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Terms Definitions
vibration oscillation
liquids and gases fluids
quantum called a photon
atomic number number of protons
any push or pull force
atomic number number of protons
tritium unstable radioactive isotop of hydrogen whose atom has a proton two neutrons and an electron
generator- machine that produces electric current, usually by rotating a coil within a stationary magnetic field
volt SI unit of electric potential
gamma ray- high frewuency electromagnetic radiation emitted by atomic nuclei
sound longitudinal wave phenomenon that consists of successive compressions and rarefaction of the medium through which the wave travels
What is the lightest element hydrogen
ultrasonic term applied to sound frequencies above 20,000 hertz the normal upper limit of human hearing
Planck's Constant fundamental constant of quantum theory that determines the scale of the small scale world plancks constant multiplied by the frequency of radiation gives the energy of a photon of that radiation
potential difference difference in electric potential between two points free charge flows when there is a differen and will continue until both points reach a common potential
Atom - smallest particle of an element
Alternating Current: Electric current that rapidly reverses in direction. The electric charges vibrate about relatively fixed positions usually at the rate of 60 hertz
transformer device for increasing or decreasing or decreasing voltage
solid phase of matter characterized bu definite shape and volume
_______ = force/ area of application pressure
the diagonal of the rectangel described by the two vectors resultant
nucleon principal building block of the nucleus a neutron or a proton the collectice name for either or both
thermometer device used to meausre temperature usually in degrees celsius F or K
neutron electrically neutral particle that is one of the two kinds of nucleons that compose an atomic nucleus
cyclotron- particle accelerator that imparts high energy to charged particals such as protons, deuterons and helium ions
An objects acceleration is proportional to its net force
Fuse- device in an electric circuit that breaks the circuit when the current gets high enough to risk causing fire
voltage electrical pressure or a measure of electrical ptenotail difference
longitudinal wave - wave in which the individual particles of a medium vibrate back and forth in the direction in which the wave travels (sound)
Absolute zero- lowest possible temperature that any substance can have; the temp. at which the atoms of a substance have their minimum kinestic energy. The temp. of absolute zero is -273.15 C which is -459.7 F and 0 K
conductor- material through which heat can be transferred material usually a metal through which electric charge can flow good conductors of heat are generally good electric charge conductors
Acoustics- study of the properties of sound, especially its transmission
diffraction- bending of light that passes around an obstacle or through a narrow slit, causing the light to spread and to produce light and dark fringes
Element- substance composed of atoms that all have the same atomic number and therefore the same chemical properties
electromagnetic spectrum- range of frequencies over which electromagnetic radiation can be propogated. The lowest frew. Are associated with radio waves, microwaves have a higher freq. and then infrared waves light ultraviolet radiation, X rays, and gamma rays in sequence
electrodynamics- study of moving electric charge, as opposed to electrostatics
electric current- flow of electric charges that transports energy from one place to another, Measured in ameperes, where one ampere is the flow of 6.25 10^18 electrons per second
rarefaction region of reduced pressure in a longitudianl wave
transmutation conversion of an atomic nucleus of one element into an atoamic nucleus of another element through a loss or gain the number of protons
total distance covered divided by time average speed
________ ~ 1/mass acceleration is inversely proportional to mass
________ is directly proportional to net force ACCELERATION~net force
a quantity that is completely described by magnitude only scalar quantity
Frequency- the number of vibrations or wave crests per unit of time. HERTZ
Fuse- device in an electric circuit that breaks the circuit when the current gets high enough to risk causing fire
transparent term applied to materials that allow lght to pass through them in straight lines
opaque term applied to material that absorb light withotu reemission and consequently do not allow light through them
chain reaction- self sustaining reaction that, once started steadily provides the energy and matter necessary to continue the reaction
boiling- change from liquid to gas occurring beneath the surface of the liquid; rapid vaporization. The liquid loses energy the gas gains it
What is force a push or a pull
Kelvin scale- temp scale, measured in kelvins K, whose zero is the temp at which it is impossible to extract any more internal energy from a material 0K= -273.15 C there are no negative temp. on the K scale
