Complete List of Terms and Definitions for EMT-B Chapter 5

Terms Definitions
tidal volume the amount of air that is exchanged w/ each breath
bradycardia slow heart rate >60 beats/min
OPQRST An abbreviation for key terms used in evaluating a PT's signs & symptoms:-Onset-Provocation or Palliation-Quality-Region/Radiation-Severity-Timingof pain
signs objective findings that can be seen, heard, felt, smelled or measured
conjunctiva the delicate membrane lining the eyelids & covering the exposed surface of the eye
jaundice a yellow skin or sclera color that is caused by liver disease or dynsfunction
systolic pressure the increased pressure along an artery w/ each contraction (systole) of the ventricles
symptoms subjective findings that the PT feels but that can be identified only by the PT
tachycardia rapid heart rhythm, <100 beats/min
pulse oximetry an assessment tool that measures oxygen saturation of hemoglobin in the capillary beds
stridor a harsh, high0pitched, crowing inspiratory sounds, such as the sound often heard in acute laryngeal (upper airway) obstruction
sniffing position an unusually upright position in which the PT's head & chin are thrust slightly forward
diaphoretic characterized by profuse sweating
auscultation a method of listening to sounds w/n an organ w/ a stethoscope
vital signs the key signs that are used to evaluate the PT's overall condition, including respirations, pulse, BP, level of consiousness & skin characteristics
AVPU scale A method of assessing level of consciousness by determining whether the PT is awake & alert, responsive to verbal stimuli or pain, or unresponsive; used principally early in the assessment
hypertension blood pressure that is higher than the normal range
pulse the pressure wave that occurs as each heartbeat causes a surge in blood circulating through the arteries
vasoconstriction narrowing of a blood vessel
chief complaint the reason a PT called for help. Also, the PT's response to questions such as "What's wrong?" or "What happened?"
sclera the white portion of the eye
perfusion circulation of blood w/n an organ or tissue
capillary refill the ability of the circulatory system to restore blood to the capillary system; evaluated by using a simple test
spontaneous respirations breathing in a PT that occurs w/ no assistance
blood pressureBP the pressure of circulating blood against the walls of the arteries
SAMPLE History A brief history of a PT's condition to determine -Signs & Symptoms-Allergies-Medications-Pertinent Past history-Last oral intake-Events leading to injury/illness
diastolic pressure the pressure that remains in the arteries during the relaxing phase of the heart's cycle (diastole) when the left ventricle is @ rest
hypotension blood pressure that is lower than the normal range
labored breathing breathing that requires visibly increased effort; characterized by grunting, stridor, & use of accessory muscles
tripod position an upright position in which the PT leans forward onto 2 arms stretched forward & thrusts the head & chin forward
cyanosis a bluish-gray skin color that is caused by reduced levels of oxygen in the blood