Complete List of Terms and Definitions for Physics 12

Terms Definitions
Vector
angular freq w=2(pi)f
Buoyant force equation F(b)=(density)(volume)g
Noble Gases Helium,Neon,Argon,Krypton, and Radon.
cebus nuts, prehensile tail, opposable thumb
Power Power= Work/timeUnits: WattsA kilowatt is 1000 watts.
Temperature metallic conductors, the resistance becomes greater as the temp rises
elastic potential energy (spring) PE = ½kx²
What kind of wave is sound? Longitudinal
measurement comparison btwn. unknown quantity and standard
Dispersion the process of separating radiation into various wavelengths
velocity rapidity of motion or operation; swiftness; speed:
Andromeda Galaxy, M31, is the nearest spiral galaxy
uniform motion motion where equal displacements occur during successive equal time intervals
weightlessness when an object's apparent weight is zero
Mixture A substance that is mixed together with out chemically bonding.
WHich instrument is the human eye most similar to? camera
An unfortuanate bug splatters against the windshield of a moving car. Compared to the deceleration of the car, teh deceleration of the bug is: much greater
Does radiation require a medium (e.g. air) for transport? No
a set of particles or interactive components considered to be a distinct physical enity for the purpose of study. system
atom the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element, consisting of a nucleus containing combinations of neutrons and protons and one or more electrons bound to the nucleus by electrical attraction; the number of protons dete
Hydraulic Devices A machine that uses a liquid (generally oil) to produce enormous forces with only a very small force (examples: barber chair, automobile lift, computer chair)
The more __________ and object has the harder it is to stop. Momentum.
Electromagnetic wave a wave emitted by vibrating electric charges (often electrons) and composed of vibrating electric and magnetic fields that regenerate one another
Motion diagram a series of images showing the positions of a moving objects taken at regular (equal) time intervals
If you double the frequency of a vibrating object, what will its period do? decrease
A barometer is an instrument used for measuring water pressure False
A barometer is an instrument used for measuring water pressure Chapter 20 Gases
What component of a US system controls the electrical signals sent to the transducer? Pulser
Centripetal accel & force V^2/r and mV^2/r
CD The laser reads bumps on the CD surface to determine if the digital bit is a 1 or 0. The data track is very long if one were to stretch it out it would be 5 km long.
How many gallons of gasoline (not diesel) are produced from a barrel of crude oil? 15-30 gallons
Kinetic Energy The energy of an object in motion, calculated by the equation KE = 1/2 mv^2 and given in the SI unit of Joules (J)
pascals principal any change in pressure applied at any point on a confined fluid is transmitted undiminished throughout the fluid
4 things about X-rays Can be created when high-speed electrons hit a metal target.
Can be produced naturally in stars and hot gasses in the universe.
Used my doctors/dentists to look at bones/teeth because the bones absorb or reflect the rays. Can cause damage to cells and DNA.
Where are coefficients written in a chemical equation? Before the compound.
According to Newton's third law, if you push gently on something, it will push gently on you.
According to Newton's third law, if you push gently on something, it will push Chapter 6 Newton's Third Law of Motion
Diffuse reflection he random reflection of light from a rough surface, which results in a fuzzy, scattered reflection
Concave Lens A diverging lens, thicker at its outer edge than at its center.
What does NOT utilize total internal reflection? Simple converging lenses
drag force the forces exerted by a fluid on an object moving through the fluid; depends on the object's motion and properties and the fluid's properties
Huygen's Principle every point on a wave can be regarded as a secondary wavelet which spreads out with the same velocity
a. Prove through congruent triangles for i = r
A superposition of an infinite number of these wavelets gives us the next wave front (or the tangent to all of the tiny circular wave fronts is the next wave front)
What type of doppler would you use if you didn't want to have aliasing? CW doppler
conservation of linear momentum the principle that the linear momentum of a system has constant magnitude and direction if the system is subjected to no external force.
Newton's first law An object that is at rest will remail at rest or an object that is moving will continue to move in a straight line with constant speed, if and only if the net force acting on the object is zero
What is the formula for ampere? ampere = volt ---= ohm
Describe the properties of a liquid Particles are mobile, but relatively close. Shape is like container. Definite volume. Flows. High or Low density. Not compressible. Expands slightly on heating.
What will happen to the kinetic energy of a car if its velocity doubles? KE increases by 4x (quadruples.)
The center of mass of the solar system varies as the planets move
The center of mass of the solar system Chapter 10 Center of Gravity
Some famous supernova remnant are M1= Crab nebula in Tau; Cygnus Loop = Veil Nebula; Cas A in Cas
The process of changing a liquid to a gas is condensation False
The process of changing a liquid to a gas is condensation Chapter 23 Change of phase
At what part of the path does a projectile have a minimum speed? at the top of its path
What is required to create a practical laser? An energy source, optical cavity, and an atom that can be put into a relative long-lived excited state


The law of inertia says that 

 if there is no force on a body, the body will have no acceleration.
λ Wavelength
absolute pressure total pressure
Hertz The unit of frequency
gamma ray high-frequency electromagnetic radiation emitted by atomic nuclei
Capacitors
(in parellel)
ADD!
 