magnetic field- region of magnetic influence around a magnetic pole or a moving charged particle
radiotherapy use of radiation as a treatment to kill cancer cells
reflection reutrn of light rays from a surface in sich a way that the angle at whcih a given ray is tretuend is equal to the angle at whic it strikes the surface
electromagnetic radiation- transfer of energy by the rapid oscillations of electromagnetic fields, which travel in the form of waves called electromagnetic waves
circuit breaker- device in an electric circuit that breaks the circuit when the current gets high enough to risk causing a fire
parallel circuit electric circuit with two or more devices connected in such a way that the same voltage acts across each one and ay single one completes the circuit independetly of the others
liquid- phase of matter between the solid and gaseous phases in which the matter possesses a definite colume but no definite shape it takes on the shape of its container
When no horizontal _______ acts on a projectile, the horizontal velocity remains constant force
The ______ the angle of support ropes or wire from the vertical, the larger the tension force in them greater
Celsius scale- temperature scale that assigns 0 to the melt freeze point for water and 100 to the boil-condense point of water at standard pressure
oscillation same as vibration a repeating to and fro motion about an equilibrium position both oscillation and vibration refer to periodic motion that is mption that repeats
circuit breaker- device in an electric circuit that breaks the circuit when the current gets high enough to risk causing a fire
convection- means of heat transfer by movement of heated substances itself such as by currents in a fluid.
direct current -electric current whose flow of charge is always in one direction
electric field- force filed that fills the space around every electric charge or group of charges
electromagnetic radiation- transfer of energy by the rapid oscillations of electromagnetic fields, which travel in the form of waves called electromagnetic waves
strong force force that attracts nucleons to each other within the nucleus a force that is very strong at close distancesbut decreases rapidly as the distance increatses strong interaction
Freezing- change in phse from liquid to solid the opposite of melting
radiotherapy use of radiation as a treatment to kill cancer cells
what is the most abundant element hydrogen, almost 90%
Define mixture a substance whos components are mixed together without chemically combining
condensation- change of phase of a gas into a liquid,
atomic mass the average of the masses of the exisintg istopes of an element
wave a wiggle in space and time a REGULAR DISTURBANCE that repeats regularly in sace and time and that is trasmitted progressively from on place to the next with no net transport of matter
electrical resistance- resistance of a material to the flow of electric charge through it measure in ohms
1 newton per square meter is equal to one _________ pascal
condensation- change of phase of a gas into a liquid,
evaporation- change of phase from ;iquid to a gas that takes place at the surface of a liquid the opposite of condensation
radiant energy any energy including heat light and x rays that is trasnmitted by radiation it occurs in the form of electromagnetic waves
Antinode- any part of a standing wave with max. displacement and max energy
shock wave cone shaped wave prodiced nu am object moving at supersonic speed through a fliod
What is inertia the property of things to resist change in motion
Where did Eratosthenes learn that the sun is directly overhead at the summer solstice in Syene? from library information
Define Hookes law the amount of stretch or compression of an elastic material is directly proportional to the applied force; F ~change in x. When the spring constant k is introduced, F = k changein x
Bernoullis principle when the speed of a fluid increases the internal pressure in the fluid decreases
Define density the mass of a substance per unit volume
density = mass/volume
Principle of flotation a floating object dispalces a weight of fluid equal to its own weight
Fahrenheit scale- temp scale in common use in the US the number 23 is assigned to the melt freeze point of water, and the number 212 to the boil condense point of water at standard pressure
Angle of Incidence - Angle between the incidence ray and the normal to the surface it encounters
Angle of Incidence - Angle between the incidence ray and the normal to the surface it encounters
Angle of reflection- “ “ between the reflected ray and the normal to the surface of reflection
ion- atom with a net charge which is due to the loss or gain of electrons a positive ion has a net
Define atomic bonding the linking of atoms to form larger structures
define buoyant force the net upward force that a fluid exerts on an immersed object
electric potential energy - energy a charge has due to its locations in an electric field
