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Terms Definitions
Which tarsal bones are fused in the horse? 1st and 2nd
Which tarsal bones are fused in the ox? 2nd and 3rd
Central and 4th
What does the proximal extensor retinaculum bind down? long digital extensor
peroneus tertius
cranial tibial
What does the middle extensor retinaculum bind down? long digital extensor
(may not be in ruminant)
What does the distal extensor retinaculum bind down? long digital extensor
lateral digital extensor
What muscles originate from the extensor fossa of the femur? Peroneus tertius
Long digital extensor
What is another name for the cunean tendon? Medial tendon of the Cranial Tibial m.
Which equine structure flexes the hock when the stifle is flexed? Peroneus tertius
What are the two actions of the gastrocnemius in the horse? Why can't it do these actions simultaneously? Flex stifle and extend hock
Peroneus tertius prevents this
Which check ligament (present in the thoracic limb) is the pelvic limb lacking? Proximal check ligament - SDF attaches to tuber calcanei
What comprises the reciprocal apparatus of the equine pelvic limb? SDF and peroneus tertius
What is the function of the reciprocal apparatus? Extends the stifle extends the hock.
Flexing the stifle flexes the hock.
What are the two calcaneal bursae and what structures are they sandwiched between? Subcutaneous calcaneal bursa (btw skin and SDF tendon)
Subtendinous calcaneal bursa (btw SDF and tuber calcanei)
What makes up the common calcaneal tendon? Gastrocnemius
Soleus
SDF
Semitendinosus
Gracilis
Biceps Femoris (Gluteobiceps)
Which muscles are flexors of the hock in the horse and ox distal pelvic limb? Cranial tibial
Long digital extensor
Peroneus tertius (kinda)
Lateral digital extensor
Short digital extensor (horse only)
Peroneus longus (ox only)
What are the extensors of the hock in the horse and ox? Gastrocnemius
Soleus
SDF
DDF
T or F:
All muscles that extend the hock are innervated by the tibial n.
True!
What is the cunean bursa sandwiched between? Cunean tendon and medial collateral ligament of the hock
T or F:
In the ruminant, the medial tendon of long digital extensor inserts on both digits 3 and 4 while the lateral tendon only inserts on digit 3.
False!
The LATERAL tendon inserts on digits 3 and 4 and MEDIAL only inserts on digit 3.
Which muscles extend digit 4 in the ruminant? Lateral and long digital extensor
Which muscles extend digit 3 in the ruminant? Long digital extensor ONLY
What muscle rotates the crus medially? Popliteus (its the pooper looker atter)
What are the flexors of the stifle (in the distal pelvic limb)? Gastrocnemius
Popliteus
T or F:
Below the level of the stifle, the tibial n. innervates ALL flexors of the stifle and extensors of the hock.
True!
It innervates SDF, DDF, Popliteus, Soleus, and Gastrocnemius
Which joints are in the stifle region of the large animal? Tibiofemoral
Femoropatellar
Both heads of the gastrocnemius originate from the supracondylar tuberosities in the horse and ox. Which animal has the heads also originating from the epicondyles? Ox
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