Complete List of Terms and Definitions for Abnormal Psych

Terms Definitions
Risk to others Ben's paranoia has led him to threaten to kill anyone who enters his bedroom. Ben's behavior meets which of the following criteria for defining abnormal behavior?
too much black bile Rachel is very depressed and melancholic. How would Hippocrates account for her problem?
biological Myah was involved in a serious car accident in which she sustained a head injury. Three months later, she is behaving in bizarre and highly emotional ways. Myah's change in behavior is most likely due to a _________ cause.
ruling out competing explanations Rodney has observed that on the days when he gets up early and goes out for a two-mile jog before classes he is much more awake for his 8:00 a.m. calculus class. Rodney forms a hypothesis that jogging makes him more alert for class. Which step in the scientific method is Rodney ignoring?
incidence During the month of July, 18 homicides occurred in the city. This number reflects the _____________ of homicide in this particular city.
cultural criteria The fact that some people in the US view polygamy as an acceptable practice while others do not illustrate a fundamental problem with defining abnormality based on
biopsychosocial Wendy's doctor feels that her genetic predisposition and the strain in her social relationships coupled with the recent death of her mother are factors that have interacted to produce a psychological breakdown. The doctor's explanation can be best described as
Pinel Chiarugi is to Florence, italy, as ________ is to Paris, France.
managed health care Yolanda's oral surgeon has required her to sign a form stating that she consents to receive anesthetic prior to the extraction of her wisdom teeth regardless of the fact that her insurance might not cover this expense. The surgeon suspects that Yolanda's insurance company may reimburse according to which philosophy?
whether or not the medication is administered An experimenter gives one group of depressed subjects the medication Prozac and another group of depressed subjects a placebo and measure the number of violent or suicidal thoughts members of both groups have. In this situration, the independent variable is
quasi-experimental Two groups of clients with schizophrenia are matched according to the numbers of years with the disorder, type of schizophrenia, and sex. One group is given an experimental medication hypothesized to reduce symptoms; the other is given a placebo. The researchers have utilized a __________ design.
negative A researcher is interested in the relationship between smoking and life span. The results of her correlational study indicate that as the number of peaks of cigarettes smoked per day increases, life span decreases. This is an example of what kind of correlation?
prevalence At any given time, 49% of the population is suffering from some form of mental illness. This number reflects the ___________ of mental illness.
Changes in the insurance industry Which of the following has tremendously affected the provision of mental health care in recent years?
overcrowding Which of the following was one of the most significant reasons for the declining conditions in mental institutions during the later part of the reform period?
Dorothea Dix Who was primarily responsible for reform in American mental institutions?
in every instance, she was denied admission Which of the following statements best summarizes the results of Lauren Slater's recent attempt to replicate Rosenhan's pseudopatient study?
neuropsychological Actor Kelsey Grammar's substance abuse problems and problems with intimate relationships were most likely due to a ____________ cause.
diathesis-stress A model of abnormal behavior closely related to the biopsychosocial perspective is referred to as the __________ model.
humanitarian Ideas about Christian charity and the need to help the poor and the sick formed the basis for ___________ forms of treatment in the Middle Ages.
1950s Medications that controlled the symptoms of severe mental illnesses were introduced in the
demand characteristics Mia is participating in an experimental study and she is trying to figure out what the study is about so that she can be a "good" subject. Mia's behavior illustrates the effects of
hypnosis Dr. Wilder is treating a client who has a compulsive gambling problem by inducing a trance state in the client and suggesting that he stop gambling altogether. What technique is Dr. Wilder utilizing?
trephining The prehistoric practice of drilling holes in people's skulls presumably to cure psychological disorders is referred to as
assessment The evaluation of a client in terms of the psychological physical and social factors that have the most influence on the individual's functioning is
it lacks reliability Ralph has been sad and listless for three years. he cannot sleep and has lost his appetite. Using a diagnostic system, one clinician arrives at a diagnosis of depression. Using the exact same diagnostic system, another clinician arrives at a diagnosis of schizophrenia. What is the problem with this system?
II Joey is diagnosed as having metal retardation. Which DSM-IV-TR Axis does this diagnosis appear on?
her case formulation Jenny has received a diagnosis of major depression. What might give you a more complete picture of this client's condition?
Axis III Kathy was diagnosed with breast cancer three months ago and is now reporting feelings of severe depression. On what DSM-IV-TR Axis would the information about her medical condition be recorded?
comorbid psychiatric conditions Martin was recently diagnosed with bipolar disorder. He has also struggled for years with alcoholism so in addition to his therapy sessions, his therapist recommends that he attend Alcoholics Anonymous meetings. Based on this information, we can say that Martin has
evidence-based practice Dr. Patel likes to stay on the cutting edge of research in her psychotherapy practice. She also feels strongly about recognizing the influences of a client's cultural background, personal preferences, and characteristics on the therapy process. We refer to clinical decision-making that takes all of these areas under consideration as
impairment in life A man arrives one hour late for work every day because he is compelled to read every street sign on the road to his workplace. Which of the following components of a mental disorder is exemplified by this scenario?
client's age Mrs. Waltham is 75 years old and has been brought in for treatment by her daughter. Her daughter claims that Mrs. Waltham has not only become forgetful, but has begun fabricating stories about how she is a Bavarian princess who must return to her homeland to help the king. The clinician automatically diagnoses Mrs. Waltham as having schizophrenia. What information has the clinician obviously ignored in making this diagnosis?
culture-bound syndrome Sangue dormido, or "sleeping blood", is a condition observed among individuals from the Cape Verde Islands and involves paralysis, convulsions, blindness, and tremors. This condition is referred to in the DSM-IV-TR as a
unstructured interview Dr. Suzuki is trying to determine Ralph's reason for seeking treatment by asking him a series of loosely structured, open-ended questions. What type of assessment technique is Dr. Suzuki employing?
mental status examination Rita's therapist is trying to determine her current functioning by examining her behavior, thinking, affect, perceptual experiences, and intelligence. The therapist is actually conducting a
inappropriate Damali often goes to comedy clubs to listen to stand-up comedians, but instead of laughing she sobs uncontrollably when they tell jokes. Sandy is demonstrating ______________ affect.
clanging "I went out to dinner with a real winner who turned out to be a sinner since he told me I should be thinner." This is an example of
tactile A client constantly claims to have the sensation that spiders are crawling all over her skin. What type of hallucination is this?
motivation Maury's depression is so severe that he finds it difficult to get out of bed. This difficulty most clearly fits into the mental status exam category of
magical thinking The presumed connection between the death of the albatross and the hard luck that befell the ship and its crew in Samuel Taylor Coleridge's poem, "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner", would be best described as
affect Which term refers to an individual's outward expression of an emotion?
neuropsychological The process of gathering information about a client's brain functioning on the basis of performance on psychological tests is referred to as ______________ assessment.
dysphoric A person who experiences unpleasant feelings such as sadness or irritability is said to have what kind of mood?
tell a story about the scene shown on the card A person taking the TAT is asked to
psychologist; psychiatrist Dr. Reed has a PhD in clinical psychology and was trained in administering psychological tests. Dr. Davis has an MD with advanced training in treating psychological disorders and can prescribe medications. Dr. Reed is a _________ and Dr. Davis is a ____________.
