Documents about Adenosine Triphosphate

  • 22 Pages

    lec_1_introduction2007

    SUNY Albany, ABIO 365

    Excerpt: ... Welcome to: ANT317 BIO307 Exercise Physiology Prof: Tom Brutsaert SEE PAGE 1 OF YOUR SYLLABUS Course Website: Lecture power point files and other course materials will be posted on the University ERes system. The site can be accessed at: http:/eres.ulib.albany.edu/eres/ Or, find the site from the University Main Page. Follow prompts to access this course. PASSWORD: Exercise Exercise Physiology: Introduction http:/news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/may/6/newsid_2 511000/2511575.stm 3mins 59.4sec Human Performance Curve Bannister 6.7 m/s To run for 239.4 seconds Marathon: fastest humans run at about 5 meters/second for about 2 hours, or 7, 200 seconds The 100 meter dash: fastest humans run at 10 meters/second for about 10 seconds NOTE: X-axis is non-linear Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Energy currency of cellular/biochemical reactions Hydrolysis of ATP removes PO4 and releases 7.3 kcal/mol of en Adenosine Triphosphate ( ...

  • 7 Pages

    09_ATPRecovered

    San Diego State, BIOL 100

    Excerpt: ... ATP ATP allows the pitcher to throw a fastball. ATP All biological activities require energy in the form of a chemical molecule. This molecule is ATP, adenosine triphosphate which is composed of the following chemical structure. The major cast of characters is the following: Adenosine composed of Adenine and ribose and three phosphate groups: alpha, beta and gamma. ATP belongs to the family of nucleotides which also include DNA and RNA. In addition, the basic structure of nucleotides forms the basis for NAD, NADP, FAD, all compounds that are involved in producing indirectly ATP. How is the energy contained in ATP utilized by the cell? The simple answer is that the energy transmission occurs when ATP is cleaved by water. This process is called ATP hydrolysis. The energy released by ATP hydrolysis drives biochemical reactions that would not otherwise occur. Figure 1: ATP As an example, in the brain there is a molecule, glutamate which causes the cells to become excitable. Glutamate has to be co ...

  • 5 Pages

    Lecture 11 – Flow of Energy

    University of the Sciences in Philadelphia, BS 130

    Excerpt: ... to something small (hamburger [protein]) amino acids - Endergonic Energy in (input of energy) Not spontaneous Not thermodynamically favorable (unfavorable; not in agreement with the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics) - Potential energy of the initial state < potential energy of the final state Example: anabolism small parts built into larger part; (amino acids our proteins) ATP ( adenosine triphosphate ) + H2O ADP (adenosine diphosphate) + inorganic phosphate - Favorable because is something is exergonic, the product should be less organized (has extra phosphate) We get lots of energy from the above reaction, but we can't use it all 6. Living systems - We are considered endergonic It takes energy to keep us organized Without energy, we become H2O + CO2 - Initially, we get energy from solar (radiant) energy Photosynthesis chlorophyll electronic energy chemical energy(glucose) - Bonds (respiration) We can do aerobic respiration to break glucose down Overall, we get energy from aerobic respiration 7. Coupled reac ...

  • 3 Pages

    Lecture 8 Notes

    SUNY Stony Brook, BIO 202

    Excerpt: ... s become reactants, waste products are expelled from the cell huge free-energy difference between glucose and oxygen at the top of the energy hill and carbon dioxide and water at the downhill end 8.3 ATP powers cellular work by coupling exergonic reactions to endergonic reactions Cells do 3 main kinds of work Mechanical Beating of cilia Contraction of muscle cells Movement of chromosomes during cellular reproduction Transport: pumping of substances across membranes against the direction of spontaneous movement Chemical: pushing of endergonic reactions which would not occur spontaneously Synthesis of polymers from monomers Cells manage their energy resources to do work with Energy coupling: use of an exergoinc process to drive an endergonic one Most energy coupling in cells driven by ATP The Structure and Hydrolysis of ATOP ATP: adenosine triphosphate Ribose (sugar) + adenine (nitrogenous base) + chain of 3 phosphate groups B ...