sound barrier the pile up of sound waves in front of an aircraft approaching or reaching the speed of sound, believed in the early days of jet aircraft to create a barried of soujn that a plane would have to break throuhg in order to go faster than the speed of sound the sound barried does not exist (waves still pile up but no barrier to stop it)
What is quantum mechanics theory of the small scale world that includes predicated wave properties of matter
What is a law? when a hypothesis has been tested over and over again and has not been contradicted
What is a scientific theory a synthesis of a large body of information taht encompasses well-tested and verified hypothesis about certain aspects of the natural world
What is mechanical equilibrium no change in motion. Ex. if a rest, stays at rest; if moving, continues moving without change
What is a vector quantity? a quantity such as force taht has both magnitude and direction
Are we accelerating if we are moving in a curved path at a constant speed? Yes, because we are changing direction and thus our velocity is changing
quantum called a photon
an educated guess hypothesis
photon QUANTA PACKET OF ENERGY
Ampere: unit of electric current
Ampere: unit of electric current
cyclotron- particle accelerator that imparts high energy to charged particals such as protons, deuterons and helium ions
noise scientifically speaking, sound that sorresponds to an irregular vibration of the eardrum produced by some irregular vibration which appears on an oscilloscope as an irregular pattern
convex mirror- mirror that curves outward
speed in a given direction velocity
hertz (Hz)- SI unit of frequency
noise scientifically speaking, sound that sorresponds to an irregular vibration of the eardrum produced by some irregular vibration which appears on an oscilloscope as an irregular pattern
radiation energy transmitted by electromagnetic waves the particles given off by radioactive atoms such as uranium do not confuse radionat with radioactivity
mass number the number of nucleons
microwaves electromagnetic waves with grequencies greater than radio waves buyt less than infrared waves
laser- optical instrument that produces a beam of coherent light that is light with all wves of the same frequency phase and direction. The word is an acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation
ionization- process of adding or reoving electrons to or from the atomic nucleus
wave speed WAVELENGTH * FREQ= WAVE SPEED
Galvanometer- instrument used to detect electric current
beta particle- electron emitted during radioactive decay of certain nuclei
resistor device in an electric circiot designed to resist the flow of charge
neutron electrically neutral particle that is one of the two kinds of nucleons that compose an atomic nucleus
thermometer device used to meausre temperature usually in degrees celsius F or K
the veritical component of a projectile changes with time due to ________ gravity
Science and technology are _______ enterprises human
potential difference difference in electric potential between two points free charge flows when there is a differen and will continue until both points reach a common potential
solid phase of matter characterized bu definite shape and volume
electricity- general term for electrical phenomena much like gravity has to do wit gravitations phenomena or sociology with social phenomena
Galvanometer- instrument used to detect electric current
beta particle- electron emitted during radioactive decay of certain nuclei
Barometer any device that measures atmospheric pressure
Velocity means how fast and what direction
heat- the energy fthat flows from one object to another by virtue of a difference in temp. measured in calories or joules
magnetic domain microscopic cluster of atoms with their magnetic fields aligned
pitch term that refers to our subjective impression about the highness or the lowness of a tone, whoch is related to the frequency of the tone a high vibrating source produces a sound of high pitch...low produces low
boiling- change from liquid to gas occurring beneath the surface of the liquid; rapid vaporization. The liquid loses energy the gas gains it
Frequency- the number of vibrations or wave crests per unit of time. HERTZ
quantum mechanics concerned witht he atomic microworld based on wave functions and probabilities introduced by max planck and developed by heisenberg erwin schrodinger and others
the friction acting on something moving through air air resistance
falling objects only affected by gravity free falling
elementary particles- subatomic particles the basic building blocks of all matter consisting of two classes or particles the quarks and the leptons
electrode- terminal for example of a battery through which electric current can pass
critical mass- minimum mass of fissionable material in a nuclear reactor or nuclear bomb that will sustain a chain reaction. A subcritical mass is one in which the cahin reaction dies out. A supercritical mass is one in which the chaine reaction builds up explosively
