Complete List of Terms and Definitions for Chapter 1
|Calvin works at a paper manufacturing company. The bleaching agents used by the company are toxic in nature and as a result of being exposed to these substances, Calvin has been experiencing intense depressive episodes. From the available information, it would be most accurate to conclude that _____ causes are responsible for Calvin’s depression.||Biological|
|People with psychological disorders may inherit a predisposition to developing behavioral disturbances. This provides evidence that _____ causes are responsible for many of the prevalent abnormalities.||Biological|
|Maria was involved in a serious car accident in which she sustained a head injury. At present, her injury has become worse and as a result, she is behaving in bizarre and highly disturbing ways. Maria’s change in behavior is most likely due to a _____ cause.||Biological|
|While determining the cause of an abnormal behavior, which of the following can be categorized as a psychological cause?||
Involves disturbances in thoughts and feelings.
-past learning experiences
-maladaptive thought patterns
-difficulties coping with stress
|Angelina’s family was killed in a tornado that ripped through her hometown. Although Angelina was not in town when this happened, she has been experiencing episodes of intense depression and anxiety because of the mental trauma she suffered. Angelina’s condition is most likely to be the result of a _____ cause.||Psychological|
|The term _____ refers to the various circles of influence on the individual ranging from close friends and family to the institutions and policies of a country or the world as a whole.||Sociocultural|
|Martin Salambo was the only African student in his class. All others were white Americans. Martin was always looked down upon by his class mates and he was also bullied by them. This has had a profound impact on Martin’s life. At present, he suffers from an inferiority complex because of which he remains depressed most of the time. Martin’s condition is most likely to be the result of a _____ cause.||Sociocultural|
|A(n) _____ is a label that causes us to regard certain people as different, defective, and set apart from mainstream members of society.||Stigma|
|Social scientists use the term _____ to refer to the interaction in which biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors play a role in the development of an individual’s symptoms.||Biopsychosocial|
|The biopsychosocial perspective incorporates a developmental viewpoint. This means that...||...the individuals must be seen as changing over time.|
|According to the biopsychosocial model, it is most likely that an individual’s vulnerability to develop abnormal behavioral tendencies will be low when he/she...||...experiences protective factors, such as loving caregivers, adequate healthcare, and early life successes.|
|According to the biopsychosocial model, when an individual engages in risky behavior...||...their low vulnerability can heighten.|
|_____ regard abnormal behavior as the product of possession by evil or demonic spirits.?||Spiritual explanations|
|_____ view psychological disorders as the result of cruelty, stress, or poor living conditions.||Humanitarian explanations|
|_____ primarily regard psychological disorders as the result of causes that we can objectively measure, such as biological alterations, faulty learning processes, or emotional stressors.||Scientific explanations|
|Ramona is a member of a tribe residing in the rain forests of South America. She has been exhibiting certain symptoms of psychological disorder like severe depression and memory loss. The tribe’s witch doctor pronounced that the spirit of a demon tiger has possessed Ramona and is the main cause of her distress. The approach used by the witch doctor in this instance is an example of the _____ approach.||Spiritual|
|Father Moore had conducted a number of exorcisms during his tenure as pastor in a suburban church in New England. The members of his congregation suggest that Father Moore was successful in driving away evil spirits that caused individuals to behave abnormally through the exorcisms, a feat that earned him substantial fame in the locality. This is an example of the _____ approach in addressing abnormality in individuals.||Spiritual|
|In prehistoric times, skulls of the living had holes cut out of them, a process called _____, apparently in an effort to release the evil spirits from the person’s head.||Trephining|
|The ritual of driving away evil spirits which involves a physically and mentally painful form of torture carried out by a shaman, priest, or medicine is referred to as||Exorcism|
|The idea of “moral treatment” holds the notion that...||...people could develop self-control over their behaviors if they had a quiet and restful environment.|
|_____ was a Massachusetts reformer who sought to improve the treatment of people with psychological disorders in the mid-1800s.||Dorthea Dix|
|Which of the following was one of the most significant reasons for the declining conditions in mental institutions during the 1800s?||Institutions became overcrowded and understaffed.|
|Which of the following promoted the release of psychiatric patients into community treatment sites?||Deinstitutionalization movement|
|In late 2010, the U.S. government’s Healthy People project released goals for the coming decade. These goals include:||
-Decreased suicide rate.
