to fracture.|
|True/False: During fetal development intramembranous ossification takes place in fibrous connective tissue membranes.||True. Intramembranous ossification begins at approximately the eighth week of development. Cells cluster within the mesenchymal membrane and become osteoblasts (bone-forming cells).|
|T/F Mitochondria contain some of the DNA and RNA code necessary for their own function||True.|
|Is the hypodermis part of the integumentary system?||No. The hypodermis, deep to the skin, shares some of the skin's functions, but it is not a part of the integumentary system.|
|T/F Achilles was wounded by damage to the tendon connecting his calf muscles to his heel. This and all tendons are composed mainly of dense irregular connective tissue.||False.|
|Crenation is likely to occur in blood cells in an __________solution.||Hypertonic|
|The electron microscope has revealed that one of the components within the cell consists of microtubules arranged to form a hollow tube. This structure is ________.||centriole|
|The plasma membrane is ________.||the phospholipid bilayer surrounding the cell|
A person who has been diagnosed with a sprained ankle has an injury to the ligaments that attach to that joint.
The lacunae of bone contain:
|Lacunae are small pockets found between narrow sheets of calcified matrix, and osteocytes (bone cells) are found in lacunae.|
|T/F: Vitamin D is stored in the matrix of bones.||False.|
|If the nucleotide or base sequence of the DNA strand used as a template for messenger RNA synthesis is ACGTT, then the sequence of bases in the corresponding mRNA would be ________.||UGCAA|
Atoms of any given element will differ from those of all other elements and provide its unique physical and chemical properties.
|What are the names for C1 and C2??||
C1 is Atlas
C2 is Axis
|Multicellular exocrine glands can be classified functionally into what three categories?||functionally into merocrine, holocrine, and apocrine divisions|
|Compared to the shoulder, displacements of the hip joints are ________. (Common/Rare)||Rare because of the ligament reinforcement|
|Bone-forming cells originate from:||Osteoblasts that lay down bone tissue originate from osteoprogenitor cells|
|Sebaceous glands are located all over the body except for these two areas:||Sebaceous glands occur over the entire body, with the exception of the palms and soles of the feet.|
|Which chemical reaction involves atoms or molecules combining to form a larger, more complex molecule?||Synthesis|
|Does synovial fluid contain hyaluronic acid?||Yes.|
|What would you find located in the lacrimal fossa?||Lacrimal Sac|
|What is the regional term designating the limbs?||Appendicular|
|The main component of the cytosol is ________.||water.|
|T/F: The layman's name for the scapula is the collarbone.||False. Shoulder blade is the layman's term for the scapula.|
|Bones of the wrist and ankle are classified as____________||Short bones|
|The menisci of the knee are made of:||Fibrocartilage|
|Menisci refer to ________.||semilunar cartilage pads|
|The primary function of adipose tissue is:||Nutrient storage.|
Which of the following bones would most likely be involved in surgery to remove a tumor on the pituitary gland?
|The sella turcica of the sphenoid bone surrounds the pituitary gland.|
|T/F Molarity is one mole of solute per 1000 ml of solution.||True|
|Muscle, connective tissue, endothelium and mesothelium arise from which of the three primary germ layers?||Mesoderm|
|Main Function of Stratified Squamous||
Protection of areas from abrasion
Forms the external part of the skin's epidermis and lining of the esophagus, mouth, and vagina
The amount of movement permitted by a particular joint is the basis for the functional classification of joints.
|T/F: All of the bones of the skull, except the mandible, are united by sutures and are therefore immovable.||True.|
|Changes in the color of skin are often an indication of a homeostatic imbalance. Which changes would suggest that a patient is suffering from Addison's disease?||The skin takes on a bronze or metallic appearance.|
|T/F: A Colle's fracture is a break in the distal end of the radius.||True.|
|T/F Aquaporins are believed to be present in red blood cells and kidney tubules, but very few other cells in the body.||False.|
|T/F Hyperplasia generally means that an organ will increase in size due to the excessive formation of extracellular fluids.||False.|
|An example of an interosseus fibrous joint is ________.||The radius and ulna along its length|
|What are Langerhans' Cells? What do they help with?||Epidermal macrophages that help activate the immune system.|
|Before eight weeks, the skeleton of the human embryo is composed of:||Before eight weeks, the skeleton of the human embryo is composed of fibrous membrane and hyaline cartilage.|
|T/F: Flexion of the ankle so that the superior aspect of the foot approaches the shin is called dorsiflexion.||True.|
|A joint united by dense fibrocartilaginous tissue that usually permits a slight degree of movement is a ________.||Symphisis|
|Does the Dermis contain keratinocytes?||No. The dermis possesses all the cells that one would expect to find in connective tissue: mast cells, fibroblasts, macrophages, and scattered white blood cells.|
|T/F: Ceruminous glands secrete cerumen, which is thought to deter insects.||True|
|T/F: Bending of the tip of the finger exhibits flexion.||True.|
|What is the term for pale, fine body hair found in children and the adult female?||Vellus|
Which of the following is true of an isotope?
