Complete List of Terms and Definitions for Animal Science Vocabulary
|Gametogenic||Produces sperm cells|
|Young Male-goat||buck kid|
|mule||jack x mare|
|Follice||blister-like structure on ovary|
|water||lubricates, regulates body temperature, solvent, transportingneeds met by drinking, eating, and metabolic reactions.|
|birds||have wings and feathers|
Withstanding Cold temperatures
|What produces progesterone?||The corpus luteum|
|cwt||an abbreviation for hundred weight|
|vertebrate||an animal with a backbone|
|Norepinephrine||- a neurotransmitter, released by adrenergic nerve terminals in the autonomic and possible central nervous system Source: Adrenal MedullaGeneral Effects: stimulates brain function and regulation of cardiovascular system|
recombinant bovine somatotrophin
rBST supplements naturally occuring BST in cattle to increase milk production
|What gland does FSH come from?||pituitary|
|winging||an exaggerated outward deviation in the fore foot and lower leg at flexion|
|endoskeleton||an organism with an internal backbone|
|Somatostatin (a feedback mechanism)||Source: HypothalamusGeneral Effects: inhibits release of GH from AP|
|Niacin can be synthesized in the animal form from the amino acid _________||Tryptophan|
|Small Intestine is divided into 3 sections||• Duodenum• Jejunum• Ileum|
|Why use estrogen in TAI?||Cant. Illegal.|
|Rumen||the wall has many papillae (fingerlike projections), which aids in absorption.|
|Consumer||An organism that obtains energy by feeding on other organisms.|
|dehorn||to remove the horns from an animal|
|What word is used to reference pigs?||porcine|
|transcription||genes are transrcibed to produce what kind of chemical compound|
|Inbreeding and Crossbreeding||
Inbreeding – the mating of relatives. Mating relatives has the effect of increasing the percentage of loci in an individual that are homozygous (we say that inbreeding increases homozygosity). The impact on phenotypes is increasing uniformity (or if you wish, decreasing variability). The increase in homozygosity, however, also means we increase the probability that two recessive “bad” alleles match up causing health and fitness problems. This phenomenon is called inbreeding depression, and is part of the common thought that inbreeding is “bad”.
Crossbreeding – the mating of individuals from different breeds (or from distant populations). Within a breed there is a tendency to increase the amount of inbreeding, so animals become more homozygous. By crossbreeding, we increase the percentage of loci that are heterozygous (or, we increase the heterozygosity of the population). This often has the effect of increasing the health and fitness of individuals in a phenomenon called hybrid vigor (technically we call is heterosis).
|Body/Carcass Composition||- Relative lean to fat ratio by species and sex at same weight or chronological age|
|Functions of Fluorine||a. structural component of bones, teeth, and enamel. fluorine replaces the hydroxyl group in the hydroxyapatite crystals to produce strong bones and tooth enamel that is more resistant to acid decay. NOTE: low level of fluorine is sufficient in adults for maintenence of strong teeth. 1) the protective effect of fluorine in developing strong teeth and enamel is greatest during tooth development in infancy and early childhood, which helps prevent dental cavities later in life.2) fluoridated water also helps prevent cavities in adults|
|Thiamin||Vitamin b1 found in whole grains and starchy roots|
|cold blooded||a term describing animals that cannot internally regulate|
|Diet||Refers to the mix of feed ingredients to an animal|
|Omnivore||An animal that eats both plants and animals.|
|cow-hocked||hocks are close together but the feet stand apart|
|What meat product has the largest per capita consumptions||Chicken|
|name the 6 kingdoms||animalia, fungi, eubacteria (monera), aukbacteria (monera), protist, plantae|
|what are markers?||-are essentially bookmarks on the DNA chromosome-microsatellites-distributed across genome|
|Microbes synthesize how many B-complex vitamins ____ & which Fat-soluble vitamins?||eight, and Vitamin K|
|There are ten essential amino acids for chickens, name one of them||methionine and cystine|
|On average, how many days would it take to go from breeding to weaning ifyour cow conveived at the first mating and produced a healthy calf sold as a stocker?||463 days|
|Food Chain||A series of events in which one organism eats another and obtains energy.|
|what is the preferred method for collecting semen from boars||gloved hand method|
|3 groups of fish and an example||*jawless- hagfish, lamprey*cartilaginous- shark, sting ray*bony- trout, goldfish|
|Arabian Horse Blood Fact||Horse blood carried by almost all light horse breeds|
|Grains are low in _______ and high in _______||Calcium, Phosphorus|
|What are Driving Horses used for?||
2. Ponies for driving:
-Harness show ponies
-Heavy harness ponies
|About how long will it take if your purchased day old chicks from a local hatchery until you will get your first eggs?||16-18 weeks|
|what is a heavy body type in a horse?||cooled blooded.|
Basic unit of inheritance is?
where are they located?
what's a locus?
what is the individual gene on a locus called?
notation for it?