  • 2 Pages

    TOPIC 13

    University of Ottawa, BIO 1140

    Excerpt: ... ytosine (C) and thymine (T). Immediately prior to their assembly into nucleic acids the nucleotides must be in the form of triphosphonucleotides (or nucleotide triphosphates) which means that there are three phosphates (look at the structure of the triphosphonucleotide adenosine triphosphate or ATP). In the process of chemical bonding into a nucleic acid polymer these triphosphates lose two of their phosphate groups so that they exist as monophosphonucleotides within the nucleic acid. Although present as monophosphonucleotides they are usually referred to simply as nucleotides when talking about DNA & RNA. In 1950 Chargaff developed the principle of base pairing. That is, there is exactly as much purine in the DNA as there is pyrimidine. To be more specific, the [A] (square brackets used like this indicates that one is referring to chemical concentration) = the [T] and [G] = [C]. In 1953 Watson and Crick determined that two strands of nucleic acid (polynucleotides) were always joined together by hydrogen bond ...

  • 4 Pages

    Lecture 3

    Marquette, BIO 102

    Excerpt: ... ATP ( adenosine triphosphate ): A. Importance: Why is it called the energy currency of the cell? (text pages 154, 161) B. How do the ATP, ADP, and AMP differ (Fig. 8.14)? Why does it matter? C. Energy coupling: How does ATP drive processes in biology? What is ATP hydrolyis? What is ATP synthesis? Which of these cannot proceed without expending some form of energy? IV. Metabolism A. What is metabolism? (text p. 155) B. Biochemical pathways: (p. 155, 156, 165) Do chemical reactions follow actual physical paths in the cell or is this a mental concept? What is an example of a biochemical pathway? (165) C. Types of metabolism: (p. 155, 160) 1. Energy metabolism: what is it? what are some examples? 2. Biosynthesis (Anabolism) In what ways are catabolism and anabolism opposites? D. ATP & metabolism (p. 154, 160-161) How are ATP synthesis and hydrolysis coupled to the rest of metabolism? V. Oxidation-reduction (p. 144, 145,172,173) Very important type of chemical reaction: ho ...

  • 10 Pages

    BIOS41_Lecture4_01212008

    Lehigh, BIOS 41

    Excerpt: ... BIOS 41 Biology Core I: Cellular and Molecular Spring 2008 Professor J. A. Sands Lecture 4, January 21 Chemical Components of Cells (Chapter 2, pages 53-65) Alanine is one of the simplest amino acids. Four amino acids linked together by three peptide bonds. Structure of ATP, adenosine triphosphate . ATP serves as an energy carrier in cells. Four nucleotides linked together by three phosphodiester bonds. Macromolecules are abundant in cells. Macromolecules (proteins, nucleic acids, and polysaccharides) are formed by adding subunits to one end, in a series of condensation reactions. Noncovalent bonds* specify the precise shape of a macromolecule. * Ionic bonds, Hydrogen bonds, Van der Waals interactions, Hydrophobic interactions Noncovalent bonds* allow a macromolecule to bind to other selected molecules. * * * * Ionic bonds, Hydrogen bonds, Van der Waals interactions Hydrophobic interactions Figure 2-32 ...

  • 3 Pages

    lecture 7_notes

    UC Davis, BIS bis2a

    Excerpt: ... Lecture 7 SPECIAL NOTICE See instructions for this Friday exam on Smartsite! Note that you are assigned a specific room for the exam. If you come to the wrong room, you will not be able to take your exam there. Membranes, continued Osmosis continued Hypertonic Isotonic Hypotonic Aided diffusion Channel and carrier proteins Gated channel (triggered by signal) Specificity, differences Active transport (against gradient) Needs energy: active transport Primary: uses ATP as energy currency What is ATP? Adenosine triphosphate . Two high energy bonds Transporter example: Na-K pump. 1 ATP -> P + ADP: net effect the protein is "charged energetically". Then 3 Na+ | -> 3 Na+ out, and then two K+ move in. Secondary: uses a gradient for cotransport. Scheme: pump Na+ against gradient using ATP. Then use Na+ gradient to drive import of other molecules (glucose importer) Links http:/www.youtube.com/watch?v=iA-Gdkje6pg http:/feig.bch.msu.edu/images/gA.mpg Ener ...