I Elaine is suffering from an anxiety disorder. She is classified as having an Axis _____ disorder.
perseveration "I don't think I can do this; I just don't think I can. I just can't do this stuff, no, nope." This statement is an example of
behavioral checklist A school psychologist suspects that Quinten might have ADHD. He asks Quinten's parents and teachers to fill out the Conners Rating Scales-Revised based on their observations of thiss behavior. His parents and teachers are filling out a
theories offer perspectives on the possible causes of abnormal psychological functioning. Why are theories important to the understanding of abnormal behavior?
a framework for interpreting observations about behavior. In addition to providing possible explanations for psychological disorders,, theories also provide
psychodynamically Dr. Blake is probing his client's dreams looking for possible unconscious processes that may be linked to the client's current eating disorder. Dr. Blake's perspective appears to be __________-oriented.
incongruence Although Karen is an extremely competent and effective administrator who gets along well with her subordinates and is well liked, she still feels as though she is not doing a good job. In Rogers' terms, Karen is in a state of
sociocultural Dr. Ashad examines his client's difficulties in terms of how they are influenced by the people, institutions, and external forces around them. Dr. Ashad is adopting a ___________ perspective.
conditioned response Jeremy continually gets drunk in a smoke-filled bar, where the jukebox always plays loud county music. Eventually, even before he starts drinking in this bar, his speech gets slurred. The slurring of his speech in response to the smoke-filled room and the country music is a
modeling Little Joey has learned by watching his father that drinking alcohol is fun. Now Joey wants to drink and is caught sneaking into the liquor cabinet. This illustrates the effects of
systematic desensitization Gina's therapist is helping her to overcome her fear of public speaking by training her in relaxation techniques and presenting her with gradually more frightening situations in which she performs activities related to speaking in public. This technique is known as
contingency management Todd is an autistic boy. His teacher gives him an "M & M" every time he interacts with one of his classmates in a positive way. She withholds the "M & M" if his interactions are negative. Todd's teacher is using
unrealistic, extreme, and illogical Tyrone got a C on an exam on which he expected to do well. Now he feels stupid. In this situation Albert Ellis would say that Tyrone's feelings about himself are
splitting Angela refuses to view herself as being jealous, and when her boyfriend mentions her jealousy, she views him as being hostile. Angela appears to be using the defense of
sociocultural The fact tat discrimination can lead to psychological problems lends support to the ______________ perspective.
increase; decrease Reinforcement is meant to ________________ the frequency of a behavior while punishment is meant to _____________ the frequency of a behavior.
deep brain stimulation When performing ____________, a neurosurgeon implants a microelectrode into a part of the brain that is underactive in order to increase activity.
unconscious The psychodynamic perspective is the theoretical orientation that emphasizes the ______________ determinants of behavior.
psychological disorders When defense mechanisms are used in a rigid or an extreme fashion, they become the source of
Erik Erikson's Failure to resolve an earlier psychosocial stage is central to _________________ theory regarding psychological disturbances.
insecure attachment styles. According to current research in attachment theory, individuals who score high on measures of depression also exhibit
others set conditions of worth on a person According to Rogers, psychological disorders develop when
neurotransmitters The chemical substances that drift across the synapse and are absorbed by the receiving neurons are called
secondary Money is an example of a ________________ reinforcer.
dopamine Excesses of which neurotransmitter are related to schizophrenia, while diminished amounts are associated with Parkinson's disease?
the diathesis-stress model The proposal that people are born with a predisposition that places them at risk for developing a psychological disorder is referred to as
vicarious reinforcement Tony is a novice gang member. He sees the gang leader gain the respect and praise of his fellow gang members after senselessly murdering a rival gang member. Tony subsequently engages in increasingly violent behavior. Behavioral theorists would attribute the increase in Tony's violent behavior to the effects of
lost in a mall at age 5 Researcher Elizabeth Loftus was able to convince adults that they had been
10-15% According to our text, approximately what percentage of the US population is affected by anxiety disorders?
anxiety; fear Anticipatory apprehension and uneasiness are to ___________, as alarm responses to threatening situations are to _______________.
compulsion Leslie tells her therapist that she has an uncontrollable urge to pick at her scabs. This is an example of a:
anxiety Shelly experiences intense periods of fear and physical discomfort that interfere with her daily living. Shelly may have an ____________ disorder.
agoraphobic Kaila is so intimidated by the possibility of having a panic attack that she stays home the majority of the time. If she does go out, she insists that one of her friends accompanies her in case she has a panic attack. In addition to having panic disorder, Kaila might also be described as being
panic Nasir occasionally experiences periods of intense overwhelming dread that come about for no reason. These periods are marked by trembling, hyperventilation, hot flashes, and chills, and the feeling that he is losing control. Nasir might be diagnosed as having __________ disorder.
specific phobia Maisie has an extreme fear of heights. When she registers for classes at college, she makes a point of signing up for classes that are held on the first floor of the buildings. Maisie might be diagnosed as having
thought stopping Every time Bella starts getting anxious about speaking in public, she starts thinking things like, "Oh God, I'm going to stutter and then everyone will laugh at me" and "I'll probably trip up and accidentally use a four-letter word while reading my notes." Her therapist has urged her to silently shout "Stop!" to herself when these intrusive thoughts start agitating her. This cognitive technique is known as
social phobia Chanina gets nervous when other people watch her eat lunch. She is worried that her behavior will catch the attention of others and they might make fun of the way she eats. This fear typically forces her to eat in her office rather than the staff lunchroom. She continually declines invitations to go out for dinner. Chanina might be diagnosed as having
generalized anxiety disorder Shamir, a 50-year-old man, feels anxious most of the time. His symptoms include dizziness, nausea, trembling, and heart palpitations. He is constantly fidgeting and cannot sit still for a minute. Shamir has been diagnosed as having
obsessive personality disorder Whenever Ioan eats at a restaurant, he is plagued by thoughts of the number of people who may have touched his silverware. When no one is looking, he slips the silverware into his pocket, enters the men's room, and scalds the silverware in hot water for five minutes. Ioan might be diagnosed as having
norepinephrine As your are walking back to your dorm on a dark night you suddenly hear footsteps behind you. Which neurotransmitter is likely to be activated?