1) Isotopes have the same number of neutrons, but differ in the number of protons they contain.
2) :Isotopes have the same number of protons, but differ in the number of neutrons they contain
|2. :Isotopes have the same number of protons, but differ in the number of neutrons they contain|
|The ventral body cavity is subdivided into which cavities?||The thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities|
|Which of the following processes require a receptor, a control center, and an effector?||Homeostatic Control|
|What is the primary function of melanin?||Melanin forms a protective layer that screens out a portion of the sun's cancer-causing UV rays.|
|n a(n) ____________ the vertebral column is formed from 33 separate bones.||Fetus|
|T/F Bone tissue in the skeleton of a human fetus is completely formed at six months' gestation.||False.|
|The bone in direct contact with the first metatarsal is the ________.||Medial Cuneiform|
|Are all synovial joints are freely movable?||Yes.|
|Overexposure of UV light will increase/depress the immune system.||Depress|
|The axial skeleton contains ________.||the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage|
|T/F: Phospholipids are both hydrophilic and hydrophobic in nature||True.|
|T/F: Dermal papillae are fingerlike projections found on the superficial surface of the epidermis.||False. Dermal papillae are fingerlike projections found on the superficial surface of the dermis.|
|If the pH or temperature of the environment that contains a protein is altered dramatically, then the protein may:||Become Denatured|
|Sutures connect all the bones of the skull, except the:||Mandible. The mandible is the only bone in the skull that is not connected to other bones by sutures and is therefore the only mobile bone in the skull.|
|Mesenchymal cells are most commonly found in ________ connective tissue.||Embryonic|
T/F: Final preparation for cell division is made during the cell life cycle subphase called G2.
Question 3 answers
|If a tRNA had an AGC anticodon, it could attach to a(n) ________ mRNA codon.||UCG|
|A joint that is known as a suture is found ________.||In the skull only.|
|When have long bones reeached their adult length?||When the epiphyseal plate is replaced by bone.|
|What are glycosaminoglycans?||Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are combinations of proteins and sugars found in the extracellular matrix.|
|T/F: The most common site of fracture in the humerus is the anatomical neck.||False. It's the surgical neck.|
Hinge and pivot joints are types of:
Both hinge and pivot joints are synovial joints.
Hinge ex) Elbow & Interphalaangeal joints
Pivot ex) Axis & Dens; proximal radioulnar joint
|The dermis has how many layers?||Two.|
|How many regions of the vertebral column are there?||Five. The cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal sections make up the vertebral column.|
|T/F: Fingerpints represent the sweat patterns left by dermal ridges.||False.|
|At its distal end the femur articulates with the:____________||The distal end of the femur forms the knee joint with the tibia and patella.|
|The dermis is primarily composed of which tissue type?||
Dense irregular connective tissue
The deeper reticular layer, which accounts for about 80% of the thickness of the dermis, is composed of dense irregular connective tissue.
|The ________ gland is a modified sudoriferous gland that secretes wax||ceruminous|
|What type of movement do Synarthrotic joints allow?||Synarthrotic joints permit essentially no movement .|
|A narrow, slit-like opening in a bone is referred to as a:||Fissure|
|When a person attempts to break their fall with an outstretched hand, they often wind up with ________.||A Colles' fracture is a fracture in the distal end of the radius that often occurs when a person attempts to break his or her fall with an outstretched hand.|
|T/F:Sweat glands are apocrine glands.||False. Sweat glands are exocrine glands.|
An acidic substance will have a sticky feel.
|A common injury in the winter is a fall in which someone hits the back of his or her head on the ice. What bone is most likely to be involved in this type of fall?||Occipital|
|T/F Subdivisions of anatomy include gross, regional, systemic, and surface.||True|
|A chemical reaction in which bonds are broken is usually associated with the (absorption/release) of energy.||Release of energy|
|Endocrine glands _____________(have/do not have) ducts.||
Do not have ducts...ductless
Secretions include amino acids, proteins, glycoproteins, and steroids
|Yellow bone marrow contains a large percentage of ________||Fat|
|What type of joints are cartilaginous joints where hyaline cartilage unites the ends of bones ?||Synchondroses|
|T/F DNA is a long, double-stranded molecule made up of A, T, G, and C bases.||True|
|In biochemistry, and thus in the body, the universal solvent is:||Water.|
The annular ligament surrounds the head of the radius.
