Complete List of Terms and Definitions for Chapter 5, Exam 2_1

Terms Definitions
Which of the following symptoms did Dr. Tobin observe about Barbara Wilder while working on her case? "on edge", when asked about leg injury - anxious & withdrawn, difficulty sleeping bc of nightmares ... PTSD symptoms.
When does anxiety become a source of clinical concern? when the person has a difficulty functioning on a day-to-day basis.
The disorders which are characterized by intense, incapacitating fear and apprehension are called anxiety disorders
Shelly experiences intense periods of fear and physical discomfort that interfere with her daily living. Shelly may be suffering from a(n) anxiety disorder
Approximately what percentage of the U.S. population aged 60 years and older is affected by anxiety disorders? 15.3%
The experience of anxiety is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT anxiety - disorders characterized by intense, irrational, and incapacitating apprehension
Derek suddenly felt his hands and legs go numb and started shaking involuntarily while preparing for his high school final semester. The acuteness of the problem forced his parents to consult a clinician. When asked, the clinician was told that it was the first time Derek had suffered from any of these symptoms. Derek is most likely experiencing a panic attack
A woman who suffers from periods of intense fear and discomfort in which she feels overwhelmed and terrified by a range of bodily sensations may be diagnosed as having a(n) panic disorder
Nasir occasionally experiences periods of intense overwhelming dread that come about for no reason. These periods are marked by trembling, hot flashes, and chills, and the feeling that he is losing control. Nasir might be diagnosed as having a panic attack/disorder
The diagnosis of panic disorder is made after an individual experiences a panic attack more than once, and that the client was fearful of another attack for at least a month. Possibly avoiding situations where they might experiences another panic attack.
The typical course of panic disorder is that it creates respiratory distress, autonomic disturbances, and sensory abnormalities.
Sudden intense sensations such as shortness of breath, dizziness, choking, and heart palpitations are characteristic of a panic attack
What is one of the most troubling concerns for individuals who have panic disorder? The possibility of developing agoraphobia.
Individuals who suffer from panic disorder often develop agoraphobia
The fear of being stranded without help when a panic attack occurs is called agoraphobia
Kaila is so intimidated by the possibility of having a panic attack that she stays home the majority of the time. If she does go out, she insists that one of her friends accompanies her in case she has a panic attack. In addition to having panic disorder, Kaila might also be described as being agoraphobic
Panic disorder is more commonly diagnosed in white women age 30-44
DSM-IV-TR considers agoraphobia a subcategory under panic disorder
In the ICD-10, it is considered that agoraphobia is its own diagnosis, independent of panic disorder, though the 2 conditions may co-exist.
Which of the following of a person suffering from panic disorder is true? p.d. - an anxiety disorder in which an individual has panic attacks on a recurrent basis or has constant apprehension and worry about the possibility of recurring attacks.
One biological theory of panic disorder proposes that individuals with panic disorder have an excess of norepinephrine
One biological theory proposes that panic disorders can be caused by low levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin
As you are walking back to your dorm on a dark night you suddenly hear footsteps behind you. Which neurotransmitter is likely to be activated? norepinephrine
According to the classical conditioning perspective, panic disorders which result from acquired associations between an internal or external cue and feelings of intense anxiety are known as conditioned fear reactions
The aspect of classical conditioning perspective that considers acquired associations between an internal or external cue and feelings of intense anxiety experienced by an individual is the conditioned fear reactions
According to the classical conditioning perspective, a full-blown panic attack may be triggered even before the appropriate bodily changes have taken place because of the association of certain bodily sensations with memories of the last panic attack.
Jason, who has panic disorder, is coming down with the flu. The sensations of nausea he is encountering are also triggering feelings of uneasiness and dread. The anxiety triggered by the nausea would be best described as a(n) conditioned fear reactions
Helping clients recognize the warning signs prior to the onset of a panic attack, so that they can take steps to relax, is an important component of which type of therapy? relaxation training
Which of the following is an example of catastrophic thinking?
