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Terms Definitions
goal of a country to be self-sufficient and that all countries are in a race to see who has the most money and power. mercantilism
Parliament passed a series of laws establishing its power over the king. Glorious Revolution
England relaxed its enforcement of most regulations in return for the continued economic loyalty of the colonies. salutary neglect
grown primarily for sale rather than for the farmer's own use. cash crop
The voyage that brought Africans to the West Indies and later to North America as part of the Transatlantic Triangular Trade. middle passage
Intellectual movement that emphasized the use of reason and the scientific method as means of obtaining knowledge. Enlightenment
A revival of religious feeling in the American colonies during the 1730's & 1750's. The Great Awakening
A law banning all settlement west of the Appalachians. Proclamation of 1763
He established an outpost called Fort Necessity about 40 miles from Fort Duquesne. George Washington
An energetic, self-confident politician under which the British army began winning battles in the French & Indian War. William Pitt
Seeking to make the colonies more obedient King James I placed the Northern colonies under a single ruler in Boston making them one large colony called The Doninion of New England
How were the colonies able to practice more political freedom at this time if they were still being ruled by England? colonists influenced the governor by paying his salary
What developed in the South instead of towns? Plantations
What were the main reasons that English colonists turned to African slaves to fill their depleted labor force? Native Americans refused to learn English labor techniques and escaped often & the price of Indentured Servants rose
What parts of the world were involved in the triangular trade? England, Africa, & New England
In what ways did Africans try to keep their cultural heritage alive? wove baskets/made pottery, musical traditions, and ritualistic dances
What type of economy drove the South creating an increased number of labors, primarily slaves? Agriculture
What type of economy drove the North that was not dependent on slave labor? Commerce
How were farms in the North different from Farmers in the South? smaller, several crops, & mixed crops with livestock
What was the second largest city and the British Empire that just happened to be in the American colonies? Philadelphia
What became key elements in American Urban Design? the grid street plan & parklike square
What kind of industries developed in the North? grinding wheat, harvesting fish, sawing lumber, & manufacturing of ships and iron
What were the underlying causes of the Salem Witch Trials? social and religious tensions
Who preached that church attendance was not enough for salvation, people needed to acknowledge their sinfulness and feel God's love for them? Jonathan Edwards
What two movements in colonial times caused people to question traditional authority and stressed the importance of the individual, which ultimately led the colonists to question Britain's authority over their lives? The Enlightenment & The Great Awakening
Who was Great Britain's greatest rival in the struggle to build a world empire, and one major contention between them was the Ohio River Valley? France
Who did the colonists side with during the French & Indian War? Britain
How were French colonies different from British colonies? they did not have the desire to build towns or raise families
The French & Indian War official started over control of Fort Duquesne at the mouth of the Ohio River, which is what modern day city? Pittsburgh
When the French lost the French & Indian War which group of people living in the Americas suffered an even greater loss? The Native Americans
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