  • 2 Pages

    Lecture 2

    Marquette, BIO 102

    Excerpt: ... re) Energy and reactions (textbook pages 144, 145, 147) A. Chemical reactions tend toward equilibrium: Does that mean all reactions stop at equilibrium? B. Different ways to describe direction of the reaction not at equilibrium: II. C. D. III. (favorable, spontaneous, exergonic vs. unfavorable, nonspontaneous, endergonic) Look at "free" energy (G) profile (Fig. 8.6) for an explanation of reaction direction: Do reactions go toward higher or lower free energy? How might you drive a reaction in "unfavorable" direction? ATP ( adenosine triphosphate ): A. Importance: Why is it called the energy currency of the cell? (text pages 154, 161) B. How do the ATP, ADP, and AMP differ (Fig. 8.14)? Why does it matter? C. Energy coupling: How does ATP drive processes in biology? This topic (ATP and energy coupling) will be mainly or entirely part of lecture 3. ...

  • 3 Pages

    Cellular Energy & Enzymes

    Rhode Island, BIO 101

    Excerpt: ... ecules in a number of ways in addition to lowering energy of activation 3. Adenosine Triphosphate ATP ATP is the energy currency of cells - Assembling ATP stores energy - Breaking up ATP releases energy Structure of ATP: - contains 3 phosphates and adenosine - 3rd phosphate can be broken off easily - when bond broken energy is released - cells are designed to capture and use energy released Breaking down ATP means ADP + P (yields energy) Synthesis of ATP means ADP + P to form ATP (consumes energy) More on ATP Limited amount of adenosine in cells At rest most is in form of ATP Heavy exercise much adenosine is ADP ATP continuously replenished from spent ADP & phosphate using energy captured in metabolic pathways such as breakdown of glucose Energy stored in a body of glycogen, fat, protein has to be converted to _ before it can be used for _ Other energy carrying molecules Three other pairs of compounds are cycled in metabolism Use hydrogen molecules to store energy rather than P as in ATP ...

  • 6 Pages

    Bio113_Lecture_4_SLIDES (6 per pg)

    Ohio State, BIO 113

    Excerpt: ... the reaction Figure 8.6 Progress of the reaction Figure 8.6 Overview of metabolism Mechanical model to explain the principle of coupling " ill ic ph on "u erg d en "d ex ownh er go ill" nic Endergonic reactions can be coupled An endergonic reaction will occur if linked with exergonic reaction (by enzymes in cell) The combined reactions must have an overall negative G (favorable) ATP powers cellular work by coupling exergonic reactions to endergonic reactions ATP - Adenosine Triphosphate "high energy" molecule "energy currency" of cell used to drive most cellular work (3 types): - mechanical, transport, chemical 2 ATP Energy Coupling ATP has "high energy" phosphate linkages hydrolysis of this bond yields energy (hydration or hydrolysis) energetically unfavorable ATP hydrolysis can be coupled to other endergonic reactions to make the net reaction favorable. 7.3 kcal/mole Fig. 8.8, 8.9 Fig. 8.10 ATP captures the energy generated from exergonic re ...

  • 1 Pages

    Test_02_Answr

    UC Riverside, CBNS 106

    Excerpt: ... Name: _ Date: _ 1. What does the Neuron doctrine state? Choose the correct option. A) Neurites of different cells fuse together to form a continuous reticulum. B) Individual cells communicate by contact and not continuity. C) Cell body of a neuron contains organelles. D) Elementary functional unit of all tissues is the individual cell. 2. What do you understand by the term "translation"? Choose the correct option. A) Assembling a piece of mRNA B) Assembling proteins from amino acids C) Removal of introns and specific exons D) The "reading" of DNA 3. What does the mitochondrion "inhale"? Choose the correct option. A) Pyruvic acid B) Cytosol C) Adenosine triphosphate D) Amino acids 4. Identify an important difference between the cytoplasm of the axon and that of the axon terminal. Choose the correct option. A) Protein content of the membrane differs from the soma B) Occurrence of protein synthesis C) Presence of ribosomes D) Large numbers of mitochondri ...