|T/F: Mesenchymal cells are one of the four cell types that populate bone tissue in adults.||False.|
|Are blood vessels found d in the matrix of cartilage or bone?||Bone.|
|Which is the correct sequence of epidermal layers of thick skin, deep to superficial?||In thick skin, the cell layers, ordered from deep to superficial, are: stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, and stratum corneum. Mnemonic: Bill Shagging Ginnie's Love Child. Basale, Spinosum, Granulosum, Lucidum, Corneum|
|T/F: Synchondroses are cartilaginous joints.||True.|
|T/F In their resting state, all body cells exhibit a resting membrane potential ranging from -50 to about +50 millivolts.||False.|
|A long chain of simple sugars would be a ________.||polysaccharide|
|Mucosa arise from which of the three primary germ layers?||Mucosa arise from the endoderm|
|Despite its apparent durability, the dermis is subject to tearing. How might a person know that the dermis has been stretched and/or torn?||The appearance of visible, silvery-white scars is an indication of stretching of the dermis.|
|Main Function of Simple Squamous Epithelial Tissue||
Diffusion and filtration.
Found in kidney glomeruli, lining of heart, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and serosae
|Which sinuses are in high risk of infection spreading from the middle ear?||The mastoid sinuses are in high risk of infection spreading from the middle ear.|
|T/F: Synovial fluid is a viscous material that is derived by filtration from blood.||True.|
|T/F Ceruminous glands are modified merocrine glands||False.|
The atomic number of an atom is equal to the number of protons in its nucleus.
|True. The atomic number of any atom is equal to the number of protons in its nucleus.|
|Osteogenesis is the process of ________.||Bone formation|
|Articulations permitting only slight degrees of movement are ________.||Ampiarthroses|
On the basis of structural classification, which joint is fibrous connective tissue?
|Saddle joints have concave and convex surfaces. Name the two bones of the hand that articulate to form a saddle joint.||The trapezium of the carpal bone and the thumb's metacarpal.|
|Thoracic vertebrae differ from the others in that ________.||They have facets for attachment of ribs.|
|T/F Each daughter cell resulting from mitotic cell division has exactly as many chromosomes as the parent cell.||True.|
|T/F Covalent bonds are generally less stable than ionic bonds.||False|
|T/F Alpha particles, although relatively weak energy particles, are second only to smoking as a cause of lung cancer.||True.|
|What type of connective tissue is the dermis, submucosa of the digestive tract, and fibrous organ capsules made up of?||Dense Irregular Connective Tissue|
|Which joint is a "cartilage sandwich"?||
SynChondrosis: (think s=sandwich...chondrosis=cartilage.)
We have already mentioned the joint between the bony shaft and cartilage at the ends of long bones. This is a synchondrosis, a cartilage sandwich with bone on either side: bone and cartilage fit together perfectly and the whole thing is cup shaped. If movement occurs the growing bone will be damaged (slipped epiphysis) and this is countered by putting in a long nail to fix it again.
A structure found on the femur is the ________.
|T/F Telomeres are the regions of chromosomes that code for the protein ubiquitin.||False.|
|The structural unit of compact bone is _______||The Osteon|
|The shape of the external ear is maintained by ________.||Elastic cartilage|
|What type of bone (spongy/compact) contains true osteons?||Only compact bone contains osteons.|
|Three types of skeletal cartilage are?||
1) Hyaline--most abundant... articular, costal, respiratory, nasal
2) Elastic--ear and epiglottis
3) Fibrocartilage--menisci of knee and intervertebral discs
|T/F: Functions of connective tissues include binding, support, insulation, and protection.||False.|
|What is the name of the primary energy-transferring molecule in cells?||ATP|
|T/F: Compact bone is replaced more often than spongy bone.||False.|
|T/F: When an individual is exposed to extremely low air temperatures, the dermal blood vessels will dilate so that blood and heat will be dissipated.||False.|
|___________ bones act to alter the direction of tendon pull.||Sesamoid bones act to alter the direction of tendon pull.|
|Main Function of Simple Columnar Epithelial Tissue||
Absorption and Secretion
Cilliated and Noncilliated
Digestive tract, gallbladder, small bronchii, uterine tubes, and some regions of uterus
Which of the following characteristics of skeletal cartilage limits its thickness?
1) It has a girdle of perichondrium that resists outward expansion when it is compressed.