post-traumatic stress disorder Nirvikar was a passenger in a terrible car wreck that left four of his friends dead. He has continual nightmares that go back to that fateful night. In addition to being emotionally numb about the whole situation, he feels very guilty that he survived the ordeal. Nirvikar might be diagnosed as having
flashbacks Carlos used to enjoy bowling, but since he returned from active duty, the sound of the ball hitting the pins and the sound of the pins falling, is bringing back vivid memories of combat. Carlos is experiencing
repeatedly scanning the bushes outside the window Which of the following is evidence of hyper-vigilance in an individual with PTSD?
obsession; compulsion A person who is constantly thinking about germs has an ________ about cleanliness; a person who constantly washes his or her hands is expressing a ________.
acute stress disorder Ramona was mugged at gunpoint in a dark parking lot after work two nights ago. She is constantly re-experiencing the event through images, dreams, thoughts, and flashbacks. She finds herself avoiding situations that might make her think about the trauma, but she is till so anxious that she cannot concentrate or sleep. Ramona is likely suffering from
uncovering Vasati is being urged to relive her rape through imaginal flooding and psychodrama. These methods of treatment are called ________________________ techniques.
cingulotomy For people with obsessive-compulsive disorder for whom neither pharmacological nor psychotherapeutic interventions have been successful, a psychosurgical procedure called a __________ has sometimes been effective.
soon after a traumatic event; if symptoms persist more than month Acute stress disorder is diagnosed _________; post-traumatic stress disorder is diagnosed __________.
continuous problems over many years. The typical course of panic disorder is that it creates
norepinephrine One biological theory of panic disorder proposes that individuals with panic disorder have an excess of
The increase the activity or "firing" of GABA neurons Most anti-anxiety medications have what kinds of effects at the synaptic level?
6 months What duration of symptoms of anxiety is a criterion for the diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder?
developmental trauma disorder The DSM-V Task Force is considering a new diagnosis for children who are repeatedly traumatized. It would be referred to as
feel supported and understood Following a trauma, those who __________ are less vulnerable to developing PTSD.
25% According to recent research discussed in the text, what percentage of people with medically unexplained symptoms might meet the DSM diagnostic criteria for a somatoform disorder?
pain disorder If an individual suffering from a somatoform disorder only complains of pain that has no physiological basis, he or she may receive a specific diagnosis of
less than 1% The prevalence of somatization disorder in the US population is
somatization disorder Mr. Warren has seen a number of physicians through the years complaining of several exaggerated medical problems such as difficulty swallowing, chest pain, and blurred vision. Medical examinations have yielded no basis for his claims. Mr. Warren might be diagnosed as having which somatoform disorder?
body dysmorphic disorder Audrey is preoccupied with the idea that her nose is large and crooked, despite the fact that her friends and family tell her otherwise. In addition, one plastic surgeon she visited refused to perform surgery on her to correct this problem. She is now seeking a second opinion. Audrey might be diagnosed as having
conversion disorder Iesha is a 65-year-old woman who sought medical attention for what she believed to be Alzheimer's disease; however, over the past two weeks her symptoms have disappeared. Which of the following somatoform disorders might she have experienced?
factitious disorder Winona, a 15-yeear-old, is the middle child and often feels neglected by her parents. All of a sudden she starts refusing to eat and if pushed to eat she forces herself to throw up. At one point, she passes out and then requests that her parents admit her to the hospital. Given that this is not a long-standing pattern, and her behavior seems to be maintained by a need to play a "sick" role, what disorder might she be diagnosed as having?
primary Ryan repeatedly develops diarrhea after supper when it is time to help with the dishes. As a result, he cannot help clean up and instead has to go to the bathroom. This scenario illustrates __________ gains.
psychological factors affecting a medical condition Immanuel is having tremendous difficulty controlling his drinking behavior even though he is having a difficult time recovering from liver transplant surgery. Which of the following would best describe his condition?
Munchausen's syndrome by proxy An infant has had repeated seizures and has lapsed into a coma. Blood tests reveal the presence of a substance that is chemically similar to antifreeze. Which of the following conditions might be suspected?
secondary gains Xaviera often gets sick, and when she does, her mother dotes over her and showers her with pity. Xaviera's illnesses may be maintained by
dissociative identity disorder When the discussion turns to his recently deceased father, Ed gets a blank stare on his face and leaves the room. His mannerisms and his language often become very gruff. Sometimes during these spells, Ed goes out claiming he needs to take a ride. When later questioned about what he did while he was out, Ed has no recall of even leaving.
a poor female who dropped out of high school Which of the following individuals is MOST likely to suffer from somatization disorder?
dissociative fugue Which of the following disorders might account for a number of missing individuals who have disappeared from their home towns without a trace?
depersonalization disorder Petra has experienced repeated episodes during which she felt as if she were "high". At other times, she has felt as if she were a robot. During an interview with the therapist, she mentoins that it feels like someone is "sitting behind herself". Petra might be diagnosed as having
malingering Many of the individuals who feign physical disorders to collect insurance money from worker's compensation would be described as
do not recall any dream or any unusual occurrences during the night. In contrast to individuals with nightmare disorder, people with sleep terror disorder
emotion-focused Phoebe has just been diagnosed as having terminal cancer. Instead of letting it get her down, she vows to try to think positively about her situation. her coping strategy might be described as
psychoneuroimmunology Dr. Rodriguez is a researcher who studies the link between stress, nervous system functioning, and immunity. Dr. Rodriguez's area of specialty is best known as
conversion disorder Which somatoform disorder involves the translation of unacceptable drives or troubling conflicts into bodily motor or sensory symptoms?
