Complete List of Terms and Definitions for PSY 202, Ch. 13

Terms Definitions
_____ is the general term used to refer to a chemical that alters a person’s mood or behavior when it is drunk, smoked, inhaled, injected or taken in a pill form. Substance
To be diagnosed with substance abuse, an individual has to meet certain criteria. Which of the following is one of the mandatory criteria to be fulfilled? Failure to carry out major role obligations, repeated use of substances during physically hazardous situations (such as while driving), having substance-related legal problems and having persistent interpersonal problems resulting from the substance use.
Juliana frequently smokes marijuana and hashish, even when she is driving. As a result of her frequent use of marijuana, she has lost most of her friends. She has also lost two jobs because of her inability to function effectively. Which of the following diagnosis would best fit Juliana’s condition? Substance abuse
Which of the following is one of the effects of the group of chemicals referred to as substance? Alters a person's mood or behavior (?)
In the context of substance abuse, which of the following is true? There is no implication that the individual is addicted to the substance.
Substance dependence is best defined as A maladaptive pattern of substance use manifested by a cluster of cognitive, behavioral, and physiological symptoms during a 12-month period and caused by the continued use of a substance.
_____ is a maladaptive pattern of substance use manifested by a cluster of cognitive, behavioral, and physiological symptoms during a 12-month period and caused by the continued use of a substance. Substance dependence
To receive a diagnosis of substance dependence, the individual must show signs of Signs of tolerance or withdrawal.
_____ occurs when an individual requires larger and larger amounts of a substance in order to achieve its desired effects, or feels less of its effects after using the same amount of the substance. Tolerance
George had started taking cocaine a year back. He is addicted to the feeling of euphoria brought about by cocaine. Of late, even after using the same amount of cocaine that he had been using for the past year, he feels less of its effects. This condition is referred to as Tolerance
Ruth used to get drunk after drinking two gin and tonics. Now she must drink six to get the same effect. Ruth’s drinking illustrates the phenomenon of Tolerance
The physical and psychological changes that accompany discontinuation of a substance are specifically referred to as _____ symptoms. Withdrawal
Susan has just quit smoking. Ever since she stopped smoking, she has become very testy. She feels anxious and irritable. The change in Susan’s behavior and temperament after she stopped smoking is referred to as Withdrawal
People are most likely to receive a diagnosis of substance intoxication when they experience a drug's effects on their physiological functioning and show signs of significant impairment.
The experience of altered behaviors due to the accumulation of a substance in the body is referred to as substance Substance intoxication
Individuals with substance-related disorders are most likely to suffer from anxiety disorder or mood disorder
Heavy drinking is defined as consuming _____ or more drinks on the same occasion at least _____ days in the month. 5; 5
All of the following variables are associated with higher rates of alcohol consumption EXCEPT Being male, white, married, a smoker, employed, and having a higher educational level and a higher income.
Which of the following can be classified as a nervous system depressant? Alcohol
Clinicians classify alcohol as a nervous system depressant.
In small amounts, alcohol typically has sedating effects, leading users to feel relaxed.
When alcohol is had in larger amounts, without being mixed with other depressants, the most likely result would be a feeling of being more outgoing, self-confident, and uninhibited.
In some instances, when two or more substances are combined, the total intoxicant effect is greater than the effect due to each substance acting alone. This intensification of effect is referred to as Potentiation
Lisa gave into peer pressure and consumed alcohol despite the fact that she was on sleeping pills. As a consequence, she lapsed into a coma. This phenomenon is referred to as Potentiation
After having drunk large amounts of vodka at night, the following morning Caroline wakes up to a pounding headache and nausea. This condition is referred to as Abstinence syndrome "hangover"
Abstinence syndrome associated with alcohol consumption is commonly referred to as a hangover
Which of the following is a symptom of abstinence syndrome experienced by a person who has consumed alcohol for the first time? Nausea, vomiting, tremors, extreme thirst, headache, tiredness, irritability, depression, and dizziness.
Which of the following is a symptom of alcohol-induced brain damage? Dementia, blackouts, seizures, hallucinations, and damage to the peripheral parts of the nervous system.
