Complete List of Terms and Definitions for Greek and Roman Mythology

Terms Definitions
artemis diana
dementer cerus
Aphrodite Venus
Demeter Ceres
ares mars
Persephone Proserpina
Athena Minerva
heracles hercules
griffons half-eagle, half-lion
From Mnemosyne memory
Pietas "duty" or "devoution"
Eros god of love
Muse of Dance Terpsichore
foreboding foreknown; threatening; prognosticated
Mars God of War
Juventus God Of Youth
Hypnos-Somnus God of Sleep
None-Disciplina Goddess of Discipline.
Muse of comedy Thalia
Bie physical power, brute strength
Bacchus Roman name of Dionysus
Mercury Messenger of the Gods
Hephaestus God of the Forge
goddess of youthful beauty hebe
god of the sea Neptune
Nisus member of the "nighttime raid"
What was Demeter's Roman name? Ceres
What was Hebe's Roman name? Juventas
Caelus the Roman name of Uranus
Zeus the king of the gods
Pluto the Roman name of Hades
Circe Beautiful enchantress known for cruelty and knowledge of magical and poisonous herbs. Loved changing men into animals
Hygea-Salus Goddess of Hygiene and Sanitation.
sirens Beautiful women whose irresistible song lured sailors to their deaths
seen with bow and arrow Cupid
Priam (significant name) one who is ransom
Who was the best known Gorgon? Medusa
What was Hebe the goddess of? Youth
Hebe cupbearer of the gods and goddesses
Nymphs Minor goddesses who were beautiful, young, and inhabited plants and bodies of water
Archaic Period (800-480 BC) writing appears. Poetry.
Hades the underworld inhabited by departed souls, also the god ruling the underworld
Numina spirit or deity in objects (Roman thought)
Who is the ruler of the Titans? Cronos
Euterpe muse whose was known for flute playing
(Greek mythology) the goddess of youth and spring Hebe
Cerberus 3-headed dog that guarded the entrance to the Underworld
Mnemosyne-Moneta Goddess of Memory. Mother of the Muses.
Homer 450 BC Iliad and odyssey blind earliest
Latinus King of the Latins. Encourages Aeneis to marry his daughter, causing resentment and war between his subjects. Respects the gods and fate, but does not hold strict command over his people
saturn an ancient Roman god of agriculture, the consort of Ops, believed to have ruled the earth during an age of happiness and virtue, identified with the Greek god Cronus.
Polynieces Oedipus' son, tires to take Thebes by force. He is killed by Eteocles (brother). Creon says his body cannot be buried
Formula the way words are written in the poems, "Swift footed Achilles"
Creusa Aeneas' wife who was lost in the commotion of fleeing Troy, her spirit speaks to Aeneas telling him to go to Italy and find a new wife
Odysseus Greek hero, has a whole story about getting home
The Aigis Athena's goat skin with serpents along the rim and a Gorgon head
The Sibyl a priestess, when Aeneas arrives at Italy, he builds a temple to Apollo, she tells him to break a branch off a tree as a sign he has to go to the underworld, The Golden Bough
What was Hades the god of? Underworld/ the dead
Orpheus made into the Underworld and back by playing his lyre
Atlanta her father left her on Mount Parthenon to die, but a group of hunters found and raised her
Greek ; Ares || Roman; Mars God of War
buoy to keep afloat or aloft; to maintain at a high level; support; to hearten or inspire; uplift
Sphinx creature with a woman's head and a lion's body who asked a riddle.
go of the sun, song, prophecy, and reason. seen with the lyre Apollo
Niobe _____ was from Thebes, mother of seven sons and seven daughters. Because she had more children she thought she was better than Latona, mother of Apollo and Diana. In anger, Latona sends Apollo and Diana to kill her seven sons. _____'s husband committs suicide in his grief. Niobe still boasts of her greater motherhood because she has seven children left and Latona kills the other 7. Before she turns _____ to stone and used a whirlwind to place the statue on a nearby mountain.
neptune the ancient Roman god of the sea, identified with the Greek god Poseidon.