a personality disorder Many people with body dysmorphic disorder also have
factitious disorder. Munchausen's syndrome is an extreme form of
la belle indifference Regan is relatively unconcerned about the fact that she has suddenly lost all sensation in her left hand. This bizarre lack of concern is referred to as
obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders Researchers view body dysmorphic disorder as part of a spectrum of disorders including conditions such as
James does not put forth much effort while undergoing neuropsychological testing. James has been accused of committing a robbery, but claims to have amnesia and his attorney is entering a plea of not guilty by reason of insanity. A psychiatrist for the prosecution administers the Test for Memory Malingering and is convinced James is faking. What might be leading her to this conclusion?
social customs and mores, which change over time. when evaluating the normality of a given sexual behavior, it is important to keep in mind
there must be a dependence on the sexual target for arousal. Which of the following is the key feature of paraphilias?
he does not have a sexual disorder Clark has recently become interested in being spanked before engaging in intercourse. He can become sexually aroused if he is not spanked but enjoys this as a sort of passing fancy. How might you describe Clark's condition?
exhibitionism Lester has intense recurrent fantasies in which he is walking along the beach and a woman approaches. As she gets near, he unbuttons his pants and exposes his genitals to her. At that instant, she falls madly in love with him and they make love in the sand. Lester occasionally acts out these fantasies. He is likely to receive a diagnosis of
covert conditioning Dr. Walters is instructing Levon to imagine that he has just "flashed" his genitals at an unsuspecting woman on the street. After the woman responds in horror, Levon is to imagine that all of his closest friends jump out of a nearby alley and start laughing at him. Dr. Walters is using the technique known as
sadomasochist Reginald engages in acts where he and his partner alternate between aggressive and submissive sexual roles. Reginald is most likely a
hypoactive sexual desire disorder Dayana is not interested in sexual activity and reports no desire for it, nor does she fantasize about having sex. Dayana might be diagnosed as having
sexual aversion disorder Chen gets nauseous when he thinks about having sexual intercourse and he actively avoids the sexual advances of others. Chen might be diagnosed as having
male erectile disorder Leif is very interested in sex but his penis remains flaccid despite erotic stimulation. Leif has
dyspareunia Brody experiences such intense and recurrent genital pain during sexual intercourse that even the thought of having sex is unbearable. Brody might have
substance-induced sexual dysfunction Cyrus has recently started taking medication to control his high blood pressure. He has begun to have erectile difficulties. It is most likely that a clinician would diagnose Cyrus as having
partialism A woman is erotically obsessed with men's ankles to the point of exclusion of all other erotic stimuli. This woman's desires are illustrative of
conditioned response A researcher conducts a study in which men view photographs of nude women wearing necklaces. Later, the men show arousal to necklaces alone. In this particular study, the males' sexual arousal to the necklaces would be considered a
normal Emilio becomes sexually aroused when he views sexually explicit photographs. He also gets really turned on when his lover undresses in front of him. Emilio's behavior might be described as
gender identity disorder In the 1970s, Dr. Richard Raskin underwent a radical surgery in which his assigned sex was changed. He is now known as a woman named Renee Richards. Prior to the surgery, Dr. Raskin might have been diagnosed as having
live as a member of the opposite sex for a period prior to surgery. Cheryl is seeking a sex change operation. It is most likely that a qualified surgeon would require her to
4-year-olds. Among children under the age of 12, the most common victims of sexual abuse are
although sexual orientation for most people remains constant through life, some people change over time. Which of the following statements pertaining to sexual orientation is TRUE?
physiological Although sexual dysfunctions are viewed as being psychological in origin, careful clinicians do not neglect the fact that there may be __________ causes of these dysfunctions as well.
learning principles. The most effective treatment for exhibitionism is based on
an individual who prefers children, especially boys, as his sexual partners Which of the following best describes a preference molester?
gender identity disorder Which disorder is characterized by a discrepancy between an individual's assigned sex and his or her gender identity?
30 and 45% According to the results of the National Health and Social Life Survey, the overall percentage of individuals reporting the symptoms of sexual dysfunctions is between
transvestic fetishism Five-year-old Timmy has older sisters who dress him up occasionally and call him "Timbelina" since they really wanted a little sister instead of a little brother. If this pattern continues, it is possible that Tim might develop
child rapist A person who hangs around schoolyards trying to kidnap kids in an attempt to fulfill violent and hostile sexual urges would be called a
dysphoria The overwhelming feeling of sadness a depressed person feels is referred to as
dysthymic disorder; cyclothymic disorder Major depressive disorder is to ______ as bipolar disorder is to ______.
2 Women are almost ________ times more likely to be diagnosed as suffering from depression than men.
psychomotor agitation Although Juanita has been severely depressed, her motor activity has been frantic. The term for this type of motor activity is
dysthymic Mary has been in a continual state of dysfunction that has kept her from feeling truly happy or well-adjusted. However, she has never had a full-blown depressive episode. Mary might be diagnosed as suffering from _______ disorder.
cyclothymic disorder Akira suffers from mild mood swings that range from dysphoria to hypomania. His mood can change rapidly and at times his behavior borders on eccentric, but he still holds down a job at the neighborhood hardware store. Akria might be diagnosed as having
cognitive Laine's therapist is treating his depression by helping Laine evaluate the rationality of his automatic thoughts, and identify and alter the silent dysfunctional assumptions he makes about things that happen to him. Based on this information, it sounds as if Laine's therapist may be __________ in her orientation.
bipolar II disorder Joe has a mood disorder in which he experiences alternating episodes of severe depression and mild bouts of mania. Which of the following diagnoses would best describe Joe's condition?
her father suffered from severe depressive episodes. Which of the following facts from the case of Kay Redfield Jamison would be of most interest to a behavior geneticist?
norepinephrine; serotonin Catecholamine is to _______ as indolamine is to _______.
psychodynamic Brandt's therapist is treating his depression by focusing on his parents' failure to provide him with a stable and secure relationship as he was growing up. Brandt's therapist might be described as having a _______ orientation.
a 35-year-old married man According to data on the characteristics of individuals who are suicidal, which of the following individuals would be LEAST likely to commit suicide?
high; low Laila is highly committed to dying. She has chosen to ingest ten aspirin tablets. Her suicide attempt can be described as being _______ in suicidal intent and _______ in suicidal lethality.
lithium carbonate Which of the following is administered to people suffering from bipolar disorder?
suicidal Rasheem has been depressed over the past few weeks and he has started giving away his possessions. Rasheem may very well be
appetite disturbance Which of the following is one of the physical symptoms sometimes seen in individuals suffering from major depressive episodes?
daylight. Researchers have proposed that the seasonal type of depression may be caused by alterations in biological rhythms due to seasonal variations in
catecholamine The notion that low levels of norepinephrine cause depression and high levels cause mania is the basis of what was formerly referred to as the _______ hypothesis.
