##### Physics Final
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#### Complete list of Terms and Definitions for Physics Final

Terms Definitions
cos30° 0.85
Femto f -15
Charge Coulomb C (esu)
E_photon h x frequency    h--planks constant    blue? more energy than red: X-ray, Gamma-rays very high   energy
Power P = ΔE/t = Fvcosθ
What is Work measured in? Joules
potential difference and potential energy are _______ quantities. scalar
Beats A periodic frequency resulting from the superposition of two waves that have slightly differet frequencies, given by fbeat=absolute value(f1-f2)
Applied over phospor layer-limits abrasions and staining from use: protective coat
Kepler's third law equation (GMsun/4π^2)T^2 = r^3
What artifact is created by interference effects of scattered sound, and makes a grainy appearance? Speckle
Atom Smallest fragment of a particular element that is still recognizable as such
1 arcsec at a angle = 1/3600 degree
larger spring constant k means stronger, stiffer spring
amplitude in periodic motion, the max. distance object moves from equilibrium
Element *a substance that can't be broken down, already in lowest form possible *basis for all creation *made up of only one type of atoms
velocity-time graph plots velocity versus time to determine the sign of object's acceleration
The federal law that requires all mammography facilities to comply with the Mammography Quality Standards Act, went into affect in: 1994
Scatter is the principle source of radiographic noise T or F t
matter takes a specific shape not dependent on containers solid
isotopes atoms where nuclei have the same number of protons but dif amount of nuetrons
Terminal Speed When the air resistance equals the weight of the object, the net force is zeor and no further acceleration occurs. You can reach equilibrium.
period time needed for object to repeat one comlpex cycle of motion
frequency the number of crests (waves) that pass by a given point in space in a second. The number of cycles a wave completes in a second.
What is the acceleration of gravity? - 9.8 m/s^2
instantaneous acceleration change in object's velocity at a specific instant in time
The amount of heat required to change the temperature of a unit mass of a substance by 1 degree is its specific heat capacity True
The amount of heat required to change the temperature of a unit mass of a substance by 1 degree is its specific heat capacity Chapter 21 Temperature, Heat, and Expansion
Does attenuation increase with a high or low frequency? High frequency
What is the formula for gibb's free energy? (delta)G=(delta)H-T(delta)S
Nucleons Particles that make up the nucleus of an atom
reverberate to be reflected many times, as sound waves from the walls of a confined space
Magnetic Force A force exerted on a charge particle moving through a magnetic field calculated using the equation FB = q v B sin Theta, where the angle denotes that only charges moving perpendicular to the magnetic field experience a force
Science is 1) a body of knowledge about the workings of nature and 2) the methods used to produce the body of knowledge
Precision How close data is to a set of measurements
Free Body Diagram represents forces that act on an object
If the mass of Earth increased, with no change in radius, your weight would increase also
If the mass of Earth increased, with no change in radius, your weight would Chapter 12 Universal Gravitation
How do you calculate the measured pressure? Actual circulatory pressure+hydrostatic pressure
Dry Cell Consist of a carbon rod surrounded by manganese dioxide and immersed in a paste composed of the ammounium chloride, zinc chloride, cellulose and a small amount of water
magic number the atomic number or neutron number of an exceptionally stable nuclide
paramagnetic and ferromagnetic: individual atoms do have a net B field
Given that the carbon atom has a mass of 12 amu, how many carbon atoms are there in a diamond with a mass of 1 g? 5.02e22 atoms
If a horse pulls on a wagon at rest, the wagon pulls back equally as much on the horse. Will the wagon be set in motion?: Yes
What is the formula for Q factor? Q factor= resonant frequency/bandwidth
newton law of motion any of three laws of classical mechanics, either the law that a body remains at rest or in motion with a constant velocity unless an external force acts on the body
Main sequence turnoff point star leaves main sequence as it gets old
The horns of the crescent moon ALWAYS point... away from the Sun.
list the two types of resolution that are involved in x ray quality spatial and contrast resolution
Newton's Second Law of Motion an unbalanced or net force causes an acceleration which is directly proportional to the force and inversely proportional to the mass of the object, formula: Fnet=m*a
Which of the following is NOT a transverse wave? sound
Which of the following is NOT a transverse wave? Chapter 25 Vibrations and Waves
What form of electrical power is usually available from an electrical socket in most American houses? 110-120 V AC at 60 Hz
A ball thrown in the air will never go as far as physics ideally would predict because air friction slows the ball
A ball thrown in the air will never go as far as physics ideally would predict because Chapter 3 Projectile Motion
What is electrical current? A flow of charge. In a wire it is the movement of electrons (which have negative charge) that make up the current.Never say the current is 'fast' or 'slow' - it is always big or small. It is the charge movement that is fast or slow!