The Dark Ages 1100-750 BC, not much info, Dorian people may be responsible, Greeks destroyed Troy, Dorians destroyed Greeks, Homeric Poems
The Archaic Age 750-500 BC, Poets such as Sappho, Greek colonies in Italy, Philosophers flourished, Persian wars ended Archaic age
What was Apollo the god of? Light, sun and music
hydra serpent that if you cut off one head several grew back
Greek ; Eros || Roman; Cupid (Amor) God of love
divest to strip, as of clothe; to deprive, as of rights or property; dispossess
Trojan war result of the illicit love affair of helen and Paris
apollo god of music, and sun and brother of artemis
scylla a sea nymph who was transformed into a sea monster: later identified with the rock Scylla.
What was Hebe's occupation? Cupbearer to the gods, restored youth to the aged
Poseidon or Neptune Brother to Zeus and Hades; second most powerful God. God of the sea, ocean, horses, and earthquakes. The trident was his weapon
god of wine. seen with the vine Bacchus (Roman) Dionysus (Greek)
What did Saytrs like to do? Drink, dance, and chase after nymphs
What did the Fates do? Weave, measure, and cut the thread of human life
What was Demeter the goddess of? the Harvest; was also a goddess of the earth
Hera Juno
Hestia Festa
Ouranus Uranus
Rhapsodes storytellers
Notus-Auster South Wind
Antinoos (significant name) anti-minded
Chaos's 2 kids Night(darkness)
Erebus(death)
River of Woe Acheron
Tyche-Fortuna Goddess of Fortune.
Parthenon The cool building
Odysseus (significant name) Hate-inspirer (distasteful)
owl the bird of Athena
reflux a flowing back; ebb
Husband of Pandora "afterthought" Epimethesus
Creon The second-in-command in Thebes, brother-in-law of Oedipus and his trusted advisor, selected to go to the oracle at Delphi to seek the Apollo's advice in saving the city from plague. In Antigone, he forbids anyone from burying Oedipus' son, Polynieces, leads to the death of Antigone, Haemon, and Eurydice
Diomedes equilivant of Achilles, greek warrior
What was Hestia's Roman name? Vesta
Who was Artemis's twin brother/ Apollo
Flora the Roman name of Persephone
oblivion forgetfulness or lack of memory
Eros-Cupid God of Love. Aphrodite's son.
messenger associated with the rainbow Iris
Zeus-Jupiter The King Of The Gods
Epimetheus "opposite of Prometheus" Pandora is give to him as a wife, but Prometheus warns him not to accept a gift from Zeus
Who was the only tame Centaur? Chiron
Polyhymnia muse whose was known for miming
Muse of songs to the Gods Polyhymnia
Eris-Discordia Goddess of Strife Discord. Ares's companion.
Euhemerus myths represented real people (300s BC)
god of flocks, shepherds, and woodlands Pan
Aegeus King of Athens, promises to give refuge to Medea in return for children
Eteocles Oedipus' other son, stayed in Thebes with Creon. Kills his brother Polynieces
Cacus the monster Hercules kills and saves the Acadians
Achilles (Aki-laos) (significant name) pain of the people
Sophists they make the weaker argument seem stronger, social climbers and a threat to aristocracy
What was Hermes's occupation? Messenger of the gods
Also known as Cupid. Aphrodite's son. Portrayed with a blindfold Eros
zephyr the west wind; a soft, gentle breeze
Art 2nd major source of mythology. Statues of the gods, paintings, clays, pottery, temples.
Virgil Distinguished poet of the Augustan age and author of the epic poem Aeneid to honor Rome
dadeulus an inventor and maker of the labrinth
venus an ancient Italian goddess of gardens and spring, identified by the Romans with Aphrodite as the goddess of love and beauty.