Which of the following is a form of aphasia in which the individual is able to produce language but has lost the ability to comprehend, so that these verbal productions have no meaning? Wernicke's disease
Which of the following is the cause of Wernicke’s disease? Long-term use of alcohol
After losing his job during the recession, Bob has taken to heavy drinking. This has caused much damage to his health. At present, he has lost his ability to understand. Though he is able to speak, due to his lack of comprehension his verbal productions seem to have no meaning. He finds it difficult to walk and often loses his balance. Which of the following diagnosis would best fit Bob’s condition? Wernicke's disease
The permanent form of dementia associated with long-term alcohol use in which the individual develops retrograde and anterograde amnesia, leading to an inability to remember recent events or learn new information is called Korsakoff's syndrome
Kevin is a chronic alcoholic who has recently started to exhibit some distressing symptoms related dementia. He cannot remember anything from the recent past, such as where he went last month. He is also unable to remember new information, such as the names of people he has recently met. Medical tests have confirmed that excess alcohol consumption is the main reason behind his condition. However his is able to speak clearly and carry motor tasks. It is most likely that he is suffering from Korsakoff's syndrome
Which of the following alcohol-related diseases can be reversed by having the client take thiamine supplements? Wernicke's disease
Which of the following is true about Wernicke’s disease? (Reversible) Involves delirium, eye movement disturbances, difficulties in movement and balance, and deterioration of the peripheral nerves, to the hands and feet.
Which of the following is true about Korsakoff’s syndrome? (Permanent) develops retrograde amnesia (an inability to remember past events) and anterograde amnesia (the inability to remember new information). Recovery is less than 1 in 4, and about 1 in 4 of people with this disorder require permanent institutionalization.
Retrograde amnesia involves the inability to remember past events.
Anterograde amnesia involves the inability to remember new information.
A person with Korsakoff ’s syndrome is most likely to develop
Based on evidence from twin studies, the heritability of alcohol dependence is estimated to be 50-60%
Eugene, an alcohol abuser, is given the drug naltrexone. Which of the following is Eugene most likely to experience after taking this medication? Less likely to experience pleasurable effects of alcohol and even less likely to feel pleasure thinking about alcohol.
An injectable form of naltrexone called _____ has proven to be effective in promoting total abstinence from alcohol. Nalmefene
_____, popularly known as antabuse, is a medication that inhibits aldehyde dehydrogenase, one of the enzymes responsible for metabolizing alcohol. Disulfiram
Aldehyde dehydrogenase is A toxic product involved in ethanal metabolism
Jacquelyn’s doctor prescribes a popularly used drug in the treatment of alcohol dependence to help her get over her drinking problem. A few hours after taking the first dose, she goes out to a local bar and drinks alcohol. Within an hour, she experiences chest pains, heart palpitations, confusion, and nausea. It is most likely that Jacquelyn was prescribed Disulfiram
Disulfiram is also known as Antabuse
Which of the following approaches regarding alcohol use propose that there are automatic processes that generate an impulse to drink alcohol and controlled, effortful processing that regulates these automatic impulses? Dual-Process Theory
Disulfiram is a medication that operates by the principles of _____. aversion therapy
Which of the following approaches proposes that as individuals consume greater amounts of alcohol, they are more likely to make risky choices because the immediate temptation of the moment overcomes the long-term consequences of the behavior? Alcohol myopia theory
According to alcohol myopia theory, as individuals consume greater amounts of alcohol, they are more likely to make risky choices because the immediate temptation of the moment overcomes the long0term consequences of the behavior.
The primary emphasis of the Combined Behavioral Intervention method used in the treatment of alcohol dependence is on enhancing reinforcement and social support for abstinence.
Relapse prevention is a treatment method that is based on the _____ model. expectancy
Erica is alcohol dependent and is trying to abstain from drinking. However, she goes to a party, breaks down, and has a drink. The expectancy model propagates that she should not view lapses from abstinence as signs of certain failure.
The results of longitudinal studies rooted in the sociocultural perspective indicate that individuals who are most likely to become alcohol dependent had a childhood history of antisocial behavior, including aggressive and sadistic behavior, trouble with the law, rebelliousness, lower achievement in school, completion of fewer years of school and a higher truancy rate.
The most widely abused illegal drug in the United States is Marijuana
Most drugs of abuse directly or indirectly target the reward center of the brain by flooding its circuits with dopamine
Long-term drug abuse is most likely to lower the individual's level of glutamate and therefore lead the individual to experience impairments in memory.
Nicky exhibits all of the classic symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder. Over the past two weeks, she has taken to drinking heavily. Which of the following facts best accounts for her substance abuse? Psychological disorders can lead to drug abuse as individuals attempt to self-medicate.
Which of the following substances have an activating effect on the nervous system? Stimulants
Patrick has just been brought into the emergency room. He is exhibiting a great deal of agitation and hyperalertness. On examining him it was found that his condition was the direct result of a psychoactive substance that has an activating effect on the central nervous system. Which of the following substances is Patrick most likely to have ingested? Stimulant
_____ is a stimulant that affects both the central nervous and the autonomic nervous systems. Amphetamine
Amphetamine is a stimulant that causes elevated blood pressure, heart rate, decrease appetite, and physical activity.