40% According to the American Psychiatric Association (2000), what percentage of individuals having one depressive episode will never have another?
have substance abuse problems. Individuals with dysthymic disorder are lieky to
serotonin Which neurotransmitter is directly affected by the medications Prozac and Paxil?
SSRIs are more likely to be prescribed to more severely disturbed patients who are at a higher risk for suicide. Which of the following statements best summarizes the research on the relationship between the use of SSRIs and increased suicide risk?
electroconvulsive An alternate somatic treatment for individuals suffering from severe depression is _______ therapy.
alienation from society Durkheim's concept of anomie suicide refers to an individual's feeling of
31 and 42 percent Based on the findings of five large-scale studies, the heritability of major depressive disorder is estimated to be between
kindling. Although Katy is on medication to control her bipolar disorder, her psychiatrist is still concerned that she may have another manic episode in the weeks to come. Katy's doctor is worried about the phenomenon known as
1% Approximately what percentage of individuals in the population are afflicted by schizophrenia?
prodromal For the past three months, Tom's speech has been gradually deteriorating and becoming incoherent, and he has been exhibiting purposeless and stereotyped behaviors. His symptoms at this point are not extremely active. In what phase of schizophrenia might Tom be?
alogia Tera, who has schizophrenia, cannot find the right words to use when discussing her problems with the therapist. Tera's difficulty is known as
disorganized Even while talking about the death of her husband a decade ago, Carol giggles almost uncontrollably. What type of schizophrenia might Carol have?
brief psychotic disorder. Jennifer recently experienced a brief psychotic episode soon after her miscarriage. The symptoms ony lasted about a month. Jennifer most likey experienced
schizophreniform disorder Felisha has been admitted to the psychiatric hospital. She claims that she is hearing voices telling her to look behind herself. She has delusions of persecution and is also exhibiting the symptoms of a major depressive episode. What diagnosis is she likely to receive?
delusional disorder, erotomanic type Reggie thinks that the current marital discord between the president and his wife is because the First Lady is secretly in love with him and wishes to spend the rest of her life with him. Which type of psychosis is Reggie suffering from?
shared psychotic disorder. Gabriela has forsaken the religious beliefs of her own mainstream upbringing and has started to adhere to the strange delusional religious beliefs of her very dominant husband, who believes that he is the direct descendant of an ancient Greek god. She now has no qualms about her husband sleeping with other women since, according to her husband's interpretation of the Bible, it is a man's given right. Gabriela might be diagnosed as having
hallucination John Forbes Nash's son, Johnnie, describes experiences in which he hears voices. This symptom of schizophrenia is known as a
avolition Erin, who has schizophrenia, is having a difficult time making up her mind regarding simple things in her daily routine like what to wear, where to go, and what to eat. This indecisiveness is referred to as
brief psychotic disorder; schizophrenia Symptoms duration of less than a month is to _______ as duration greater than six months is to _______.
of the overlap between this disorder, the schizophrenias, and the mood disorders. It is difficult to determine the incidence and prevalence of schizoaffective disorder because
Interaction of genetic and environmental factors in the development of schizophrenia. The case of the Genain quadruplets, who developed schizophrenia, provided evidence regarding the
During the active phase, individuals can be very out of touch with reality and may not respond to reason. Why might it be difficult to utilize psychological methods to treat a client with schizophrenia in the active phase of the disorder?
negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Affective flattening, alogia, avoition, and anhedonia are all
schizophreniform disorder. Someone whose psychotic symptoms last longer than a brief psychotic disorder but not as long as schizophrenia would be diagnosed with
Emil Kraepelin. The German psychiatrist who systematically defined "dementia praecox" was
residual The active phase of schizophrenia is often followed by the _______ phase.
positive Researchers refer to the symptoms of schizophrenia that are exaggerations or distortions of normal thoughts, emotions, and behavior as _______ symptoms.
prefrontal and temporal lobes Which of the following areas of the brain abnormalities in people with schizophrenia?
brief psychotic disorder. Someone who is described as having a "nervous breakdown" would more accurately be regarded as having
There is no systematic treatment protocol associated with this particular diagnosis. Why are some clinicians reluctant to use the diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder?
These individuals will usually recover when separated from the psychotic partner. What is the prognosis for individuals suffering from shared psychotic disorder?
biological stressors The fact that women who lived through the invasion of the Netherlands by the Nazis were more likely to bear children who later developed schizophrenia lends support to the notion that _______ may play a role in the development of this disorder.
tardive dyskinesia. Audrina is recovering from schizophrenia. She has been taking high doses of antipsychotic medications for a very long period of time and has begun to experience uncontrollable movements of her mouth and tongue that make her appear as if she were chewing food in a very exaggerated way. Audrina is experiencing the symptoms of
Men typically develop the disorder between the ages of 18 and 25; women typically develop the disorder between the ages of 25 and 35. Which of the following statements best describes the onset of schizophrenic symptoms in men as opposed to women?
Axis II Najee is seeking treatment at the suggestion of his co-workers who are finding it increasingly difficult to deal with his persistent and angered suspicions. His wife and children also report that he is highly punitive and on guard at home. If Najee's problem is clinically significant, on which axis would his condition be diagnosed?
biopsychosocial The notion that personality disorders are the result of a combination of factors such as a particular temperament, early traumatic experiences, and recent triggering events lends support to the _______ model.
symptoms may interact with an Axis I disorder. Diagnosis of a personality disorder is difficult because
Antisocia Vic has demonstrated a long-standing pattern of disreputable and manipulative behaviors. He has a drug abuse problem and has a long criminal record for a variety of crimes. What is worse, he shows no remorse for some of the harsh things he has done. Vic would most likely be diagnosed as having _______ personality disorder.