electric current- flow of electric charges that transports energy from one place to another, Measured in ameperes, where one ampere is the flow of 6.25 10^18 electrons per second
nuclear fission splitting of an atomic nucleus particularly that od a heavy element such as uranium 235 into two ligher elements accompanied by the relase of much energy
rarefaction region of reduced pressure in a longitudianl wave
Atmospheric pressure the pressure exerted against bodies immersed in the atmosphere. It results from the weight of air pressing down from above. At sea level, atmospheric pressure is about 101 kPa
Define compound atoms of different elements are chemically bonded
insulator - material that is a porr conductor of hear that is a poor conductor of electricity
kilowatt-hour- amount of energy consumed in 1 hour at the rate of 1 kilowatt
refraction bending of an oblique ray of light when it passes from one transparent medium to another difference i speed of light in the transparent
crest- part of a wave where the disturbance is highest at greates
de Broglie matter waves- all particles have wave properties
magnetic force - between magnets, it is the attraction of unlike magnetic poles for each other and the repulsion between like magnetic poles. Between a magnetic field, and a moving charged particle, it is a deflecting force due to the motion of the particle: The deflecting force is perpendicular to the magnetic field line sna dhte firection of motion. This force is greatest when the charged particle moves perpendicular to the field lines and is smallest when it moves parallel to the field lines
transverse wave wave with vibration at right angles to the direction the wave is traveling light consists of transverse waves
destructive interference- combination of waves so that crest parts of one wave overlap trough parts of another, resulting in a wave of decreased amplitude
charging by induction- redistribution of electric charges in and on objects cause by the electrical influence of a charged object close by but not in contact
A method that is extremeley effective in gaining, organizing, and applying new knowledge scientific method
the amount of force per unit of area pressure
the ________ component of motion for a projectile is completely independent of the vertical component of motion horizontal
isotopes- atoms where nuclei have the same numer of protons but different amount of neutrons
radioactive term applied to an atom having an unstable nuclues that can spontaneously emit a particle and become the nucleus of an other elemt
longitudinal wave - wave in which the individual particles of a medium vibrate back and forth in the direction in which the wave travels (sound)
liquid- phase of matter between the solid and gaseous phases in which the matter possesses a definite colume but no definite shape it takes on the shape of its container
parallel circuit electric circuit with two or more devices connected in such a way that the same voltage acts across each one and ay single one completes the circuit independetly of the others
charging by contact- transfer of electric charge between objects by rubbing or simple touching
destructive interference- combination of waves so that crest parts of one wave overlap trough parts of another, resulting in a wave of decreased amplitude
normal at right angles to or perpendicular to a normal force acts at right angles to the surface on which it acts in optics, a normla defines the line perpendicular to a surface about which angles of light rays are measured
Kelvin scale- temp scale, measured in kelvins K, whose zero is the temp at which it is impossible to extract any more internal energy from a material 0K= -273.15 C there are no negative temp. on the K scale
heat- the energy fthat flows from one object to another by virtue of a difference in temp. measured in calories or joules
diffraction- bending of light that passes around an obstacle or through a narrow slit, causing the light to spread and to produce light and dark fringes
Free fall acceleration is approximately equal to/ 10 meters per second
If you know both speed and direction of an object, we know it's ________ velocity
If you double net force, then you _____ acceleration double
Define element a pure substance consisting of only one kind of atom
ion- atom with a net charge which is due to the loss or gain of electrons a positive ion has a net
electromagnetic induction- phenomenon of inducing a voltage in a conductor by changing the magnetic field near the conductor. If the magnetic field within a closed loop changes in any way, a voltage is induced in the loop. Te induction of voltage is actually the result of a more fundamental phenomenon: the induction of an electric field
Doppler effect- change in frequency of a wave of sound or light due to the motion of the source or the receiver. Red shift blue shift
transuranic element elemtn with an atomic number above 92 which is the atomic number of uranium all MAN MADE AFTER
half-life- time required for half the atoms of a radioactive isotope of an element to decay.