A behavioral technique that is used by clinicians to treat anxiety disorder involving progressive and systematic patterns of muscle tensing and easing is known as relaxation training
Hyperventilation is a common symptom in panic attacks
Psychoeducation is a part of the treatment known as panic control therapy (PCT)
The normal uneasiness or dislike brought on by exposure to certain situations or objects is referred to as a(n) phobia
An irrational and unabating fear of a particular object, activity, or situation is known as a(n) specific phobia
If a person’s fear response to a specific situation or object is disproportionate to the actual threat posed by the stimulus, the individual is said to have a(n) specific phobia
One of the most common forms of phobias is the fear of: animal phobia then heights
Ron, a high-school graduate, has had an intense fear of bats since he was a toddler. After consulting with a clinician, he was diagnosed with specific phobia
Maisie has an extreme fear of heights. When she registers for classes at college, she makes a point of signing up for classes that are held on the first floor of the buildings. Maisie might be diagnosed as having specific phobia - fear of heights
Within the biological perspective, researchers believe that the anxiety associated with specific phobias may be conceived due to abnormalities in the: anterior insular cortex
The anterior insular cortex area of the brain is associated with emotion & self-awareness
The most effective anti-anxiety medications are called benzodiazepines
It is easy to identify the symptoms of specific phobias
Which of the following of specific phobia is true? An irrational and unabating fear of a particular object, activity, or situation
In systematic desensitization, a person learns to substitute relaxation for fear through a series of graduated steps.
The Latin expression in vivo means real life
Many experts believe that treatment for agoraphobia is most effective when clients can confront the dreaded situation in real life. This is called in vivo
According to the biological theories, phobias are essentially caused by abnormalities in the anterior insular cortex.
“Individuals with specific phobias have overactive “alarm systems” to danger.” This view is according to the cognitive-behavioral view
Which theoretical perspective views the causes of phobias to be based on the individual’s faulty inferences and overgeneralizations? psychological
The tendency to misconstrue stimuli as menacing or dangerous would be of most interest to the cognitive-behavioral view
The behavioral approach to treating phobias, which involves gradually exposing the client to the feared stimulus while the client practices relaxation exercises, is called systematic desensitization
Don cured his son’s fear of the dark by simply pushing his son into a dark room and locking the door. This type of treatment is known as flooding
The behavioral technique in which the individual is immersed through imagination into a feared situation is referred to as imaginal flooding
Graduated imaginal exposure is to systematic desensitization as graduated live exposure is to the graded in vivo method
Which of the following is the most stressful technique for the behavioral treatment of phobias since it causes so much immediate anxiety? in vivo flooding
The procedure in which a client is eventually brought out in increasingly challenging situations provoking his/her anxieties is known as graduated exposure
James suffers from vertigo, an extreme fear of heights. His therapist is planning to immerse James through imagination or in other words, virtually expose him to this feared situation. The technique that his therapist is following is called imaginal flooding
The cognitive-behavioral method in which the client is taught to stop having anxiety provoking thoughts is called thought stopping
Which of the following is implicit in all behavioral techniques adopted by clinicians? positive reinforcement
Every time Bella starts getting anxious about speaking in public, she starts thinking things like, “Oh God, I’m going to stutter and then everyone will laugh at me” and “I’ll probably trip up and accidentally use a four-letter word while reading my notes.” Her therapist has urged her to silently shout “Stop!” to herself when these intrusive thoughts start agitating her. This cognitive technique is known as thought stopping
Which phobia involves intense anxiety in situations where others might be observing a person’s behavior? social phobia
The anxiety of a person suffering from social phobia is essentially centered on a desire to avoid humiliation or embarrassment
Current research indicates the people who may ruminate for a week following a public event that they perceived as embarrassing are most likely to suffer from social phobia
According to one theory, individuals with social phobia are unable to shift their attention away from what others may be thinking about them
In the revised version of DSM-5, selective mutism, which is the failure of speaking or performing in certain specific public fronts, is included under social phobia
Individuals with social phobia are likely to steer themselves away from all of the situations mentioned below EXCEPT all situations where they might feel embarassed.
Chanina gets nervous when other people watch her eat lunch. She is worried that her behavior will catch the attention of others and they might make fun of the way she eats. This fear typically forces her to eat in her office rather than the staff lunchroom. She continually declines invitations to go out for dinner. Chanina might be diagnosed as having social phobia
The generalized form of social phobia is characterized with a(n)
Raven is intensely anxious every time he has to sign his name in public. Assuming this anxiety is only manifested in public places, Raven might have a subtype of. social phobia
Many people who suffer from social phobia can overcome their symptoms with a combination of cognitive-behavioral therapy and SSRIs and SNRIs (medications)
Taijin Kyofusho, a condition observed in Japan where an individual fears offending others by their appearance, is considered to be a form of social phobia
Researchers have recently discovered genetic markers linking social phobia with the neurotransmitter norepinephrine?