Yancey should receive confrontational psychotherapy which continually emphasizes the selfish and self -defeating nature of his behavior. Yancey has been diagnosed as having antisocial personality disorder. He has been in jail for the past three years on murder charges and the courts have recently required him to receive psychotherapy. What might be the best approach in treating Yancey?
borderline Lori becomes angry and hostile when her boyfriend chooses to spend a night out with his friends. She views him as “bad” and tries to manipulate him in order to make him stay home. Occasionally, when this occurs he threatens to break off the relationship, but Lori will do almost anything to keep him. She has on occasion threatened to commit suicide. Lori’s behavior pattern is characteristic of _______ personality disorder.
parasuicidal When asked why she tried to kill herself, Calista responded, “These past few days I haven’t really been sure about myself. I wasn’t really sure I was alive. It was a test.” Calista’s intent would be best described as
considered normal since her behavior may not result in significant impairment. Nautica is very moody and unpredictable and might be described as neurotic or affectively unstable. Nautica’s behavior may be
histrionic At her going-away party, Elaina sobbed uncontrollably and became overwhelmed with emotion at the thought of leaving even though everyone knew that she was secretly glad to be moving out of town and away from everyone there. Her co-workers often recall dramatic shouting matches with others over small details and overbearing attempts to seduce all of the men in the office. Elaina’s attempts to get attention might be indicative of _______ personality disorder.
narcissistic Calum often boasts about how talented a teacher he is and he continually notes that the reason he never gets promoted is because no one full appreciates him. He resents other teachers who have been promoted before him and claims that they are self-promoting. He demands that other people fulfill his wishes but is insensitive when it comes to other people’s feelings. Calum would most likely be diagnosed as having _______ personality disorder.
schizoid personality disorder Lamont is an interstate truck driver. Many people consider him a loner. Lamont is indifferent to the idea of marriage, shows no emotions, and does not seem to desire social contact. If we assume Lamont’s problem is long-standing, what diagnosis might be appropriate?
schizotypal Livia’s hair is usually unkempt and she wears clothes that date back to the 1960s. Her ways of thinking and dealing with other people are rather eccentric – she has the idea that she can communicate telepathically with her brother who lives on the west coast. Livia will most likely be diagnosed as having _______ personality disorder.
avoidant Rosalinda is a very shy 30-year-old woman who usually stays home and does not interact with other people. Rosalinda may be suffering from _______ personality disorder.
dependent Reggie might be considered a “momma’s boy” because, even though he is 28 years old, he lets his mother make all of the decisions in his life such as where he works, who he sees, what he wears, and where he goes. Reggie does not seem to mind; as a matter of fact he often says, “Momma knows best.” Reggie would most likely be diagnosed as having _______ personality disorder.
obsessive-compulsive Felix has been a worrier all of his life. When he was a child, he believed and followed the expression “step on a crack, break your mother’s back.” He is now a perfectionist and runs his daily routine based on an inflexible schedule. His environment is arranged very predictably; for example, all of his shirts must be neatly pressed and hung exactly four inches apart in his closet. Felix would be diagnosed as having _______ personality disorder.
people with schizoid personality disorder tend to prefer to be alone, while people with avoidant personality disorder desire social interaction. A primary difference between avoidant personality disorder and schizoid personality disorder is that
substance use The prevalence of personality disorders is higher among individuals who also have _______ disorders.
The therapist should explain to her in a gentle but firm manner that his tardiness is not due to anything about her. Gillian has been diagnosed as having borderline personality disorder. When her therapist arrived late for an appointment, she flew into a rage at the office, claiming that he must hate her and that she wants to stop seeing him. What might be the best strategy to deal with this situation?
amygdala Which part of the brain plays a role in aversive conditioning and is involved in processing emotion?
maturation hypothesis. Statistics show that impulsivity, acting out, and other extreme behaviors of people with antisocial personality disorder decrease as these individuals age. This finding supports what is known as the
hippocampus Which brain structure was notably smaller in an MRI study of the brains of 21 women diagnosed with borderline personality disorder?
grandiosity. A tendency to view oneself as possessing special and extremely favorable persona qualities and abilities is referred to as
schizophrenic Schizoid and schizotypal personality disorders involve disturbances in personality that have _______-like qualities.
worrying quality of their thinking style. The word “obsessive” as it applies to individuals who suffer from obsessive-compulsive personality disorder refers to the
the problem has played a long-term role in the person's life Which of the following is the one of the most significant factors in determining personality disorders?
bulimia nervosa Maeve is majoring in dance at a local college. Although her weight falls into the normal range, some nights she often goes out and eats large amounts of food at each of the five dining halls on campus. After she is through, she feels very guilty and worries about her weekly “weigh-in” at her ballet class and so returns to her dorm where she vomits. Maeve is suffering from
purging The elimination of food through unnatural methods such as vomiting or excessive use of laxatives is referred to as
kleptomania Anne has a persistent urge to shoplift. However, her motivation for stealing is not based on need. She steals for the sake of fulfilling her impulse to do so. Which impulse-control disorder might she be diagnosed as having?
impulse-control The feeling of pressure to commit a spontaneous act that is fueled by tension and anxiety is a characteristic of _______ disorders.
covert sensitization Dariana’s therapist is treating her kleptomania by having her imagine disgusting things whenever she gets the urge to steal. Which of the following techniques is her therapist using?
perfectionism A premorbid characteristic of people who develop anorexia is
sexually impulsive. Danika is a secretary who engages in indiscriminate sexual activity with most of her male coworkers. She is motivated not by a need for intimacy or advancement, but by the sheer need for sex. This intense desire has, at times, interfered with her ability to carry out her social and occupational roles. Danika might be diagnosed as being
Anorexics have a distorted body image; bulimics generally do not. Which of the following is one of the main differences between anorexics and bulimics?
pathological gambling. Vaughn was well adjusted until his recent trip to Atlantic City where he won $50,000 playing Keno. Now he travels to Atlantic City every weekend to play a variety of games. Despite the fact that he loses thousands of dollars, he is driven to return every weekend. Vaughn might be suffering from
trichotillomania Adamaris is an 8-year-old girl who compulsively pulls her hair out and occasionally eats it. She continues this behavior despite the fact that she has very noticeable bald spots. Which impulse-control disorder might she have?
intermittent-explosive While stopped in his car at a stop light, Tahj occasionally experiences an aura, followed by an intense urge to get out of the car and pummel the person in the car ahead of him for no apparent reason. He has been arrested several times for acting on this urge. Tahj likely suffers from an _______ disorder.
behavioral Jaden seems to enjoy the intense fear and submission his violent outbursts evoke in people. Jaden’s enjoyment would be of most interest to which of the following theorists?
bulimia nervosa, nonpurging type. Raven is of normal weight, but feels intensely guilty after eating half of a chocolate cake. As a result, she tries to compensate by working out vigorously. If this cycle is regular, Raven may be diagnosed with
in vivo exposure In which of the following methods is the compulsive gambler taken to a casino by the therapist but not allowed to gamble?
