Programming Logic
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Complete list of Terms and Definitions for Programming Logic

Terms Definitions
logical gates variable that holds character values
loop break/continue/return break: used to break out of the loop and go to the next statement (within nested loop, will break out of inner loop and continue through rest of outer loop)continue: skips rest of statements in loop, increments, then goes to the next pass of the loopreturn: will break out of the entire function (same as break, but it will return some value-t,f,void, or value)
operation scenarioprogrammer set*float = float
operation scenarioint/int = int
logical gates variable that holds character values
boolean value that can be ONLY true(1) or false (2)
key features of method to identify return type - ie void etc.local variables - defined inside or outside method?returning a value - if void, none, if not void, must return value
operation scenariodouble*int = double
logical gates variable that holds character values
logical gates variable that holds character values
logical gates variable that holds character values
loop initialization variable is sole controller of when loop is started and stopped.variable can be a number that will need to change from a starting value, to an ending value, usually the start and ending values are big enough
logical gates variable that holds character values
operation scenariofloat/float = float
logical gates variable that holds character values
numeric variable variable that holds a number
logical gates variable that holds character values
operation scenarioint*double = double
logical gates variable that holds character values
binary increments 128, 64, 32, 16, 8, 4, 2, 1
logical gates variable that holds character values
while loops used extensively in reading data from a file.make sure { }'s are in block line structureinitialize variable BEFORE the loopinitializing variable is SET so that the loop will runused when NOT exatly sure when the loop should or will end, or when the USER will define when to end
methods within classes variable that holds character values
simple method calling to call a method, it must be called from another method.e.g.void main(){hello x=new Hello();         x.greeting}public void greeting(){cout<< "Hi, my name is Mr. Lupoli"<<endl;}parameters were needed so () was left empty. all that was needed to call method was method name and ()s. any method can call any other method.
parameters indicate what is needed for specific method to run. if (), there are no parameters. used when you need to pass if you wish to, change more than one value/variable, pass in variables that are needed to run a program
logical gates variables, conditionsor-ll(if x is true, or y is true, answer is true)x=0,y=0;answer=falsex=1,y=1;answer=truesame process with and-&&, not-!, equal-==order of operations is !; ==/!==; ll
logical gates variable that holds character values
logical gates variable that holds character values
logical gates variable that holds character values
incrementing/decrementing ++x changes value before modification/loop in code completed.x++ changes value (adds 1)after modification/loop in code completed--x, x-- (same as above process but subtracts 1instead)
pseudocode an english-like representation of the logical steps it takes to solve a problem
member access specifier: public, protceted, private Public: methods/prototypes and variables that can be accessed by the source and the main (can be changed by end user)Protected: access member via ONLY the subclass class methodsPrivate: methods/prototypes and variables that can not be accessed by the main, but can be accessed by the source (program - eg. tests scores can be entered by end user. average is worked out and displayed by the computer, not entered by user.)NEITHER CAN BE INITIALIZED, whatever the fuck that means
simple void method with parameters int Ravens=0, Steelers=14temp_swap(Ravens, Steelers);void temp_swap(int a, int b){int temp = a;//a=0, b=14b= a;b= temp;cout <<a<<"-"<<b<< endl; //result is a=14, b=0, displays as Ravens 14, Steelers 0.in this example, int a is the ALIAS for Ravens, int b is the ALIAS for Steelers. when commanded to swap, the method switches aliases, keeps the inputed scores.
string constant one or more characters enclosed within quotation marks. e.g. lastname="Lincoln" - last name will be 'Lincoln' throughout methodsynonymous with 'character constant'
logical gates variable that holds character values
loop - steps initialization, testing/condition, incrementing
loop break e.g. void main (){for(int i=0; i<10; i++){if (i>3)&&(i<7)){cout << "Greater than 3"<< endl; continue; }if(i<5){cout<<"Less than 5"<<endl; }if(i>6){cout<< "See ya"; break;}}
modulus operation operation where variables are divided, answer is the remainder.12/7= 1 w/remainder of 5. answer is 5
if/else statements when "if" conditions are met, process will run. if not, and it meets "else" statement, that process will run. if there's no "else" statement when "if" condition is not met, program will not run, there will be an error message.if(condition){statement; } //if one line statementif (condition){statement1;statement2;} //if multiple lined statementELSEif (condition){statement;}else{statement2;}e.g.else//then passedif(score>90){ cout <<"teacher's pet!!!"<<endl;}else{ cout<<"You Passed"<<endl; }
logical gates variable that holds character values
= variable assignment symbol e.g. calculatedAnswer=inputNumber*2
for loop puts all three parts (initialization, testing, incrementing) in one line statements inside { }'s are in block like structure;used when you know  EXACTLYwhen the loop should end, or how many times the loop should be run before it endsNONE of the three stages HAVE to be set, in order to work-you could have a totally empty for loop. that's unusual though. when condition is no longer met, loop ends.e.g. void main(){int i; /*repeat 10 times*/for (i=0; i <10; i++{cout<< "I will not chew gum in class."<< endl; }}
float variable a real number in a floating point representatione.g. float GPA=3.99
methods in theory procedure to complete a task, no matter how large or small; should be in small pieces for many reasons; sequential-compiler will read top to bottom so variables must be declared at the beginning of the method for later use. first line of any method is called a "method header"
logical gates variable that holds character values
nested if/else statement(s) if/else statement(s) within if/else statments. after branching off, statements do not interactyou want to make as many branches as possible to narrow down conditions. e.g.if (condition 1) -->(if)                        -->(else)elseif(condition 2)    if(condition2)-->(if)-->(if)                                 -->(else)                         -->(else)-->(if)                                      -->(else)else   if(condition3) - ad infinitum
logical gates variable that holds character values
operation scenarioint*float = float
order of operations Precedence, Exponents, Multiplication, Division, Addition, Subtraction.