2):It is avascular and receives most of its nourishment from the perichondrium tha
It is avascular and receives most of its nourishment from the perichondrium that surrounds it.
|Ceruminous glands are modified _________glands that secrete cerumen (ear wax).||Apocrine glands|
|Which human integumentary system glands is believed to be analogous to the sexual scent glands of an animal?||Apocrine glands start to function at puberty under the influence of androgens, their activity is increased by sexual foreplay, and they enlarge and recede with the phases of a women's menstrual cycle.|
Which of the two following is an example of a positive feedback mechanism?
blood clotting, high blood pressure, labor contractions, sweating
|blood clotting & labor contractions|
|The sebaceous glands are simple alveolar glands that secrete a substance known as sebum. The secretion of sebum is stimulated ________.||by hormones, especially androgens|
|A bone that contains diaphysis and epiphysis areas, a tuberosity near its middle, and is proportionally more compact than spongy bone is the ________.||Humerus|
|T/F Enzymes raise the activation energy needed to start a reaction.||False. Enzymes lower the activation energy.|
|T/F Macrophages are found in areolar and lymphatic tissues.||True|
|T/F: A temporal bone protrusion riddled with sinuses is the styloid process.||False.|
|True/False: The process of bone growth at the epiphyseal plate is similar to endochondral ossification.||True. In a long bone, bone growth and elongation occur at the epiphyseal plate where new cartilage is formed and eventually calcified by osteoblasts (the bone-forming cells. The osteoblasts later mature into osteocytes|
Which of the following conditions is generally considered a noninflammatory type of arthritis?
|T/F Visceral pericardium covers the surface of the heart, and parietal pericardium lines the walls of the heart.||False|
|A chain of 25 amino acids would be called a ________.||polypeptide|
|Which of the following represents the sum total of all structural levels working together to keep us alive?||Organismal Level|
|T/F: The skin is not able to receive stimuli because the cells of the epidermis are not living and therefore there are no sensory receptors in the skin.||False.|
|The periosteum is secured to the underlying bone by dense connective tissue called ________.||Perforating (Sharpey's ) fibers|
|In adults, new surface epithelial cells and the epithelial cells lining the intestine are derived from _________.||Stem Cells|
|Is water an electrolyte?||No.|
|Which sutures are most likely to contain sutural bones?||The lambdoid suture is the most likely suture to contain suture bones.|
|The most important factors influencing hair growth are ________.||nutrition & hormones|
|T/F: The dense fibrous connective tissue portion of the skin is located in the reticular region of the dermis.||True.|
Place the following in correct sequence from simplest to most complex:
|T/F Hydrogen bonds are comparatively strong bonds.||False.|
|T/F: The genetic information is coded in DNA by the regular alternation of sugar and phosphate molecules.||False.|
|A fibrous joint that is a peg-in-socket is called a ________ joint.||Gomphosis|
|Sebaceous glands belong to which class of glands?||Sebaceous glands are simple branched alveolar glands with several alveoli opening into a single duct.|
|The four elements that make up about 96% of body matter are ________.||Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen|
|T/F: Each intervertebral disc possesses a nucleus pulposus and an annulus fibrosus.||True.|
|T/F Only one cell type in the human body has a flagellum.||True.|
Bones are covered and lined by a protective tissue called periosteum. The inner (osteogenic) layer consists primarily of ________.
-Osteoblasts & Osteoclasts
|Osteoblasts & Osteoclasts|
Each of the following bones is part of the pelvic girdle, except the:
|Femur. The femur articulates with the pelvic girdle, but the ilium, ischium, and pubis of both os coxae form the pelvic girdle.|
|What is the function of loose connective tissue?||
Wraps and cushions organs, important role in inflammation,
|The "calvaria" of the skull is another name for the:||The "calvaria" of the skull is another name for the cranial vault.|
|T/F Chemical properties are determined primarily by neutrons.||False|
|Which strata is absent in thin skin?||The stratum lucidum appears in thick skin but not in thin skin.|
Something with a pH of 5 would _____.
1) :have more H+ ions than OH- ions
2) have more OH- ions than H+ ions
3) have an equal number of H+ and OH- ions
|Have more H+ ions than OH- ions|
An atom with a valance of 3 may have a total of ________ electrons.
|T/F Lipids are a poor source of stored energy.||False.|
|Is the epidermis vascular or avascular?||The epidermis is avascular and has to obtain nutrients from the underlying connective tissue in the dermis.|
|Nutrients reach the surface of the skin (epidermis) through the process of ________.||diffusing through the tissue fluid from blood vessels in the dermis|
|Main Function of Simple Cuboidal Epithelial Tissue||
Secretion and Absorption
Present in kidney tubules, ducts and secretory portions of small glands, and ovary surfaces
|The vertebrae and hip bones are classified as||Irregular bones|
|Which forms the largest portion of the coxal bone?||Ilium|
|Extracellular matrix is ________.||the most abundant extracellular material|
|A movement of the forearm in which the palm of the hand is turned from posterior to anterior is__________.||Supination|
|Striae in the skin are caused by:||dermal tears|
|The cruciate ligaments of the knee ________.||Prevents Hyperextension of the Knee|
|In liquid XYZ, you notice that light is scattered as it passes through. There is no precipitant in the bottom of the beaker, though it has been sitting for several days. This liquid must be a ________.||Colloid|
|The process of bones increasing in width is known as ________.||Appositional Growth|
Metabolism includes breaking down substances into their simpler building blocks, synthesizing complex cellular structures from simpler substances, and using nutrients and oxygen to produce ATP.
