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Terms Definitions
_________ consists of solid material that has been deposited on Earth's surface by wind, water, ice, gravity, or chemical precipitation. Sediment
Glaciers and landslides tend to create ______ ________ in which sediments of different sizes are mixed together. unsorted deposits
During ________ ________, the minerals in a rock are dissolved or otherwise chemically changed. chemical weathering
The process by which mineral growth binds sediment grains together into solid rock is ________. cementation
Weathering produces _____ __________ which are rock and mineral fragments. clastic sediments
When sediments become cemented together, they form ________ _____. sedimentary rock.
As a result of _________, sediments are laid down on the ground or in bodies of water. deposition
The physical and chemical process called _______ transforms sediments into sedimentary rocks. lithification
During ______ ________, minerals remain chemically unchanged, and rock fragments simply break off of the solid rock along fractures or grain boundaries. physical weathering
Sediments tend to form _____ ________ when transported by water and wind. sorted deposits
TRUE OR FALSE-
Lithification begins with erosion.
False, lithification begins with compaction
TRUE OR FALSE-
Muds may contain up to 60 percent water and shrink as excess water is squeezed out.
TRUE
TRUE OR FALSE-
Sands are usually poorly compacted during deposition. and they tend to compact a great deal during burial.
FALSE- They do not compact a great deal during burial.
TRUE OR FALSE-
Groundwater, oils, and natural gases are commonly found within pore spaces in sedimentary rocks
TRUE
The temperature in Earth's crust decreases with depth. FALSE
True OR False-
Mud Compacts more than sand.
True
True Or False-
Physical weathering changes the composition of mineral fragments
FALSE- Chemical weathering does this.
True or False-
In one type of cementation, a new mineral grows between sediment grains.
True
The primary featuer of sedimentary rocks is _______, or horizontal layering. BEDDING
The type of bedding that occurs depends on the sediment's method of ______. Transport
Bedding is called _____ when the heaviest and coarsest material is on the bottom. Graded bedding
________ bedding forms when inclined layers or sediment migrate forward across a horizontal surface. Cross bedding
Large-scale cross-bedding can be formed by migrating _____ _______. sand dunes
When sediment is moved into small ridges by wind or wave action, ______ _______ can form. ripple marks
Many sedimentary rocks contain _______, the preserved remains, impressions, or any other evidence of once-living organisms. fossils
During __________, parts of an organism can be replaced by minerals and turned into rock. lithification
The pressure required for metamorphism can be generated by

A- Pressure from weight of overlying rock
B- heat from magma bodies in contact with surrounding rock
C- cementation and lithification
D- Hydrothermal solutions.
A- Pressure from weight of overlying rock
A regional metamorphic belt is divided into zones based upon

A-number of volcanoes in area
B-Mineral groups found in rocks
C-Types of fossils found in rocks
D-Current underground temps
B- mineral groups found in rocks
Contact metamorphism occurs under conditions of

A-high pressure and high temp
B-High temp and moderate to low pressure
C-low temp and very high pressure.
D-Low temp and moderate to low pressure.
B- High temp and moderate to low pressure.
Minerals that crystallize at higher temperatures as a result of contact metamorphism tend to be found near

A- coal deposits
B- bodies of water
C- coral reefs
D- igneous intrusions
D- igneous intrusions
The type of metamorphism that occurs when very hot water reacts with and alters the mineralogy of rock is

A-contact
B-regionaL
C-hydrothermal
D-local
C-hydrothermal
Metamorphic rocks in which the long axes of their minerals are perpendicular to the pressure that altered them are described as
A-marble-like
B-Quartzite-like
C-foliated
D-nonfoliated
C-foliated
Metamorphic rocks that lack mineral grains with long axes oriented in one direction are described as
A-marble-like
B-quartzite-like
C-foliated
D-nonfoliated
D-nonfoliated
Porphyroblasts differ from the minerals surrounding them in terms of
A-size
B- color
C- axis of orientation
D-shape
A-size
Hot fluids migrating into and out of a rock during metamorphism can change the rock's

A-chemistry
B-energy
C-grade
D-fossil content
A-chemistry
How are igneous rocks formed? From the cooling and crystallization of molten materials
What happens to igneous rocks that undergo weathering and erosion? They chemically and physically wear away, then those sediments are transported after they are removed
How do sediments become sedimentary rock? Deposition, burial, lithification: compaction and cementation
What forces cause sedimentary rocks to be transformed into igneous rock? pressure and high temperature, hydrothermal activity
How can metamorphic rock be transformed into igneous rock? The rock melts, cools, then crystallizes
How can sandstone be transformed into sediment without becoming metamorphic rock or igneous rock 1st? Uplift, weathering
What are the 4 main agents of weathering and erosion? Wind, water, glaciers, gravity
What occurs when rocks come in contact with molten materials? contact metamorphism
Rock whose texture, mineralogy, or chemical composition has been altered without melting it.... Metamorphic rock
Metamorphism resulting from high temperature and pressure that affects a large area regional metamorphism
large crystals of new metamorphic minerals porphyroblasts
occurs when very hot water reacts with rock hydrothermal metamorphism
Characterized by wavy layers and bands of light and dark minerals foliated metamorphic rock
Composed mainly of minerals with blocky crystal shapes. nonfoliated metamorphic rock
Breccias and conglomerates
are examples of this type of sedimentary rock, clastic, chemical, or biochemical
clastic
Classified by particle size
are examples of this type of sedimentary rock, clastic, chemical, or biochemical
clastic
coal is an example of this type of sedimentary rock, clastic, chemical, or biochemical biochemical
Things formed from the remains of once-living things are examples of this type of sedimentary rock, clastic, chemical, or biochemical? biochemical
Things that are formed from the deposits of loose sediments are examples of this type of sedimentary rock, clastic, chemical, or biochemical? clastic
Often contains calcite, halite, or gypsum are examples of this type of sedimentary rock, clastic, chemical, or biochemical chemical
forms evaporites
are examples of this type of sedimentary rock, clastic, chemical, or biochemical
chemical
sandstone is a medium-grained example of this type of sedimentary rock, clastic, chemical, or biochemical clastic
Formed from precipitation and growth of mineral crystals
are examples of this type of sedimentary rock, clastic, chemical, or biochemical
chemical
formed from the shells of sea organisms
are examples of this type of sedimentary rock, clastic, chemical, or biochemical?
biochemical
What do some of the features of sedimentary rocks indicate about ancient bodies of water? Where it was located, and the direction of the flow.
What info can fossils provide? Evidence of past life, information about past climates.
How does fossil-containing limestone form? Seashells collect at the bottom of the ocean floor, cement together over time by calcium carbonate in salt water.
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