hunger; fullness With regard to eating behaviors, deficiencies in serotonin result in feelings of _______, while an excess of serotonin is related to feelings of _______.
criticism; alcohol abuse and dependence Research on the evolution of eating disorders has shown that women with anorexia nervosa who live in family environments characterized by _______ tend to cross over to bulimia nervosa, whereas women with bulimia nervosa cross over to anorexia in family environments characterized by _______.
social learning theory Which of the following theories would attribute a child’s fascination with fire to observations of adults engaging in fire-setting behavior?
interpersonal therapy Anna, a client with bulimia, is in therapy and is focusing on the problems she is having in her relationships as opposed to her eating problems. Which of the following therapies is her therapist employing?
habit reversal. A client with trichotillomania is being urged to brush her hair every time she gets the urge to pull it. The technique that is being used to treat this client is referred to as
negative reinforcement. The fact that individuals with trichotillomania experience a reduction in tension and anxiety after pulling their hair is based in the behavioral principle of
long-term use of laxatives. Bulimics may experience physiological problems due to the toxic effects of
obsessive compulsive disorder Which of the following disorders is often comorbid with anorexia nervosa?
the experience of gambling during childhood/adolescence. Which of the following is one of the strongest predictors of the later development of pathological gambling?
emotionally neglectful Which of the following parent-child relationship styles might result in fire-setting?
65 years and older A recent study conducted in Norway found that forty percent of anorexia nervosa-related deaths occurred in which age group?
fetal alcohol syndrome. The most preventable form of mental retardation is
1% According to the text, approximately ___ of the population is mentally retarded.
childhood disintegrative Five-year-old Julio appeared normal for the first two years of life. At age two, there was a marked deterioration in his language, social, and motor skills. Julio was most likely diagnosed with _______ disorder.
be reinforcing and her self-injurious behavior may increase. Debbie is a little girl who has been diagnosed with autistic disorder. Each time she engages in self-injurious behavior, like head-banging, her mother immediately runs over and attempts to stop her by holding her close. According to behavioral theorists, this attempt at stopping her behavior may
separation anxiety disorder Yazmin’s mom has continually battled anxiety problems. Based on the research discussed in the text, which of the following development-related disorders is Yazmin likely to have?
hyperactive-impulse Mohamed has a difficult time sitting still, and has a tendency to interrupt others, but generally he can pay attention to what his teacher is saying as he moves around the room. Which type of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder would Mohamed likely be diagnosed with?
conduct Zack, a 14-year-old member of a ruthless street gang, has been involved in a number of robberies, muggings, and incidents of arson. Zack might be diagnosed as having ______ disorder.
oppositional-defiant In many ways, Neveah seems like atypical teenager. However, she repeatedly argues with her parents, refuses to do what she is told, and at times does things to deliberately annoy people. If this behavior pattern is relatively long-term, Neveah may be diagnosed with _______ disorder.
pica. Chris constantly runs around eating used matches and cigarette butts out of ashtrays. Chris would most likely be diagnosed as having
extremely rigid. Many children who are afflicted with autistic disorder insist upon a daily routine that is
dyslexia. Mekhi has a specific developmental disorder that is characterized by a reversal of words and letters when he is reading; for example the letter “b” looks like “d” and the word “frog” may look like “gorf”. Mekhi may be suffering from
good if their learning environment provides structure and few distractions. The prognosis for individuals with learning, communication, and motor skills disorders is
reactive attachment disorder. Parents who are neglectful during a child’s early years are likely to facilitate the development of
less than 70. In order to be considered mentally retarded, an individual’s IQ must be
failure to thrive. A condition caused by poverty and neglect in which the child does not grow at a normal rate either physically or mentally is known as
a behavioral intervention. Although there is no cure for mental retardation, the development of the individual who is cognitively impaired can be positively altered through
pervasive developmental The set of disorders characterized by severe impairment is several areas of development, or the presence of extremely odd behavior, interests, and activities, are referred to as _______ disorders.
autistic savant. An individual with autistic symptoms who also possesses an extraordinary skill of some kind is referred to as an
mixed receptive-expressive language disorder. The communication disorder that is characterized by an inability to understand and express certain kinds of words or phrases, or in the severest form, an inability to understand basic vocabulary or entire sentences, is known as
there may be damage to specific brain sites responsible for the affected functioning. Which of the following statements describes one of the possible biological explanations for the learning, communication, motor skills disorders described in the text?
mainstreaming The governmental policy intended to fully integrate people with mental and physical disabilities into society is referred to as
conduct disorder Which of the following is the development-related disorder that is the precursor of antisocial personality disorder?
separation anxiety disorder Which of the following development-related disorders is a child likely to develop after experiencing a natural or man-made disaster?
reactive attachment disorder In which disorder does a child have a severe disturbance in his or her ability to relate to others?
a woman of Native American descent Based on the incidence of fetal alcohol syndrome in various ethnic groups, which of the following individuals would be considered at high risk of having a baby with this syndrome?
first trimester of pregnancy. Mrs. Johansen is pregnant and has accidentally been exposed to German measles. She should be most concerned about the possibility of producing a child with mental retardation if the exposure occurred during her
a change in the metabolism of the brain. Delirium is caused by
petit mal Tony has seizures during which he loses consciousness and experiences occasional twitching of his eyelids. With which type of seizures does Tony suffer?
delirium. While Pete was out playing touch football with his friends, he tripped, fell, and bumped his head on the group. Immediately afterward, he was very disoriented and kept asking his friends what time it was. Pete was most likely suffering from
chronic alcohol use Which of the following is the most common cause of amnestic disorder?
amnestic disorder due to a general medical condition Rajan is experiencing a memory loss that may be related to recently contracting herpes. Which of the following diagnoses would best fit his condition?
apraxia Ricardo can understand what his doctor wants him to do when he asks him to cough and to touch his index finger to his nose, but he cannot perform these simple motor activities. Ricardo is suffering from
senile dementia of the Alzheimer's type. The brain of a woman who recently passed away is examined and it is discovered that her cerebral cortex has degenerated. It is likely that this woman suffered from
agnosia Mrs. Williams can recognize most of her friends by voice over the telephone, but when asked to identify her friends in pictures she is at a loss. She is most likely suffering from
Parkinson's disease. While he is resting, Ray’s hands shake uncontrollably and at times his head appears to jerk from side to side. Ray may be showing early symptoms of
Huntington's disease Oriana is in her mid-twenties and has been experiencing involuntary muscle spasms which cause her to move in a jerky fashion. In addition, she has become very sexually impulsive. From what organic brain disorder might she be suffering?
vascular dementia. Stanley has had multiple strokes that have damaged his frontal lobes. This damage has produced a variety of problems for Stanley including difficulty communicating and making judgments. Additionally, he has a difficult time remembering and processing new information. Stanley is suffering from
pseudodementia Ophelia, an elderly woman, became depressed a few days ago and is now experiencing a memory loss. Based on this symptom pattern, what might she be suffering from?