logical gates variable that holds character values
flowchart shapes input output/parallelogramprocessing/rectanglestart stop (terminal)/lozengedecision/diamondconnector/inverse trianglemethod or pre-defined process/rectangle with marginsnote-ann./bent rectangle
unknown variable tables used when designing a project with many possible conditions to make sure all (im)possible conditions are covered. helpful for error checking.e.g. if ((grade teamallowed))
return statement within if statements return will break out of function, will end program, but may return some value (t,f,void, or a value)
named constant memory location whose contents do not vary during execution of program
return statement marks the end of every method
loop iterative statements (repeated steps)
logical gates variable that holds character values
logical gates variable that holds character values
relational operators ,=,==,!
operation scenarioint/float = int
logical gates variable that holds character values
operation scenariofloat/int = float
!, ++x,--x, *, /, %, +, -, , >=, ==,  !==, &&, II, x++, x-- in order of highest to lowest priority: not; increment, decrement, multiplication, division, modulus, addition, subtraction, less than, less than or equal to, greater than, greater than or equal to, identical-used to compare if equal, not identical-used to compare if not equal, and, or, increment after operation, decrement after operation
logical gates variable that holds character values
flowchart A pictorial representation of the logical steps it takes to solve a problem
logical gates variable that holds character values
logical gates variable that holds character values
operation scenariofloat *int = float
inheritance theory"is-a(n)" relationship needed when multiple classes are very similar in nature. structure is Super Class & Sub Classes that share common variables with eachother. e.g.Super Class - EmployeeSub Class - Full Time ProffSub Class - Part Time Proffname, ssn, d.o.b., address fields will be the same, though each subclass will have unique fields in addition to common fields
logical gates variable that holds character values
operation scenarioint*int = int
assignment statements statements that assign value to variables
logical expression used for certain conditions, can be exact, or wide ranging, computer will match up conditions you create, wathch for conditions that are alike, prepare fo ANY possible condition, even if you think it's impossible. type of coding: if/else; if/else-if's; logical symbols used to compare
static variable variable that is GLOBALe.g. static int global_counter
integer variable numeric variable holding whole numbers ranging from -2147483647 to 2147483647
while loop (counter) //initializationint count=0while (coun<10)//condition{statements; ......count ++; //incrementation}
logical gates variable that holds character values
scope of variables-global/local global variables can be accessed throughout the entire programlocal variables begin and finish within the method it was created and can only be accessed by that method
reason for using methods reusability. one method can be called many times throughout program to take care of several matrices.
method a set of statements that performs some task or group of tasks.
string variable variable that holds character values
logical gates variable that holds character values
logical gates variable that holds character values
polymorphism a single name can have multiple meanings in the context of inheritance. it allows coder to set up method of the same name can call appropriate method in respective classes. e.g. "endOfMonthFees" can be applied to checking account info and savings account info using same method in different classes, using some common variables
operation scenariofloat/float = float
variables location in computer memory (ram). contents can vary or differ over time. mostly hold attributes of object. name must be one word-no spaces and can not begin with a number-only letter
loop testing/condition must have condition in any loop or variable and loop will fail and the world will end.conditions in loop are the same as in if statements
int method e.g. global_____________int zipcode(){........int zip=21118; //put in your zip code return zip;}no parentheses because this is not a function but a variable!!! zipcode() acts like a value, since it returns an int value
2 data types text, numericcan be variable or constant
class a category of things. it defines the characteristics of its objects and the methods that can be applied to its objects
logical gates variable that holds character values
void main () function will not return a value
logical gates variable that holds character values
operation scenarioprogrammer set/float = float
logical gates variable that holds character values
char variable ONE character-letter, or small INTEGER in the range from -128 to 127often used for yes/no
function short cut consisting of pre-defined steps bundled under 1 name or designation. you can reference throughout program (calling function) and all instructions in function will run. imagining 3 blocks stacked upon eachother, the top is for global variables, the middle for the main, the bottom contains the function(s). mechanically, the program starts at the main and follows instructions until coming upon pre-defined instruction to call a function. the program then skips down to the function instructions (bottom block), follows the instructions of the function and upon completion, returns to main(middle block) and to continue where it left off.
identifier name of programming object.may only be one word-no spaces. should use appropriately descriptive name.
logical gates variable that holds character values
importance of initialization's position - inside loop/outside loop initialization variable declared inside loop is only applied while loop is runningif declared outside loop, variable retains declared value even after loop ends.
logical gates variable that holds character values
main() method name of method when class contains only one method
operation scenarioprogrammer set/int = int