what is the metric unit of measure for power watt (1 w = 1 j/s)
The Earth, which orbits the Sun in an elliptical path, reaches its closest point to the Sun on about January 4 each year. Will the work done by the gravitational force of the Sun on the Earth be positive, negative, or zero over the next 6 months?Will the The work done will be negative The work done will be zero
Weight
magnification m= -(i/o)
dilution M1V1=M2V2 ; M=molar
gravitional potential energy GPE= (mass)(gravity)(height)
baboons savannahs, estral swelling, tubers, terrestrial
Which component, horizontal or vertical, of an object's velocity remains constant as a projectile travels? horizontal
P= I= V= power in watts current in amperes resistance in ohms
charge on a capacitor Q = CV
Speed of sound depends on ________ elasticity
dep. variable factor depending on indep. variable
wavelength the distance between two consecutive crest or trough or any position and a similar position of a particle in the next wave in phase with it is called a wave length.
velocity rapidity of motion or operation; swiftness; speed:
Quasars to other Q's 10 billion light years
Sound waves assume which type of graph?   Longitudinal
agent the specific identifiable cause of a force
Atomic Number Number of protons in an atom.
What color light carries the most energy? violet
An object at rest May have: potential energy
What is the SI unit of pressure? Pasals
Three types of Accelerations Speed Increase Speed Decrease Change in direction of the body
phase a particular stage or point of advancement in a cycle; the fractional part of the period through which the time has advanced, measured from some arbitrary origin often expressed as an angle
Gas particles These particles are not packed tightly togehter so they are free to move freely in all directions.
What is the strongest form of friction? Static Friction
Pigments that absorb yellow shows blue (absorbs what color)
equilibriant a force that places an object in equilibrium; is the same magnitude as the resultant, but opposite in direction
What is the ultimate source of electromagnetic waves? vibrating charges
The air in your classroom has mass, energy, weight, temperature
The air in your classroom has Chapter 20 Gases
What is used to reduce the difference in impedance between the matching layer and skin? Gel
Average Velocity The ratio of the displacement (change in x) that occurs during a particular time interval (change in t) to that interval
Atmospheric Interference. Varying degrees of protection for the earth’s protective field can be used to filter out the harmful rays and allow the useful and less harmful rays to penetrate the atmosphere. At the beggining of the stratosphere most harmfull radiation is blocked out because it contains high concentrations of ozone.
What is the unit form refractive index? None (dimensionless)
Calorie A unit of heat (C) that equals 10^3 calories (c) or 4,184 Joules
bernoulli's principle as the velocity of a fluid increases, the pressure exerted by that fluid decreases
What is Geothermal energy? Geothermal energy comes from energy released by radioactive substances, deep within the Earth. The energy released by these radioactive substances heats the surrounding rock. As a result, heat is transferred towards the Earth's surface.
If an equation has the same number of atoms of each element on each side of the equation, the equation is considered to be_____. Balanced.
The rate of cooling of an object is proportional to the temperature difference between the object and its surroundings True
The rate of cooling of an object is proportional to the temperature difference between the object and its surroundings Chapter 22 Heat Transfer
Focal Length the distance between the center of a lens or mirror and the focal point
Coulomb's Law The magnitude of a force between two charges varies directly with the magnitude of the charges and inversely with the square of the distance between them.
When you are asked to state your opinion on the expected outcome of an experiment before you conduct the experiment, you are being asked to give... The hypothesis
What happens to the boiling point of water as the pressure increases? It also increases
Equilibrium a state of balance the state of a body on which no net force acts
Specific Heat Capacity Measure of the heat energy required to raise the temperature of a given mass of a specific substance by one degree in temperature
If the Nyquist limit is 3,000 Hz, what is the PRF? 6,000 Hz
rest mass mass of body as measured when body is at rest relative to an observer
law of conservation of energy is a closed, isolated system, energy isn't created or destroyed but conserved
Friction & 3 types A force that one surface exerts on another when the two rub against each other. The three types are fluid, rolling, sliding.
How can chemical properties be observed? Chemical properties are observed when a substance undergoes a change in composition
Give the formula for momentum in words. momentum= mass times velocity (or speed)
The three common phases of matter are mass, density, and volume False
The three common phases of matter are mass, density, and volume Chapter 23 Change of phase
Where are red giants located in the H-R diagram? Right corner, under K and M
Which has the greater angular speed, a horse near the outside rail of a merry-go-round or a horse near the inside rail Neither-they both have the same angular speed
Which has the greater angular speed, a horse near the outside rail of a merry-go-round or a horse near the inside rail Chapter 9 Circular Motion
Describe what happens to the motion of a moving object when a resultant force is applied to it in a perpendicular direction to the motion. It is turned in a circular motion.
What mechanism takes place in a fuel cell? Hydrogen and oxygen combine to produce water and energy
What is the most that can be said in general about an object in equilibrium? Its linear acceleration is zero and its angular acceleration is zero. ONLY if it were in static equilibrium would the object not be moving!