Broca's aphasia; Wernicke's aphasia An inability to produce language is to _______ as an inability to comprehend language is to _______.
because of the trace amounts of aluminum added to municipal water supplies Why might recent research have indicated an increase in the total number of cases of Alzheimer’s disease in the past few years?
traumatic brain injury Which of the following is increasingly being recognized as an important cause of mental and physical dysfunctions?
Only a small percentage of the elderly develop Alzheimer's disease. Which of the following statements about the incidence of Alzheimer’s disease in the elderly population is CORRECT?
Individuals with Pick's disease undergo personality changes first while individuals with Alzheimer's experience this later. Which of the following statements describes the major difference between Pick’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease?
bradykinesia A motor disturbance involving a general sowing down of motor activity is referred to as
Huntington's _______ disease is a hereditary condition that may appear in individuals as early as in their twenties and involves a widespread deterioration of the subcortical brain structures that control motor movements along with the motor areas in the frontal cortex.
pseudodementia Which of the following terms refers to an apparent loss of cognitive abilities due to depression?
Beta amyloid protein _______ is the substance known to form the core of senile plaques.
hypothalamus Which brain structure involved in learning and memory is the site of biochemical and structural changes thought to be related to the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease?
the idea density of their writings. In differentiating high-functioning nuns from those who later developed severe cognitive impairments, Snowdon examined
Broca's aphasia. Millie, an Alzheimer’s patient, can successfully perform the simple behaviors her physician asks her to perform, but she is unable to formulate the speech to communicate her own wishes. Millie is experiencing what is known as
Alzheimer's clients suffer from global cognitive losses while clients with vascular dementia suffer from selective losses. How might a clinician differentiate between the cognitive impairment seen in Alzheimer’s clients and the deficits seen in clients suffering from vascular dementia?
Substance intoxication, substance withdrawal, substance abuse, substance dependence. The DSM currently lists four types of substance-related disorders. Which of the following lists these disorders correctly from the mildest to the most extreme?
withdrawal. Salvador has just quit smoking cold turkey. He has become very testy and is extremely agitated. Salvador is suffering from the effects of
feelings of comfort and relaxation Alan has just consumed two glasses of wine. Which of the following statements would best describe the immediate effects he might be experiencing?
tolerance. Samira used to get drunk after drinking two gin and tonics. Now she must drink six to get the same effect. Samira’s drinking illustrates the phenomenon of
Wernicke's disease. Pavel is a chronic alcoholic who recently began exhibiting some distressing symptoms including delirium and difficulties maintaining balance and initiating movement. In addition, he reports numbness in his hands and feet. Pavel is suffering from
dependence. Pablo has a problem with alcohol. The problem has gotten to the point that he experiences withdrawal if he does not consume alcohol, and he needs to drink larger quantities to achieve the same state of intoxication. Pablo also describes his obsession with alcohol as being a “need.” Pablo’s problem would best be characterized as alcohol
abstinence syndrome. Carl was out all night drinking vodka. This morning he has a pounding headache, is very irritable, nauseous, and he is vomiting. Carl is experiencing
euphoria Scott has been spraying paint into a large coffee can and then putting the can over his nose and mouth. Which psychological effect might Scott be trying to achieve?
delirium tremens. Gavin is a chronic alcoholic who is suffering from a physical condition characterized by confusion, seizures, and a variety of unstable responses affecting involuntary bodily functions. Gavin suffers from
antabuse Nina’s doctor has written a prescription to help treat her alcohol dependence. A few hours after taking the first dose, she goes out to a local bar and has a few drinks. Within an hour, she begins to experience chest pains, sweating, heart palpitations, confusion, and nausea. What medication has her doctor likely prescribed?
relapse prevention theory Connie is an alcohol dependent client who is involved in a treatment program in which the therapist exposes her to increasingly “riskier” situations where there are cues to drink. The success of refraining from drinking in milder situations should increase her self-efficacy in more intense situations involving alcohol. Connie is involved in what type of treatment program?
cocaine Victor has just been brought into the emergency room exhibiting bizarre, schizophrenic-like symptoms and a great deal of agitation and hyper-alertness. Which of the following substances in Victor likely to have ingested?
feeling less motivated to drink Yevgenia, an alcohol abuser, is given the drug naltrexone. What kind of effects can she expect after taking this medication?
marijuana Nadine, a substance abuser, has been having breathing difficulties and has chronically suffered from sinus inflammation. Which of the following substances is she most likely to abuse?
potentiation. Dwayne went out drinking despite the fact that he has been taking sleeping pills. As a consequence, he has lapsed into a coma. Dwayne has experienced the effects of drug
LSD Wendy has just taken a drug that will make her feel euphoric and eventually lead her to see things that re not there. Her “high” will probably last for about eight hours. Which drug did Wendy most likely take?
Alcoholics Anonymous. Lamont is attending a therapy meeting. At the start of the meeting, one of the members stands up, states his first name, says that he is an alcoholic and proceeds to tell the story of how alcohol interfered with his life. Lamont is attending a meeting of
anxiety and mood disorders Individuals with substance-related disorders can also suffer from which of the following comorbid conditions?
pain relievers. The most widely abused class of prescription drugs are
person's motivation to change Which of the following factors is most important in influencing change in an alcohol dependent individual’s behavior?
continued use of a drug despite risks or problems in living Which of the following is the main feature of substance abuse?
rapidly develop tolerance to it. People who use amphetamines
cocaine. The drug that was first marketed in the 1800s as an elixir for fatigue and malaria, and was also a main ingredient in a popular soft drink, is
a panic attack. An individual who drinks up to six cups of coffee a day on a regular basis may develop symptoms that resemble
50-60% Based on evidence from twin studies, the heritability of alcohol dependence is estimated to be
intravenously. Kelly has just taken amphetamine and is experiencing a rush of pleasurable feelings. It is likely that she has taken it