Iarbas one of Dido's suitors, he is upset with Aeneas and Dido get together. He questions Jupiter's power, causing him to send Mercury to tell Aeneas to leave
What was Iris's occupation? Messenger for Zeus and Hera
What was Athena the goddess of? Wisdom and War
pygmies the race of dwarfs who lived in Africa
Mount Olympus Ancient mountain where the major Gods and Goddesses were believed to have lived
Hephaestus-Vulcan God of Smiths and Craftsmen. Son of Hera and Zeus
1200-1100 BC Cities were destroyed by fire. Linear B dissapeared. Dark age.
Maybe Dorians invades? Spartans...Herakles
Turnus This person is the King of the Rutulians and is engaged to Lavinia. Lavinia's father gives her to Aeneas. This person leads a war against Aeneas and is killed by him.
Lycaon King of Arcadia, plots to kill Jove while he is a guest in his house, and first he attempts to trick him into consuming human flesh. Jove destroys his house with a thunderbolt and this person goes mad and TURNS INTO A WOLF
Paris a Trojan prince who awarded the apple of discord to Aphrodite and was by her help enabled to abduct Helen
Aeneas the warrior of troy, flees to Italy to find the Roman race
Who were the Centaurs? savage, 1/2 man, 1/2 horse creatures
Perseus his father was Zeus, came to Danae as a rain of gold
Fates 3 women who had the subtle but awesome power of deciding a man's destiny. Possible that they also determine the destinies of the Gods
Poseidon-Neptune God of the Sea. Son of Cronus and Rhea.
Atalanta & Hippomenes Raised by Bears. Lost lover Meleagar. Lost a race to ______ and married him. Became his wife with the Golden Apples from Aphrodite.
Answer: (_____ & ____)
menelaus a king of Sparta, the husband of Helen and brother of Agamemnon, to whom he appealed for an army against Troy in order to recover Helen from her abductor, Paris.
The Epic Cycle the cycle of stories that Iliad and Odyssey fit into
nectar drink that if eaten by a mortal for a period of time that mortal could become immortal
Athena or Minerva Goddess of wisdom and war. Sacred bird was the owl. Sprang fully grown and in battle armor from the head of Zeus
Polyphemus & Galatea The cyclops tries to win the beautiful sea nymph and kills Acis the other suitor.
Answer: (____ & ____)
Greek; Apollo || Roman; Apollo God of light, medicine, music and poetry
the judgement of paris (hera, athena, aphrodite) contest between the most beautiful. prettiest wins the golden apple. goddess of discord not invited.
What were their 3 types of kids? 1. 3 monsters with 100 hands and 50 heads
2. 3 cyclopes
3. The Titans
hermes mercury
centaur half-man, half-horse
Poe "To Helen"
Metis cleverness, intelligence, wit
pegasus white winged horse
river of fire Phelegethon
temerity rashness, unreasonable boldness
Nike Goddess of Victory
Kora Goddess of Season
Elpis-Spes Goddess of Hope.
Chalcas prophet of the Greeks
trident the weapon of Poseidon
Muse of Epic Poetry Calliope
Vulcan God of the Forge
Aeolus-Aeolus Keeper of the Winds.
Polytheism Belief in many Gods
Tripartation mythology equivalents among Greek, Roman, and Norse
What was Poseidon's Roman name? Neptune
What was Persephone's Roman name? Proserpina
What was Artemis's Roman name? Diana
Jupiter the Roman name of Zeus
Frigg (Frija) Love and marriage, Friday
Pheme-Fama Goddess of Fame and Renown.
Mt. Helicon home of the muses
goddess of grain and agriculture Ceres
Indo-European languages with common roots, English, Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, Iranian, Anglo-Saxon
Astyanax (significant name) Holder of the city
What is Hera the goddess of? Marraige
Saytrs were ___________ goat men (like Pan)
Pan second best musicians among the gods
From Helios meaning "of the sun" Helium
ceres a pre-Roman goddess of agriculture under whose name the Romans adopted the worship of the Greek goddess Demeter.