Biological perspectives on social phobias focus on abnormalities in the brain mechanisms involved in fear and anxiety
Which of the following drugs, used in treating social phobias, have significant potential for abuse? benzodiazepines
Which of the following drugs can effectively manage social phobia symptoms but also possess potentially dangerous side effects? MAOIs
Which of the following diagnoses is used to describe constant anxiety that is not associated with a particular object or event? generalized anxiety disorder
According to researchers, generalized anxiety disorders may develop in people due to disturbances in GABA, serotonergic and noradrenergic systems
Shamir, a 50-year-old man, feels queasy most of the time. His symptoms include dizziness, sleep disturbances, irritability, and muscle tensions. He is constantly fidgeting and cannot sit still for a minute. Shamir has been diagnosed as having generalized anxiety disorder
Who is more likely to develop generalized anxiety disorder? people who have inherited an underlying neurotic personality style
The preferred pharmacological treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is by providing the client with SSRI antidepressants
To reduce flashbacks experienced by a client suffering from generalized anxiety disorder, a clinician may prescribes anticonvulsants
Which of the following personality traits is most closely associated with the development of generalized anxiety disorder? neurotic
How might a cognitive-behavioral therapist treat an individual with generalized anxiety disorder? teach patient to recognize anxious thoughts, to seek more rational alternatives to worrying, and to take action to test these alternatives.
Persistent ideas, images, or thoughts that invade consciousness despite efforts to get rid of these intrusions are referred to as obsession
The pattern of abnormal motor symptoms, such as uncontrollable twitches and facial grimaces, is known as tic
An urge or drive toward action that leads to the performance of repetitive, ritualistic behaviors is called a(n) compulsion
Mary washes her hands several times a day and still feels that her hands are unclean despite all the washing. This habit has caused Mary to be late on several occasions. Her symptoms are suggestive of obsessive-compulsive disorder
The anxiety disorder characterized by the experience of intrusive thoughts that the individual can alleviate only by engaging in patterns of rigid, ritualistic behaviors is referred to as OCD
Whenever Ivan eats at a restaurant, he is plagued by thoughts of the number of people who may have touched his silverware. When no one is looking, he slips the silverware into his pocket, enters the men’s room, and scalds the silverware in hot water for five minutes. Ivan might be diagnosed as having OCD
Which of the following is a common compulsion? washing & cleaning, counting, putting items in order, checking, or requesting assurance
Kyleigh, a 52-year old woman who lives by herself, takes in one stray cat after another and currently has over thirty cats in her home. Kyleigh might be suffering from hoarding/saving obsessions OCD
One of the most effective treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is the class of serotonin reuptake inhibiting medications (prozac or Zoloft)
Which of the following medications has been found to be a particularly effective treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder? sertraline (Zoloft) or fluoxetine (Prozac)
Which neurotransmitter has been implicated as playing a role in obsessive-compulsive disorder? serotonin
Ron is always concerned about his lucky numbers. Even while looking at dates on a calendar or selecting a time to do a particular activity, he is always preoccupied with lucky and unlucky numbers. His symptoms suggests that he might be suffering from a(n) miscellaneous obsessions OCD
Leslie tells her therapist that she has an uncontrollable urge to pick at her scabs. This is an example of a(n) somatic obsessions OCD
For people with obsessive-compulsive disorder for whom neither pharmacological nor psychotherapeutic interventions have been successful, a psychosurgical procedure has sometimes been effective which is called a(n) psychiatric neurosurgery
Which of the following is a cognitive-behavioral method designed to reduce obsessive thinking? thought stopping
In the mid twentieth century, a surgical technique was sometimes performed on individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder. The technique was known as psychiatric neurosurgery
A person who is constantly thinking about germs has a(n) _____ about cleanliness; a person who constantly washes his or her hands is expressing a(n) _____. obsession; compulsion
Which form of psychotherapy has proven to be the most effective in the treatment of OCD? exposure with response prevention
Satiation therapy is a technique sometimes adopted by clinicians to treat clients suffering from OCD
The anxiety disorder in which the individual is unable to recover from a traumatic event or series of events is referred to as PTSD
Acute stress disorder is diagnosed _____; post-traumatic stress disorder is diagnosed _____. a few days to a month after the traumatic event; after experiencing symptoms for more than a month.