 
C1+C2+C3 = Ceq
 
- Have equal voltage!
Arcturus is in the constellation... Bootes
inexperienced not experienced; lacking knowledge, skill, or wisdom gained from experience.
Wavelength distance between 1 wave and another
As radiation passes through the patients body it undergoes? attenuation
A popular swinging apparatus consists of an aligned row of identical elastic balls suspended by strings so they touch each other. When two balls on one end are elvated and released, they slam into the array of balls and two balls pop out the other side. energy
1 atm = ? mmHg 760 mmHg
emblem an object or its representation, symbolizing a quality, state, class of persons, etc.; symbol:
What does the Reticular Formation do? Sleep cycles
Define Hertz. -SI Unit of Frequency
-One vibration per second 
Three values were obtained are all around the same area, but the true value isnt near them. what are they? Precise
Free Fall Motion under the influence of gravity- no air resistance ect. allowed- not necessarily falling down- all objects fall at the same rate (Galileo)
The rate of energy transfer? Units? Power. watts
resonance occurs when small forces are applied at regular intervals to a vibrating or oscillating object and the amplitude of the vibration increases
acceleration the act of accelerating; increase of speed or velocity.
beats the effect produced by interference of waves of slightly different frequency, producing a pattern of alternating intensity.
Electron Volt The voltage created by a potential difference between the two terminals of a cell when no current is flowing
Magnetic Field Strength (Permeability of a Vacuum)I / 2(pi)r
Any filtration that is found outside the tube and housing is called: added filtration
Heat The neergy that flows from a stbstance of higher temperature to a substance of lower temperature.
period the time needed to complete one cycle of motion
On a Kodak CR system the exposure value of _________ reflects good exposure. 1800-2200
terminal velocity the downward speed at which the acceleration of a falling object is zero because friction balances weight
WHERE IS THE ROTOR SITUATED? INSIDE THE GLASS ENVELOPE
conduction the transfer of heat between two parts of a stationary system, caused by a temperature difference between the parts
pascal (Pa) the SI unit of measurement of pressure; equivalent to N/m2.
Tangent a line on a graph which passes through a point and has a slope equal to the slope of the curve at that point
x-ray and light photons deposit energy into silver halide crystals
average velocity the change in position, divided by the time during which the change occurred; the slope of an object's position time graph
The observed slowing of a clock in the vicinity of a black hole is a prediction of... general relativity
In radiography the matrix size is : 2500 x 2500
a ----- change in mas is the minum need to see a perceptible change in optical density 30%
what is the most commonly produced shapes of artificial magnets bars or horseshoes
RC circuit a circuit that contains a resistor and a capacitor in series with one another.
A ____ _____ is a lightweight magnet on a frictionless pivot or swivel, The magnet is generally called a ____? Magnetic compass, Needle
When does constructive interference happen? When a pair of "in-phase" waves combine to form 1 wave which has greater amplitude than either of the original waves.
Which has more momentum, a large truck moving at 30 miles per hour or a small truck moving at 30 miles per hour? The large truck
Which has more momentum, a large truck moving at 30 miles per hour or a small truck moving at 30 miles per hour? Chapter 7 Momentum
Describe the properties of a solid Close, tightly packed particles. Definite shape and volume. Does not flow. High or low density. Not compressible. Expands slightly on heating.
alternating current (scalar; A) a type of electrical current that changes direction regularly in time.
Normal Force a force that acts on a surface in a direction perpendicular to the surface
If a hockey puck were to slide on a perfectly frictionless surface, it will eventually slow down because of its inertia False
If a hockey puck were to slide on a perfectly frictionless surface, it will eventually slow down because of its inertia Chapter 4
the magnetic south pole of the earth is located _______________ near the geographic north
Rules for determining Significant Figures 1. all non-0 #s are significant (any #1-9)
2.0's at the end of a # will only count if theres a decimal point
3.0's in the beginning of a # never count
4.0's between non-0 #s always count
What 2 intensities have the same value for CW? Pulse average and temporal average
How did Roemer record the speed of light? Jupiter's moon Io, used naturally occuring thing to time
Newton's First Law of Motion A body remains at rest or in uniform velocity unless acted on by an unbalanced force.

Inertia
What does a beam of light travel fastest in? a vacuum or the least dense material
What is Newton's Third Law of Motion? If an object exerts a force on a second object, then the second object exerts a force back on the first object. The forces are equal in magnitude, but opposite in direction.
Why is it less likely to be cold on a cloudy night? Because the clouds reflect heat back to us.