Numitor grandfather of Remus and Romulus, he was thrown out of his kingdom by his brother and his grandsons came back and regained power
Nestor counsel's Patroklos and tells him to wear Achilles' armor, eventually leading to his death
_______ is formed from darkness and death Love
Jason the hero known for retrieving the golden fleece
Also known as Furie. Punish evildoers and are inexorable but just Eriynes
oedipus oracle says he kills father and marries mother. kills father who is king marries mother and stabs his eyes out.
anthropomorphic Refers to the perception of diinities in human form who possess human qualities and exhibit human behavior and emotion.
goddess of the moon, chase, and hunt Diana
Argus Monster with hundred eyes that guarded Io the cow. Slain by Hermes; his eyes placed by Hera into peacock's tail.
proserpina a daughter of Zeus and Demeter, abducted by Pluto to be queen of Hades, but allowed to return to the surface of the earth for part of the year.
Anna sister of Dido, she helped push Aeneas and Dido together
Evander the Arcadian king who teams up with Aeneas and the Trojans to fight the Latins
Tale-type type of the story, ex: blame, quarrel, nostros
Leda mortal woman who slept with Zeus in the form of a swan, mother of Helen, other daughter is Clytemnestra
What is Zeus's Roman name? Jupiter (also called Jove)
Uranus the father of the 12 titans, 3 cyclops, and three hectonchires
Daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne. Mankind looked to them for Inspiration The nine Muses
Hades-Pluto God of the Underworld. Son of Cronus and Rhea.
god of the lower world Pluto (Roman) Hades (Greek)
Io This person was one of Zeus' many mortal lovers. Hera was about to catch them so Zeus turned her into a cow. Suspicious, Hera asked for the cow as a gift and Zeus had to comply. This person had to walk across the continent bothered by a gadfly so that she could be human again.
Marc Antony One of Caesar's generals; member of Second Triumvirate; Falls in love with Cleopatra; he and Cleopatra declare war on Rome which they lose to Octavian (Caesar Augustus)
juno the ancient Roman queen of heaven, a daughter of Saturn and the wife and sister of Jupiter: the protector of women and marriage.
dionysus the god of fertility, wine, and drama; Bacchus.
Allecto one of the furies, mission was sent by Juno to start war in Italy
What was Artemis the goddess of? Moon and the hunt
Charybdis a monster that was the shape of a giant whirlpool
Greek ; Selene || Roman; Luna Goddess of the moon
Graeae Sisters 3 witches who had grey hair from birth. Only had 1 eye and 1 tooth which they shared, and ate human flesh
Ovid(43-17 BC) Roman poet. didn't believe in myths as religion. Mos famous work is metamorphoses, 200 myths
Pandora's box A box containing all the evil things such as hate,anger,plauge,etc,etc
hercules a celebrated hero, the son of Zeus and Alcmene, possessing exceptional strength: among his many adventures were the twelve labors for his cousin Eurystheus, performed in order to gain immortality.
Who was Iris the daughter of? Titan Thaumus and nymph Electra
Hephaestus or Vulcan God of crafts and fire, the blacksmith of the Gods. The only God born ugly, and was lame in one leg. Known as the most loved of all Gods and Goddesses
Who went in search of the golden fleece? Jason and aragonauts
The Battle of Marathon Persian King Darius I wanted to take over Greece and planned after crushing the Ionian Revolt. Athenians defeated the Persians (first Persian war)
Pomona & Vertumnus _____ was a nymph that had no interest in men and protected her garden. _______ (The Roman god of seasons) was in love with her and disguised himself as an old women trying to convince her to marry him. He told her of a story about a girl who rejected a boys true love until he killed himself and then she turned to stone when seeing his funeral. After that, she married him.
Answer: (_____ & _____)
What natural event is described by Typhoeus's defeat? Mt. Edna the volcano in Sicily, Italy