|True. Metabolism includes breaking down substances into their simpler building blocks, synthesizing complex cellular structures from simpler substances, and using nutrients and oxygen to produce ATP.|
|The reason that intervertebral discs exhibit a large amount of tensile strength to absorb shock is because they possess ________.||Collagen Fibers|
|Which of the cutaneous receptors is specialized for the reception of touch or light pressure?||Meissner's corpuscles|
|________ cavities are spaces within joints.||Synovial|
DNA carries out the orders for protein synthesis issued by RNA.
|T/F Emulsions and colloids are the same thing.||True.|
|________ is fat-soluble, produced in the skin on exposure to UV radiation, and necessary for normal bone growth and function.||Vitamin D|
In an ionic bond:
1) atoms share electrons equally.
2) there is a transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to the other.
|2. there is a transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to the other.|
|When standing normally, most of your weight is transmitted to the ground by the which two foot bones?||
talus and calcaneus
A person's body weight is borne primarily by the two largest, most-posterior tarsals.
|Football players often sustain lateral blows to the extended knee. Which of the ligaments is/are damaged as a result?||medial collateral, medial meniscus, and anterior cruciate|
|Which are there more of in the body.. exocrine or endocrine glands?||Exocrine glands|
|Connective tissue sacs lined with synovial membranes that act as cushions in places where friction develops are called ________.||Bursae|
The major function of RNA is to carry out the genetic instructions for protein synthesis.
|The foramen magnum would be found in the ______ bone.||Occipital Bone|
|T/F Messenger RNA, transfer RNA, and ribosomal RNA play a role in protein synthesis.||True|
|Melanocytes and keratinocytes work together in protecting the skin from UV damage when keratinocytes ________.||accumulate the melanin granules on their superficial portion, forming a UV-blocking pigment layer|
The following is not a structure found on the ischium:
Lesser Sciatic Notch
|Osteogenesis is the process of ________.||Bone formation.|
|Some hormones enter cells via ________.||receptor-mediated endocytosis|
|The crista galli is a projection from which bone?||Ethmoid|
|The first step in tissue repair involves ________.||Inflammation|
|The bones of the skeleton store energy reserves as lipids in areas of:||Yellow Marrow. Yellow marrow is adipose tissue where energy is stored in the fat cells.|
|T/F No chemical bonding occurs between the components of a mixture.||True.|
|What is the function of merkel cells?||Merkel cells function as sensory receptors for touch.|
The saggital plane divides the body into anterior and posterior parts.
|False. The coronal plane divides the body into anterior and posterior parts.|
|T/F: The outermost sheath of a hair follicle is the connective tissue root sheath.||True.|
|T/F: During the resting phase of hair growth, the matrix is inactive and the follicle atrophies.||True.|
|The olecranon process would be found on the:||Ulna|
|________ are commonly found wedged between simple columnar epithelial cells.||Goblet Cells|
A gland, one or more cells that makes and secretes an aqueous fluid, is classified by:
1) Site of product release--endocrine or exocrine
2) Relative number of cells forming the gland... unicellular or multicellular
|The suture that connects the two parietal bones together is the ________.||Saggital|
|A gene can best be defined as ________.||a segment of DNA that carries the instructions for one polypeptide chain|
Sinuses are found in all of the following bones, except the:
The frontal, maxillary, ethmoid, and sphenoid bones contain the paranasal sinuses. The mastoid bone contains air cells or sinuses.
|The functions of centrioles include what in mitosis?||organizing the mitotic spindle in cell division|
|T/F: The trabeculae of spongy bone are oriented toward lines of stress.||True.|
|The terms inversion and eversion pertain only to ________.||The Feet.|
|What are the three major types of skin cancer?||
Basal cell carcinoma--most common, least malignant
Squamous Cell carinoma--scalp, ears, and lower lip...grows rapidly/mestasizes
Melanoma--most dangerous...highly metastatic
|What are tendons and ligaments made up of (type of connective tissue)?||Dense Regular Connective Tissue|
|Which of the following is the most common congenital abnormality of the appendicular skeleton?||Dysplasia of the hip is considered the most common congenital abnormality of the appendicular skeleton.|
|Does C1 or C2 have the dens?||C2 (axis) does... it's for rotation with the atlas.|
|T/F: Cells in humans can be as long as 3 meters.||False. Cells in humans can be as long as 1 meter.|
|Fibrous joints are classified as ________. (List three joint types)||sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses|
|These glands have their products secreted by exocytosis and include the pancreas, sweat, and salivary glands.||Merocrine|
|Cartilage is found in strategic places in the human skeleton. What is responsible for the resilience of cartilage?||High Water Content|
Positive Feedback Systems: :The result or response enhances the original stimulus, and the response is accelerated.