combination of all forces acting on an object net force
an object with a curved path of motion consisting of a horizontal and vertical component projectile
crest- part of a ave where the disturbance is highest at greates
compression (in sound)- in sound the region of increased pressure in a longitudinal wave
calorie- unit of heat. One calorie is the heat required to raise the temp of one gram of water 1 celsius degree. Once calorie with a capital C is equal to one thousand calories and is the unit used in describing the energy available from food also kilocalorie
half-life- time required for half the atoms of a radioactive isotope of an element to decay.
reflection reutrn of light rays from a surface in sich a way that the angle at whcih a given ray is tretuend is equal to the angle at whic it strikes the surface
watt SI unite of power one watt is expended when one joule of work is done in one second
What is a vector quantity it has magnitude and direction
what is an atom tiny building block; smallest particle of an element that has all of the elements chemical properties
What is average speed average speed = total distance covered/time interval
Define isotopes different forms of atoms that have the same # of protons but different # of neutrons
Define dark matter unseen and unidentified matter that is evident by its gravitational pull on stars in the galaxies. consitutes 90% of the stuff in the universe
In the absence of net forces a moving object tends to move along a __________ path indefinitely straight-line
sound barrier the pile up of sound waves in front of an aircraft approaching or reaching the speed of sound, believed in the early days of jet aircraft to create a barried of soujn that a plane would have to break throuhg in order to go faster than the speed of sound the sound barried does not exist (waves still pile up but no barrier to stop it)
magnetic pole- one of the regions on a magnet that produces magnetic forces
heat of vaporization- amount of energy that must be added to a kilogram of a liquid to vaporize it
electric potential energy - energy a charge has due to its locations in an electric field
Define Atomic nucleus the ocre of an atom, has protons and neutrons
What 5 elements are living things composed of ? oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium
What sign do downward and upward velocities have? downward velocities are negative and upward velocities are positive
point at which the air resistance on an object equals the weight of the feather, the net force is zero and no further acceleration occurs terminal speed or terminal velocity for falling objects
How do you calculate the total distance traveled? total distance covered = average speed x time
What is the equilibrium rule for any object or system of objects in equilibrium the sum of forces acting equlas zero
F P * A
Earth's diameter iis 8,000 miles
Electromagnetic waves are transverse waves
Electromagnetic waves are Chapter 27 Light
system a defined collection of objects
Newton unit used to measure force
wave a progressive disturbance propagated in a medium without progress or advance by the points themselves, as in the transmission of sound or light
What do you use seconds for? Time
Electromagnet many wire loops around unmagnetized iron/steel rod. 
 
Current magnetizes iron
 
Result is much stronger magnet than that current alone
acceleration The rate at which velocity changes
___________is a key factor in controling OD mAs
wavelength the distance, measured in the direction of propagation of a wave, between two successive points in the wave that are characterized by the same phase of oscillation.
Pascal Force, which is measured in newtons, is differnet form pressure which is measured in newtons per square meter (Pa)
Which groove separates the temporal lobe from all other lobes? Lateral Sulcus
THE DAMPING MATERIAL IN A TRANSDUCER DECREASES THE BANDWIDTH.
T OR F
FALSE
If the upward direction is positive, during the flight of a projectile, the acceleration on the object is:
positive
negative
positive then negative
negative then positive
negative
light – Electromagnetic radiation that has a wavelength in the range from about 4,000 (violet) to about 7,700 (red) angstroms and may be perceived by the normal unaided human eye.
nuclear fusion combining of nuclei of lght atoms
The electric field produced by a positive charge is directed _________ from the charge. away
viscosity the state or quality of being viscous.