Which of the following stimulants is most likely to be used as a diet pill? Amphetamine
_____ is an addictive stimulant drug that is related to amphetamine but provokes more intense central nervous system effects. Methamphetamine
_____ is a highly addictive central nervous system stimulant that an individual snorts, injects, or smokes. Cocaine
A crystallized form of cocaine that is ingested by smoking is referred to as Crack
Which of the following is one of the effects of cocaine? Feelings of euphoria, heightened mental alertness, reduced fatigue, and heightened energy.
Within minutes of taking a drug, Sharon feels euphoric and very high on energy. It is most likely that Sharon has taken Cocaine
Individuals who use _____ are most likely to contract HIV. Cocaine
Cocaine’s effects are mainly due to blocking the removal of _____ from the synapse. Dopamine
Marijuana is a mix of flowers, stems, and leaves from the plant Cannabis sativa
_____, containing a concentrated form of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, comes from the resins of the Cannabis sativa plant’s flowers. Marijuana
Estelle is a cancer patient undergoing chemotherapy. Her doctor has prescribed a synthetic form of delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol, the active ingredient in an illegal drug. This prescription is the synthetic form of the active ingredient in Marijuana
Natalie has been using a substance high in delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for over two years. Of late she is facing breathing difficulties. Her physician has also warned her that she is at a high risk of getting a heart attack. It is most likely that Natalie is a heavy user of Marijuana
Which of the following is one of the negative physical effects typically associated with marijuana abuse? Impaired short-term memory, slowed reaction time, and impaired physical coordination, altered judgement, and poor decision making. Paranoid & anxiety when ingest high doses.
Which of the following substances primarily cause abnormal perceptual experiences in the form of
illusions that are visual in nature?
hallucinogens
Some people who use hallucinogens develop a condition called _____, in which they experience
flashbacks or spontaneous hallucinations, delusions, or disturbances in mood similar to the changes that took place while they were intoxicated with the drug.
hallucinogen persisting perception disorder
After having taken a certain drug, Tina experiences visual hallucinations. She feels that she can see insects crawling around her; however her visions are not real. Which of the following drugs is Tina is most likely to have used? Hallucinogen
Which of the following is a hallucinogen? LSD, peyote, psilocybin, PCP.
_____ is a form of a hallucinogenic drug whose primary ingredient is mescaline. Peyote
Harry chews on the mescaline-containing crown of a particular cactus and starts hallucinating. His body also starts to sweat abnormally. Identify the substance that Harry has consumed. Peyote
_____ is a form of a hallucinogenic drug found in certain mushrooms. Psilocybin
_____ is a form of a hallucinogenic drug originally developed as an intravenous anesthetic. Phencyclidine (PCP)
Jamie has fallen into the habit of taking a form of hallucinogen found in certain mushrooms. This has slowed down his motor reflexes and altered his perception. He is unable to distinguish between his imagination and the real world. Identify the hallucinogen. Psilocybin
The use of MDMA (Ecstasy) alongside alcohol has been associated with all of the following effects EXCEPT (Long-term adverse psychological effects): Paranoia, poor physical health, irritability, confusion, moodiness.
_____ is a hallucinogenic drug made from a synthetic substance chemically similar to methamphetamine and mescaline. Ecstasy (MDMA)
The main neurotransmitter involved with MDMA is Serotonin
Hydrocodone, oxycodone, morphine, codeine, and other psychoactive substances that relieve pain are referred to as _____. Opiods
Which of the following is most likely to be prescribed as a medicine for cough? Codeine and diphenoxylate (Lomotil)
_____ is a psychoactive substance that is a form of opioid, synthesized from morphine. Heroin
Sedatives are best defined as A psychoactive substance that has a calming effect on the central nervous system.
Which of the following terms is used to describe substances that are used as sleep medications? Hypnotic
Which of the following is an anti-anxiety medication? Anxiolytic
Caffeine withdrawal can result in all of the following symptoms EXCEPT Headache, tiredness, fatigue, sleepiness and drowsiness, dysphoric mood, difficulty concentrating, depression, irritability, nausea, vomiting, muscle aches, and stiffness.
_____ is the psychoactive substance found in cigarettes. Nicotine
When nicotine enters the bloodstream, it stimulates the release of adrenaline (norephinephrine), which activates the autonomic nervous system and Increases blood pressure, heart rate, and respiration.
Inhalants are best defined as A diverse group of substances that cause psychoactive effects by producing chemical vapors.
The synthetic opioid that blocks the effects of heroin by binding to the same receptor sites in the central nervous system is Methadone
Judith is fighting her heroin addiction. Her physician prescribes her a synthetic opioid that produces a safer and more controlled reaction than heroin and that is used in treating heroin addiction. Identify this drug. Methadone
Which of the following is used in the treatment of heroin addiction? *Methadone, but also Buprenorphine and Naltrexone.