Genotype or phenotype?
Homozygous means? heterozygous means?
Sperm and eggs are?
how are they formed?
The basic unit of inheritance is called a gene.
Genes are located on chromosomes.
Locus, the Latin word for location, denotes the site of a particular gene.
At each locus there is a pair of genes, one on a chromosome inherited from the father, and the other on a chromosome inherited from the mother. The individual genes at a locus are called alleles.
The notation for alleles is often a letter, like A for one form of the gene and a for a second form.
The combination of alleles at a locus is called the genotype at that locus and can take the form of AA, Aa or aa, in our little two allele example mentioned above. Note, a locus can have more than 2 alleles (in fact, most do).
Genotypes of the form AA or aa are called homozygous (the same allele on both maternal and paternal chromosomes). The genotype Aa is called heterozygous, a different allele on each chromosome.
Sperm and egg (also called gametes) are formed in a process called meiosis, a process where cells divide but the pairs of alleles (actually chromosomes) are separated into single forms in each gamete. This is called segregation, the separation of paired genes during meiosis. When complete, the gametes contain only ONE copy of a gene, so when sperm and egg are united to form a zygote (a new organism), all the genes are back in pairs.
|Measures of growth in horses||growth is generally measured in Hands at a certain age|
|Water soluble vitamins||B (there are 9 viamins in the B complex group)C|
|Wool is composed primarily of...||Wool is composed primarily of amino acids, especially those containing sulfure. The manner in which the amino acids are linked chemically into peptide chains probably explains some of the wool's unique characteristics.|
|What is a laceration?||A laceration is a cut with irregular edges that requires suturing and drainage of the wound.|
|What does every living thing have to do/have in order to be a living thing?||Movement, Reproduction, Sensitivity, Nutrition, Excrete, Respiration, and Grow|
|List the three vitamins that can be absorbed from the large intestine||Thiamin, biotin, and vitamin K|
|What is intestinal juice derived from? What do these intestinal juices include?||Intestinal Juice is derived from intestinal glands in the wall of the small intestine. These include crypts or crypts of Lieberkuhm and duodenal glands.|
|Name 7 common breeds of Beef Cattle||Angus, Brahman, and Brahman related, Charolasis, Chianina, Gelbvieh, Hereford (horned), Red anus, etc|
|what is the difference between Service and Therapy animals?||SERVICE Animals: ADA protection, NO certification, NO screening. Serves an individual, therapy groups. THERAPY Animals: are vetted(background check/examined), service not necessary. NO ADA protection, Certification and or registry available, Multiple screenings.|
|Which of the major enterprises have very high labor and investment needs per animal unit? Which provide good cash flow? Which may have greater financial risks?||The Dairying business requires a high volume of labor and a large investment in facilities and equipment. The daily production of milk and at least every other day delivery of milk to the processing plant results in a good cash flow and Dairy are relatively a low risk long term business. Some sheep operations have adopted the practice of confinement lamb production which requires high management skills and greater investment in facilities. Finishing lambs has been a relatively high risk buisness.|
|What effect does the amount of lignin in a feed have upon its nutritive content?||The lignin content rapidly increases as plants mature. Because it is indigestible and prevents some of the more digestible carbohydrates from being digested.|
|What are some important areas of herd management?||1. Selecting for desired production and structural soundness, especially the udder and the feed and legs.2. Maintaining excellence in reproductive and overall herd health to achieve a 12.5 to 13 month calving interval 3. Feeding according to milk production and body condition4. Using records for herd management and decision making.5. Providing proper housing for comfort and cleanliness of the cow6. Using proper milking procedures that ensure high quality milk and a healthy udder.|
|What characteristics do all chordates share?||They have a noto chord,a nerve chord, and pharyngeal slits|
|Protein Efficiency on adjusted for Human Biological Value||Human Value of Protein in Milk/Human Value of Protein in Grain = 468/312 = 1.5 (150%)|
|Why are Mohair breeds used in goods of fine quality that are subjected to hard usage?||Mohair excels in luster, durability, and affinity for fast dyes, so it is used in goods of fine quality that are subjected to hard usage.|
|Over the past 10 years there has been an increase in||o 15% of Milk Productiono 19% of Milk Per Cow|
|What do all swine producers want to produce?||Swine are raised to produce lean, high quality pork. They are a "meat type hog"|
|What should be done in the first 24 hrs to the new born calves of heifers?||
2. Feed Colostrum
3. Give Calfguard
4. Iodine on naval
|What kind of animal is the milking shorthorn?||It is a distinct part of the shorthorn breed that produces excellent dairy herds|
|What should be done relative to feeders and waterers for horses?||You can feed hay on the ground or in a feeder but the waterers and grain feeders must be about 36 inches off the ground|