Angular Displacement dafsa
high speed= 200-1200 RS
friction slows down an object
wave speed wavelength times frequency
High atomic # preferred-Increases likelihood of x-ray photon: absorption
microwaves electromagnetic waves with frequencies great than radio waves but less than infrared waves.
accretion the sticking together of solid particles to produce a larger particle; due to the gravitational pull of each particle
fluid flows and has no definite shape
Electricity General term for electrical phenomena, much like gravity has to do with gravitational phenomena, or sociology with social phenomena.
True or false. Some mammography imaging units have their x-ray generators located in the housing with the x-ray tube. True
TERMS:USED FOR GLASS AND GLASSWARE THAT CONTAINS APPRECIABLE OXIDE OF BORON AND IS RESISTANT TO HEAT CHEMICALS AND ELECTRICITY PYREX
magnitude size, extent or dimensions, usually pertaining to something large
displacement Δx = (final position) - (initial position) net distance [plus direction]
Control the group is kept under normal conditions and standard comparisson.
Force Any influence that tends to accelerate an object, a push or pull, measured in newtons.
another name for a joule newton - meter
In an electrically neutral atom, the number of protons in the nucleus is balanced by an equal number of electrons
In an electrically neutral atom, the number of protons in the nucleus is balanced by an equal number of Chapter 17 he Atomic Nature of Matter
Current the flow (usually, the motion through a wire) of electrical charge (referred to as charge carriers).
probes to search into or examine thoroughly; question closely:
celestial equator the imaginary line around the sky directly above Earth's equator
How many steps are there in the scientific method? seven.
Charges moving in a magnetic field create an electric field. Electromagnetic induction
Static Friction the force that resists the initiation of sliding motion between two surfaces that are in contact and at rest
energy flow diagram shows the energy conversions that occur in a system
Postulate to assume to be true, real etc, especially as as basis for argument
alpha particle nucleus of a helium atom which consists of two neutrons and two protons, ejeted by certain radioactive nuclei
___________ occurs when a low energy photon impacts with an entire atom without ionizing the atom. The incident photon then changes direction. Coherent Scattering
Reflected Wave A returning wave that is either inverted or displaced in the same direction as the incident wave.
acoustics the branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves
Black hole is as big as 10¢ about 1 cm
Faraday's Law An electric field can also be created by a changing magnetic field, and is concerned with the changing magnetic flux through a closed surface.
Which of the following is evidence for the particle nature of light? photoelectric effect
Electric Field Force per unit charge and is a storehouse of electric energy.   About a charge point, it decreases with distance according to the inverse equare law.   Between oppositely charged parallel plates, it is uniform
Whenever an object exerts a force on another object, hte second object exerts a force of the same magnitude, but in the opposite direction to that of the first object. TRUE or FALSE: ALWAYS TRUE
half-life time required for half the atoms of a radioactive isotope of an element to decay
Resolving the Vector The process of finding the components of a vector
electromagnetic wave a wave produced by the acceleration of an electric charge and propagated by the periodic variation of intensities
Converging lens If the focal length of a lens is positive it is a _____ lens
What best describes the relationship between power, voltage and current? Power is voltage times current
Light shines on a pane of green glass and a pane of clear glass. The temperature will be higher in what pane of glass? green glass
The testing done to evaluate the added filtration of the beam is the ____: Half value layer
WHAT ARE THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF XRAY PRODUCTION? 1.DECELERATION (RAPID DECELERATION) 2.CHARACTERISTIC RADIATION
Force of gravity F(grav) = (GMm) / r² or, bc w = F(grav) g = (GM) / r²
Newton's 3rd Law When two bodies A and B interact, the force that A exerts on B is equal and opposite to the force that B exerts on A.
A known technique of 55 kVp @ 4 mAs with a 200 RS detail cassette is used for hand radiography. What would the technique be if the cassette were a 400-speed high speed cassette? 2 mAs
Density Formula pmv p-density m-mass v-volume g cm3 - x 1000 kg m3 triangle-
What is the formula to calculate intensity?     Intensity (W/cm2) = power(w) / area (cm2)
What is Avogadro's number? 6.022 x 10^23, the number of atoms in a mass equal to the gram molecular weight of the substance
Why does refraction take place? If light passes from air into a glass block. The change in density from the air to glass effects the speed the light travels. So the light bends if it is hit at an angle.
In an ideal solution, how much does one osmol of solute affect the boiling point? It increases it by 0.52 C
What are 2 causes of cross talk? 1. Doppler gain set too high 2. Incident angle near 90 degrees
How many bits are needed to represent 10 shades of gray? 4- can represent from 9-16 shades of gray. 3 bits can represent up to 8, and 5 are needed to represent 17