|The antebrachium is composed of which of the following two bones?||Radius and Ulna|
|T/F: Nervous tissue consists mainly of neurons and collagen fibers.||False|
|Osteocytes maintain contact with the blood vessels of the central canal through:||The lacunae and central canal are continuous through the connection of canaliculi.|
|T/F Regardless of race, all human beings have about the same number of melanocytes.||True.|
|T/F A dipeptide can be broken into two amino acids by dehydration synthesis.||False|
|The two types of osseous tissue are:||Compact Bone & Spongy Bone|
Gliding movements occur at the intercarpal and intertarsal joints.
|Apocrine glands, which begin to function at puberty under hormonal influence, seem to play little role in thermoregulation. Where would we find these glands in the human body?||in the axillary and anogenital area|
|True/False: All bone surfaces in the body are covered by periosteum.||False. Periosteum does not cover sesamoid bones or the articular surfaces of bones, and it does not extend around tendon and ligament insertions on bone.|
|The human body as a whole is enclosed and protected by the integumentary system. This is an example of a necessary life function. What's the main fx of the integumentary system?||Maintaining Boundaries|
|The short bone that attaches to the third metacarpal is the ________.||
Capitate. Mnemonic for all of the metacarpals...The names of the carpals are best learned by using a mnemonic device and starting with the smallest carpal that is located near the fifth metacarpal (pinky side of the hand). One mnemonic is, "Please hang Carol from the trapeze, she likes thrills" and the bold face letters are the first letters of the names of the carpals in order:
PISIFORM, HAMATE, CAPITATE, TRAPEZOID, TRAPEZIUM, SCAPHOID (NAVICULAR), LUNATE, TRIQUETRUM (TRIANGULAR)
|T/F When the sodium-potassium pump is activated, potassium is pumped into the cell twice as fast as the sodium is pumped out, thus causing the membrane potential.||False.|
|T/F. The dens articulates with the axis.||False. The dens articulates with the atlas. Allows you to nod your head from side to side to inicate "no".|
|Which structure anchors the periosteum to the underlying bone?||Perforating fibers, also known as Sharpey's fibers, anchor the periosteum to the bone.|
|T/F: Each intervertebral disc possesses a nucleus pulposus and an annulus fibrosus.||True.|
|A fracture in the shaft of a bone would occur in the:||
The parts of a long bone include the diaphysis, or shaft, and epiphysis, or ends.
|T/F Endocrine glands are often called ducted glands.||False.|
The articular surfaces of synovial joints play a minimal role in joint stability.
|Where is bone marrow is routinely sampled in an adult?||Sternum|
|T/F A gene can best be defined as a segment of DNA that carries the instructions for one polypeptide chain||True|
|What is the most immediate threat to life from serious burns?||The immediate threat to life from serious burns is a catastrophic loss of body fluids, which, in turn, can lead to fatal circulatory shock.|
|The cell responsible for secreting the matrix of bone is the ________.||Osteoblast|
Which of the following glands or organs produces hormones that tend to decrease blood calcium levels?
It is possible for slight anatomical variations to occur in a human body; for example, a nerve or blood vessel may be somewhat out of place, or a small muscle may be missing.
|Mary is 50 years old. During a checkup, a bone scan reveals that portions of her skeleton show signs of osteoporosis. After reviewing the test results, her physician suggests hormone therapy. What hormone is prescribed for Mary?||Estrogen|
|The frontal sinuses are located:||Lateral to the Glabella|
|T/F: Inflammation causes capillaries to dilate and become permeable.||True.|
|Keratinocytes in the stratum spinosum are known as:||Keratinocytes in the stratum spinosum are known as prickle cells because of their spiny appearance under the microscope from an artifact produced by staining procedures.|
|Which of thethick skin strata is the thickest?||The superficial stratum corneum is many cell layers thick, much thicker than any other epidermal layer.|
|T/F The serous membrane that lines the peritoneal cavity wall is called visceral peritoneum.||False|
|T/F: Smooth muscle cells possess central nuclei but lack striations.||True.|
|The body or centrum of the thoracic vertebrae are _______||Heart Shaped|
|Which cranial bones receive the condyle of the mandible?||The temporal bone contains the mandibular fossa that receives the condyle of the mandible and forms the temporomandibular joint.|
|T/F: The orderly sequence of the phases of mitosis is metaphase, prophase, anaphase, and telophase.||False. The orderly sequence of the phases of mitosis is prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.|
|Many plasma proteins may function as _________.||Buffers|
|T/F Pressure caused by gravity is necessary for any filtration pressure to occur in the body.||False.|
|Growth of a cartilage in which the chondrocytes within the matrix become active and proliferate is known as:||Growth from inside out is interstitial growth.|
|T/F: Collagen fibers provide very little tensile strength.||False. Collagen fibers provide high tensile strength.|
|The most abundant skeletal cartilage type is ________.||Hyaline|
|A red blood cell placed in pure water would ________.||swell and burst|
|The sternum and most skull bones are classified as:||Flat bones|
|The cells that maintain mature compact bone are:||
Osteocytes are mature bone cells that are embedded in the matrix.