-Decreased suicide attempts by adolescents.
-Decreased proportion of adolescents who engage in disordered eating behaviors in attempt to control their weight.
-Decreased proportion of people who experience major depressive episodes.
-Increased proportion of primary care facilities that provide mental health treatment onsite or by paid referral.
-Increased proportion of children with mental health problems who receive treatment.
-Increased proportion of juvenile residential facilities that screen admissions for mental health problems.
-Increased proportion of persons with serious mental illness (SMI) who are employed.
-Increased proportion of adults with mental disorders who receive treatment.
-Increased proportion of persons with co-occuring substance abuse & mental disorders who receive treatment for both disorders.
-Increased depression screening by primary care providers.
-Increased proportion of homeless adults with mental health problems who receive mental health services.
|Who is considered the founder of modern medicine?||Hippocrates|
|Which Greek physician developed the theory that psychological disorders are caused by imbalances in bodily fluids?||Hippocrates|
|Hippocrates believed that the treatment of psychological disorder would require...||...ridding the body of the excess fluid.|
|Who among the following is a physician who developed a system of medical knowledge based on anatomical studies?||Claudius Galen|
|Who is known as the founder of American psychiatry?||Benjamin Rush|
|In the context of treating psychological disorders, the “tranquilizer” chair was used to...||...reduce blood flow to the brain by binding the patient's head & limbs.|
|The Association of Medical Superintendents of American Institutions for the Insane later became the...||...American Psychiatric Association|
|The German psychiatrist Wilhelm Greisinger proposed that _____ were the cause of psychological disorders.||Neuropathologies|
|Emil Kraepelin, promoted a classification system much like that applied to medical diagnoses. He proposed that...||...disorders could be identified by their patterns of symptoms.|
|The _____ approach to psychological disorders gained momentum as psychiatrists and psychologists proposed behavior models that included explanations of abnormality in the nineteenth century.||Scientific|
|Who among the following developed psychoanalysis in the early 1900s?||Sigmund Freud|
|The _____ theory sought explanations of abnormal behavior in the unconscious psychological processes.||Psychoanalysis|
|Dr. Andrew’s system of practice for treating individuals with abnormalities relies heavily on the concepts of the unconscious mind, dream analysis, and inhibited sexual impulses. Dr. Andrew is most likely to be a proponent of the _____ theory.||Psychoanalysis|
|The physiologist who discovered the principles of classical conditioning was...||Ivan Pavlov|
The work of Ivan Pavlov became the basis for the _____ movement begun in the United
States by John B. Watson.
|Which of the following is true with regard to John B. Watson?||He began the behaviorist movement in the United States.|
|Who started the behaviorist movement in the United States?||John B. Watson|
|Who among the following formulated a systematic approach to operant conditioning, specifying the types and nature of reinforcement as a way to modify behavior?||B.F. Skinner|
|Which of the following is primarily associated with Albert Bandura?||Social Learning Theory|
|Which of the following is primarily associated with Albert Ellis?||Rational-emotive therapy approach|
|In the _____, scientists experimenting with pharmacological treatments invented medications that for the first time in history could successfully control the symptoms of psychological disorders.||1950's|
In 1963, the Mental Retardation Facilities and Community Mental Health Center Construction
Act proposed patient treatment in clinics and treatment centers outside of mental hospitals. This legislation paved the way for the _____ movement.
|Which of the following movements views psychological disorders as difficulties that inhibit the individual’s ability to achieve highly subjective well-being and feelings of fulfillment?||Positive Psychology Movement|
|Which of the following is the essence of the scientific method in the understanding and treatment of abnormal behavior?||Objectivity|
|The process of testing ideas about the nature of psychological phenomena without bias before accepting these ideas as adequate explanations is the basis for the _____ method of research.||Scientific|
|An experimenter gives one group of depressed subjects a certain amount of the medication Prozac and another group of depressed subjects a comparatively higher dose. Then she measures the number of violent or suicidal thoughts members of both groups have. In this situation, the independent variable is||Prozac dosage|
|When using the experimental design, the variable whose level is adjusted or controlled by the experimenter is known as the _____ variable.||Independent|
|A dependent variable is best defined as...||...the variable the researcher observes.|
|Studies that investigate differences among groups not determined by random assignment are known as _____.||Quasi-experimental|
|Clients with schizophrenia are informed that they would be part of an experiment. Then they are separated on the basis of their sex and the intensity of the symptoms they exhibit is studied. This is an example of...||...a true experiment.|
|Which of the following is true of the placebo condition?||
Participants receive a treatment similar to the experimental treatment, but lacking a key feature of the treatment of interest.