A clinician diagnoses a condition of PTSD if the symptoms of _____ have occurred for more than a month following a traumatic event. acute stress disorder
A risk factor that can make one more susceptible to developing PTSD if one experiences trauma is found to have high levels of neuroticism, negativity, affectivity, prior psychological symptoms, and a history of childhood abuse
Ned was involved in an accident in which he unintentionally ran over a person who was thrown from her vehicle into oncoming traffic. After a month of intense feelings of fear, horror, and amnesia regarding the event, Ned seems to have recovered from that phase. It is likely that he was suffering from acute stress disorder
Nirvikar was a passenger in a terrible car wreck that left four of his friends dead. He has continual nightmares that go back to that fateful night. In addition to being emotionally numb about the whole situation, he feels very guilty that he survived the ordeal. Nirvikar might be diagnosed as having acute stress disorder
What approximate percentage of Army soldiers returning from Iraq were reported to have met the PTSD diagnostic criteria? 12.9%
Recent research indicates that traumatic experiences can produce structural changes in the brain that make it primed or hypersensitive to possible danger in the future
In general, an increased risk of developing PTSD is correlated with personality and coping style
What types of risk factors make individuals more likely to develop PTSD? People with high levels of neuroticism, negativity, affectivity, prior psychological symptoms, and a history of childhood abuse
Researchers have found that an individual is more likely to develop PTSD if he or she_____ during a traumatic event.
Following a trauma, an individual is less vulnerable to develop PTSD if he or she
Ramona was mugged at gunpoint in a dark parking lot after work two nights ago. She is constantly re-experiencing the event through images, dreams, thoughts, and flashbacks. She finds herself avoiding situations that might make her think about the trauma, but she is still so anxious that she cannot concentrate or sleep. Ramona is likely suffering from
A traumatic experience
“Survivor syndrome” includes symptoms like chronic depression, anxiety, and difficulties in interpersonal relationships
Individuals with PTSD experience alterations in a particular portion of the brain which is responsible for (hippocampus) responsible for memory
The only FDI-approved antidepressants to treat people with PTSD are SSRI antidepressants
Which of the following drugs is associated with antipsychotic medication? respiridone
Studies reveal that people with PTSD experience a loss of memory for the event, excessive self-blame, distancing from others, and inability to experience positive emotions
Which of the following is generally considered the most effective psychological treatment for PTSD? cognitive-behavioral therapy (combines some type of exposure (in vivo or imaginal) with relaxation and cognitive restructuring).
Vasati, a victim of molestation, is being treated by her clinician through a technique of virtually exposing her to her most feared and hated situation, followed by a counterconditioning breathing technique. These methods of psychological treatment are most effective for cognitive-behavioral therapy
Carlos used to enjoy bowling, but since he returned from active duty, the sound of the ball hitting the pins and the sound of the pins falling, is bringing back vivid memories of combat. Carlos is experiencing PTSD
Regarding PTSD, positive psychology states that people can grow through the experience of trauma.
Recently, researchers are focusing on alternative strategies like interpersonal therapy and mantra repetition to treat clients suffering from
Trauma researchers Zoellner and Maercker believe that a particularly important part of the therapeutic process is helping clients.
Helgeson, Reynolds, and Tomich found that individuals who find benefit in the experience of trauma
Helgeson and colleagues have suggested that cognitive processing about a traumatic event, including intrusive and avoidant thoughts, may actually be
Before being named post-traumatic stress disorder, the symptoms of PTSD include all mentioned below EXCEPT
The Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing (EMDR) is a technique used by a clinician to treat clients suffering from PTSD
According to positive psychology, a person suffering from PTSD will be benefitted if the person opens up to the traits of optimism and openness to new experiences
Clinicians working with clients who are struggling with the question of why a trauma happened might help these clients by guiding them through the experience of the trauma
The prevalent form of psychological disorder (except substance abuse disorder) is anxiety disorders