Polar molecules are electrically balanced, due to the equal sharing of electrons between the atoms of the molecules.
|Some hormones enter cells via ________.||receptor-mediated endocytosis|
|These glands have their products secreted by the rupture of gland cells and include sebaceous glands.||Halocrine glands (Think teenagers have halatosis...and acne (sebaceous glands)).|
|The epidermis is responsible for protecting the body against invasion of bacteria and other foreign agents primarily because it is composed of __________different cell shapes found in_____ distinct layers, each cell shape with a special function.||The epidermis is responsible for protecting the body against invasion of bacteria and other foreign agents primarily because it is composed of __FOUR__different cell shapes found in_FIVE____ distinct layers, each cell shape with a special function.|
|Riboswitches are folded RNAs that act as switches to turn protein synthesis on or off in response to _________.||Changes in the environment.|
|T/F: Hematopoiesis refers to the formation of blood cells within the red marrow cavities of certain bones.||True.|
|T/F: Destruction of the matrix of the hair bulb would result in its inability to produce oil.||False.|
|Crenation is likely to occur in blood cells in a(n)______________solution.||blood cells in a hypertonic solution|
|The ligaments that protect the alignment of the femoral and tibial condyles and limit the movement of the femur anteriorly and posteriorly are called ________.||Cruciate|
|What is a saggital plane?||A vertical plane that divides the body into right and left parts.|
|________ epithelium appears to have two or three layers of cells, but all the cells are in contact with the basement membrane.||Pseudostratified columnar|
|Nerve tissue arises from which of the three primary germ layers? (Ectoderm, Mesoderm, and Endoderm)||Ectoderm|
|T/F: Intramembranous ossification begins within a connective tissue membrane.||True. Some flat bones form from a membrane by intramembranous ossification.|
|T/F Isotopes of the same element have the same atomic number but differ in their atomic mass.||True|
|Growth of bones is controlled by a symphony of hormones. Which hormone is important for bone growth during infancy and childhood?||Growth Hormone|
|Synovial Joints||surfaces slide over each other. The sliding surfaces are covered with a thin layer of cartilage. The joint cavity is sealed by a synovial membrane which secretes synovial fluid, a lubricant and nutrient. Around this, in turn, is a tough fibrous joint capsule which keeps the ends of the bones in proper orientation. This is often locally thickened to form joint ligaments. The synovial cavity is very small between articular surfaces but larger round the edges where it may form a bursa, a sack-like extension which may be in contact with the joint cavity.|
Enzymes are unchanged in a reaction; they can be reused, and are not needed in large quantities.
|T/F: The superficial layer of the skin, the epidermis, is composed of thick keratinized stratified squamous epithelium.||True|
|Enzymes called _________ destroy the cell's DNA and cytoskeleton, producing a quick death to the cell||caspases|
|T/F Glucose is an example of a monosaccharide.||True.|
The gripping of the trochlea by the trochlear notch constitutes the "hinge" for the elbow joint.
|T/F: A solution contains solvent in small amounts and solute in larger quantities.||False. A solution contains solvent in large amounts and solute in smaller quantities.|
Electrons bear a positive charge equal in strength to the negative charge of the proton.
Put the 4 stages of bone healing in order:
A) Hematoma formation
B) Bone remodeling
C) Fibrocartilaginous Callus
D) Bony Callus Formation
B) Fibrocartilaginous Callus
C) Bony Callus
D) Bone Remodeling
|No chemical bonding occurs between the components of a mixture.||True|
|T/F The spindle is formed by the migration of the chromatin.||False|
|Definition of Physiology||The study of how the body parts work and carry out their life-sustaining activities.|
|When one is moving a limb away from the median plane of the body along the frontal plane, it is called ________.||Abduction|
|Which structures are primarily responsible for fingerprints?||Epidermal ridges and sweat pores|
|C7 is referred to as the "vertebra prominens" because:||C7 is used as a landmark to count the other vertebrae because its spinous process can be seen through the skin.|
|T/F: Moving the arm in a full circle is an example of circumduction.||True.|
|Which structures are fingerlike projections that greatly increase the absorbing surface of cells?||microvilli|
|T/F: The Langerhans' cell is a fixed macrophage and part of the immune system.||True.|
|What is a buffer?||Stabilizes pH.|
|The canal that runs through the core of each osteon (the Haversian canal) is the site of ________. (2 things)||blood vessels and nerve fibers|
|The eleventh and twelfth ribs are called floating ribs because they lack...||an anterior attachment to the sternum.|
|Phospholipids form a bilayer that is largely impermeable to water-soluble molecules is a principle of the _______________model.||Fluid-Mosaic Model|
|The genetic information is coded in DNA by ________.||the sequence of the nucleotides.|
|T/F: The body hair of women and children is the fine, short, vellus variety, while the adult male's body hair is the terminal variety.||True.|
|T/F: Bone tissue in the skeleton of a human fetus is completely formed at six months' gestation.||False.|
|Matrix is composed of:.||fibers and ground substance|
True or False.