-Has inert ingredients if medication.
-Mimics, but not the same as actual therapy.
-Same frequency and duration as experimental.
|In _____ participants receive a treatment similar to the experimental treatment, but lacking the key feature of the treatment of interest.||Placebo Condition|
|Hanna is participating as a member of the control group in an experimental study and she is trying to figure out what the study is about so that she can be a “good” subject. This behavior of Hanna has the potential of compromising the conclusions of the experiment and is an example of...||...demand characteristics.|
|Participants’ expectations of what is going to happen to them in an experiment are referred to as...||...demand characteristics.|
|The best way to eliminate demand characteristics is to use _____.||Double-blind method|
|Gracie, a researcher, is interested in analyzing the relationship between smoking and life span. The results of her correlational study indicate that as the number of cigarettes smoked per day increases, life span decreases. This is an example of the _____ kind of correlation.||Negative|
|In the context of correlational design, _____ correlations indicate that, as scores on one variable increase, scores on the second variable decrease.||Negative|
|In the context of correlational design, _____ correlations indicate that, as scores on one variable increase, scores on the second variable also increase.||Positive|
|The findings of an experiment conducted by a group of researchers prove that with the increase in the consumption of marijuana, the vulnerability of developing mental disorders increases. This is an example of the _____ kind of correlation.||Positive|
|The results of a study indicate that there is a strong positive correlation between cigarette smoking and lung cancer. Which of the following can be concluded from this study?||That the greater the amount of cigarettes, the greater the risk of getting lung cancer.|
|A study evaluating the effect of stress on the overall quality of life indicated that increased stress was instrumental in substantially lowering the overall quality of life. This is an example of the _____ kind of correlation.||Negative|
|_____ refers to a research tool used to gather information from a sample of people considered representative of a particular population, in which participants are asked to answer questions about the topic of concern||Survey|
|In a _____, the same person serves as the subject in both the experimental and control conditions.||Single case experimental design|
|The frequency of new cases of a disorder within a given time period is referred to as...||...incidence.|
|The _____ of a disorder refers to the number of people who have ever had the disorder over a specified period of time.||Prevalence|
|A group of researchers studying the effects of alcohol on the overall health of urban adults asked respondents whether they drank alcohol during the past month. In this instance, the researchers were collecting _____ data.||Incidence|
|The findings of a research states that in July 2003, 18 cases of suicides due to severe depression occurred in the city of San Francisco. This reflects the _____ of suicides due to severe depression in San Francisco during July 2003.||Prevalence|
|A _____ refers to an intensive study of a single person described in detail.||Case study|
|_____ refers to a method of analyzing data that provides researchers with methods of analyzing complex relationships that do not easily lend themselves to conventional statistical methods.||Qualitative research|
|The agreement ratio between people diagnosed as having a disorder and their relatives is defined as the _____ rate.||Concordance rate|
|The profession also refers to single case experimental designs as _____ designs.||"ABAB" designs|
|Which of the following is true with regard to case studies?||Must take objective & unbiased approach. There's not enough experimental control to make a useful addition to the literature.|
|The attempt by biological researchers to identify the structure of a gene and the characteristics it controls is referred to as...||...gene mapping.|
|The study of how genes translate hereditary information is referred to as...||...molecular genetics.|
|In an experimental study involving psychological disorders, a researcher observed that 7 out of a sample of 10 participants have the same diagnosed condition. This would mean that, among this sample, there is a concordance rate of _____.||.70 (7 out of 10)|
|The most significant threat to the usefulness of twin studies is the fact that the majority of monozygotic twins...||...do not share the same amniotic sac during prenatal development.|