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the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) for vomiting is located in the medulla
___ vomiting is caused by direct stimulation of the vomiting center by neurologic lesions involving the brainstem projectile
although on pg 1453, the text stats normal bowel habits range from 2-3/d to 1/wk, the Rome III criteria for constipation requires 2 criteria for 12 wks suggest less than 3 bowl movements/wk if it is accompanied by any of the following except cramping adbominal pain....true = hard stools at least 25% of the time, straining during 25% of defecations, sensation of incomplete evacuation
more than ___ stools per day is considered abnormal 3
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a result of a zone of low pressure of the lower esophageal sphincter
reflux esophagitis may be defined as a(n) inflammatory response to gastroesophageal reflux
intussussception causes intestinal obstruction by telescoping of part of the intestine into another usually causing strangulation of the blood supply
the cardinal symptoms of small bowel intestinal obstruction include colicky pain caused by distention followed by vomiting
a peptic ulcer may occur in all of the following areas except jejunum .... true= stomach, duodenum, esophagus
the primary cause of duodenal ulcers is helicobacter pylori
ibs is diagnosed by symptoms and exclusion of structural/biochemical causes. which of the following is an "alarm symptom" that require more extensive diagnostic testing? weight loss
the most common clinical manifestation of portal hypertension is ____ bleeding esophageal
the most common manifestation of portal hypertension induced splenomegally is thrmbocytopenia
which are the early (prodromal) clinical manifestations of hepatitis? fatigue, fever, hyperalgia, and vomiting
which statement is false regarding the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis? acute pancreatisis is an autoimmune disease in which IgG coats the pancreatic acinar cells so they are destroyed by the pancreatic enzymes.... true = pancreatic acinar cells metabolize ethanol, which generates toxic metabolites; injury to the pancreatic acinar cells permits leakage of pancreatic enzymes that digest pancreatic tissue; when gall stones are present, bile flows into the pancreas, contributing to attacks
which clinical manifestation is NOT consistent with cancer of the cecum and ascending colon? constipation.... are = mahogany-colored blood mixed with stool, anemia, pain
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