What is the international standard still defined by an object stored under controlled conditions in an International Bureau of Standards location? The kilogram
Nonconservative Force A force, such as friction, that performs work over a distance that is dependent on the path taken between the initial and final positions
extrapolation the estension of a graphed line beyond the region in which data was taken
Free Fall motion under influence of only the force of gravity and nothing else. 
Capacitance The ratio of an object's stored charge to its electric potential difference
Currently the value of the Hubble constant is thought to be very close to... 70 km/s/Mpc
Which solution can be affected by even the smallest amount of temperature change? Developer
What is the attenuation coefficient of 1 MHz US in soft tissue? 5 dB/cm
the relationship of the voltage output to voltage input in an autotransformer is what autotransformer law
inertia the property of matter by which it retains its state of rest or its velocity along a straight line so long as it is not acted upon by an external force
inelastic collision a collision between objects in which the kinetic energy changes, for example, due to deformation or frictional loss.
Gill Arches Skeletal Elements supporting the gill slits in nonvertebrate chordates and some vertebrates
Controlled Experiment experiments are usually set up as a controlled experiment
net force The combination of all the force that act on an object.
The current through a 12 ohm resistor connected to a 220V power supply is______ 10 amps
The stage of the manufacturing process in which colored dyes are added to match the wavelengths of light photons is the: The mixing stage
what is the consequence of having film stored at a temperature that is lower than recommended static artifact
A chemical compound always contains exactly the same proportion of elements by mass
Law of Definite composition
ampere (A) the SI unit of measurement of current; equivalent to C/s.
coefficient of kinetic friction slope of line between two surfaces, relating frictional force to normal force
Great axial resolution is associated with
______ spatial pulse length
______ pulse duration
______ frequencies
_________ wavelength
________ cycles
_______ ringing
_________ numerical value
shorter spatial pulse length
shorter pulse duration
high frequency
short wavelength
few cycles
less ringing
 lower numerical value
When something falls to the ground, it accelerates.This acceleration is called the acceleration due to gravity and is symbolized by the letter g. What is the value of Earth's surface? about 10 m/s^2
When something falls to the ground, it accelerates.This acceleration is called the acceleration due to gravity and is symbolized by the letter g. What is the value of Earth's surface? Chapter 2 Linear Motion
patient dose and variable kvp higher dose and less exposure latitiude
uncertainty principle the statement that, due to the laws of quantum mechanics, it is impossible to simultaneously exactly measure a particle's position and momentum or to exactly measure a particle's energy for a finite amount of time.
The shortest plane mirror in which you can see your entire image Is half your height
Newton hypothesized that the moon is a projectile, is falling around Earth, has tangential velocity that prevents it from falling into Earth, is actually attracted to Earth
Newton hypothesized that the moon Chapter 12 Universal Gravitation
What is the frequency and voltage range for an EMG high voltage, up to 10,000hz
The primary purpose of a grid is to: decrease scatter reaching the receptor
An object travles 2 meters in the first second of travel, 2 meters again during the second second of travel, and 2 meters again during the third second. It's acceleration is: 0/it is staying the same
Gauss's Law for magnetic fields We can't enclose a net pole within a surface, and is the mathematical statement that magnetic field lines form closed loops, they don't start or stop, which is why there are no magnetic monopoles.
How does a sequential array work? 5-10 elements are fired at exactly the same time and the sound wavelets combine to form one beam. Then the next group is fired
Put these in decreasing order of impedence:
 
matching layer, PZT, skin, gel
PZT > matching layer > gel > skin
What are U-Values and how do we calculate them? Architects can work out the heat lost from a building using U-values and a formulae.
 
Heat lost/Second =
U-Value x Area x Temperature difference
 
Temperature difference =
Temperature inside the house - Temperature outside the house. 
Pressure in liquids formula P p x g x h

P- pressure p-density g-gravity h-height

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