Colloids/Emulsions are heterogeneous mixtures.
|Extracapsular ligaments stabilizing the knee include ________||lateral and medial collateral ligaments preventing lateral or medial angular movements|
|The vertebral foramen of the lumbar vertebrae are _______||Triangular shaped (Has a large body too)|
|Which type of muscle tissue is voluntary, which is/are involuntary?||
|How do exocrine glands secrete their products?||
Onto body surfaces or into body cavities
Such as mucus, sweat, oil, and salivary glands
A trochanter is:
1) large, blunt, irregular surface
2)small rounded projection
3)any bony prominence
|1) large, blunt irregular surface|
|There is only One syndesmosis joint in the body.... where?||the inferior tibio-fibular joint. In this type there is a little movement, limited by a tight ligament.|
The ischium articulates with both the ilium and the pubis.
|Transitional Epithelia has several cell layers and stretches to permit the distension of the ___________||urinary bladder|
|The process of bones increasing in width is known as ________.||Appositional growth.|
|Main Function of Pseudostratified Columnar||
Secretion and Propulsion of Mucus
Cilliated and Noncilliated
Male sperm carrying ducts and trachea
|Description of Macroscopic anatomy||The study of large body structures visible to the naked eye, such as the heart, lungs, and kidneys.|
|Fibrous proteins are very stable/unstable and soluble/insoluble in water. ________.||Fibrous proteins are very stable and insoluble in water.|
|T/F The nucleotide sequence in a tRNA anticodon is an exact copy of the DNA triplet that coded for it except that uracil is substituted for thymine.||True.|
|A coenzyme is....||A substance that enhances the action of an enzyme. (An enzyme is a protein that functions as a catalyst to mediate and speed a chemical reaction).|
|T/F The fact that no chemical bonding occurs between the components of a mixture is the chief difference between mixtures and compounds.||True.|
|T/F: The foramen magnum goes through the occipital bone.||True.|
|Burns are devastating and debilitating because of loss of fluids and electrolytes from the body. How do physicians estimate the extent of burn damage associated with such dangerous fluid loss?||By using the rule of 9s.|
Joints are accordingly classified into two main categories:
1) fibrous and cartilaginous joints where two bones are separated by a deformable intermediate and....
|2. synovial joints where one surface slides freely over another.|
|T/F: Epithelial tissues always exhibit polarity; that is, they have a free surface and a basal surface.||True.|
|T/F A physician is often able to detect homeostatic imbalances in the body by observing changes in the skin color.||True|
Embryology is a subdivision of anatomy that deals with developmental changes that occur before birth.
|True. Embryology is a subdivision of anatomy that deals with developmental changes that occur before birth.|
|Organized groups of cells (plus their intercellular substances) that have a common purpose form a(n) ________.||Tissue.|
Which of these joint types affords uniaxial movement?
|Where would a dentist inject lidocaine to prevent pain in the lower teeth?||The mandibular foramen.|
|What is the name of the heel bone?||Calcaneus|
The structural classification of joints is based on the composition of the binding material and the presence or absence of a joint cavity.
|T/F "Blast" cells are undifferentiated, actively dividing cells.||True.|
|The pectoral girdle does not quite satisfy the features of a true girdle because:||posteriorly the medial ends of the scapulae do not join each other.|
|Mary fractured her pisiform bone in a fall. What part of her body was injured?||Wrist|
A person who has been diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis would be suffering loss of the synovial fluids.
|The small spaces in bone tissue that are holes in which osteocytes live are called ________.||Lacunae|
|Which epidermis components possesses a waterproofing glycolipid that functions in preventing water loss?||The lamellated granules contain a waterproofing glycolipid that is secreted into the intercellular space and is the major factor for slowing water loss across the epidermis.|
|Hydroxyapatite in bone matrix that gives bone its hardness is primarily composed of:||Calcium phosphate is the most abundant hydroxyapatatite.|
A nonaxial movement is usually seen at a joint such as a hinge.
|A hypodermic needle is injected into the skin. Identify the first integumentary structure through which the needle will pass.||
A hypodermic needle would first pass through the superficial layer of the skin, the epidermis, then the two layers of the dermis, the papillary layer and the reticular layer, before penetrating the hypodermis.
|A possible cause of rosacea is:||the same bacterium that causes peptic ulcers|
A Ramus is a:
-sharp slender projection
- armlike bar of a bone
-small rounded projection