  • 1 Pages

    Test_02

    UC Riverside, CBNS 106

    Excerpt: ... Name: _ Date: _ 1. What does the Neuron doctrine state? Choose the correct option. A) Neurites of different cells fuse together to form a continuous reticulum. B) Individual cells communicate by contact and not continuity. C) Cell body of a neuron contains organelles. D) Elementary functional unit of all tissues is the individual cell. 2. What do you understand by the term "translation"? Choose the correct option. A) Assembling a piece of mRNA B) Assembling proteins from amino acids C) Removal of introns and specific exons D) The "reading" of DNA 3. What does the mitochondrion "inhale"? Choose the correct option. A) Pyruvic acid B) Cytosol C) Adenosine triphosphate D) Amino acids 4. Identify an important difference between the cytoplasm of the axon and that of the axon terminal. Choose the correct option. A) Protein content of the membrane differs from the soma B) Occurrence of protein synthesis C) Presence of ribosomes D) Large numbers of mitochondri ...

  • 2 Pages

    Chapter 4 Notes

    Tarrant County, SCI 1406

    Excerpt: ... tiomers Dopamine L-dopa-effective against Parkinson's disease D-dopa-not effective against Parkinson's disease Thalidomide Used to treat morning sickness of pregnant women One version blatantly caused birth defects Other version harmless in "purified" form Turns harmful once digested and absorbed Functional Groups Section of molecule involved in chemical reaction Table 4.1 Functional Groups of Organic Compounds Figure 4.9 A comparison of functional groups of female (estradiol) and male (testosterone) sex hormones ATP ( Adenosine Triphosphate ) ...

  • 11 Pages

    ProcessesAlcoholFermentation

    GCSU, BIOL 1101

    Excerpt: ... Alcohol Fermentation felicia_pearson@ecats.gcsu.edu Wednesdays, 1:45-3:45 pm Terms to know: Glycolysis- a metabolic pathway in which glucose is converted into two pyruvate molecules, and in the process generates ATP. ATP- adenosine triphosphate Fermentation- glycolysis plus the transfer of electrons form the carrier molecules to pyruvate molecules A quick look at glycolysis: Glycolysis Two main stages: energy investment and energy payoff How many ATP are produced? 4 ATP How many ATP are consumed? 2 ATP What is the net gain of ATP? 2 ATP Final Electron Acceptors In aerobic organisms: oxygen In fermenting organisms: pyruvate molecules What yeast will be used? Yeast is Saccharomyces cerevisiae Known as baker's yeast Rising due to release of CO2 Let's perform the experiment! Jeopardy, anyone? Study Guide for Quiz 1. Be able to define glycolysis. 2. Be able to define fermentation. 3. Be able to tell how many ATP are produced, consumed, and wh ...

  • 2 Pages

    Bio - Lecture 7

    Lansing, BIOL 121

    Excerpt: ... ns need some energy to get started -This is called activation energy -Catalysts lower the activation energy Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP): The main form of energy in cells -Is used for short term energy supple and not for long term storage Is made of three parts: ->Adenosine ->Ribose ->Triphosphate group The energy ATP contains lies in its bonds between the phosphate group Generally, only the last phsphate group is cleaved yielding ADP The cleaved phsphate grup is attached to another molecule and that molecule is "phosphorylated" Wehn the molecule is "dephosphorylated" the phosphate group is called inorganic phosphate ...

  • 1 Pages

    Unit 2 Lesson 4 Glossary2

    Washington State, FSHN 130

    Excerpt: ... FSHN 130 Glossary: Unit 2 Lesson 4 Unit 2, Lesson 4 Glossary Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Anabolic reaction Catabolic reaction Cellular respiration Condensation reaction Electron Electron carrier Electron transport chain Feedback mechanism Glycolysis Hydrolysis reaction Ketone bodies (ketones) Krebs cycle Metabolic pathway Metabolism Mitochondria Oxidation reaction Phosphorylation Urea ...

  • 41 Pages

    Metabolism I

    UMBC, BIOL 275

    Excerpt: ... Metabolism and Energetics: Fueling Reactions Requirements for growth: -Harvest energy -Synthesize building blocks (biosynthesis) Photoautotrophs Oxygenic: Plants, Algae, Cyanobacteria -Oxygen generated from H2O Anoxygenic: Purple and Green Bacteria -Do not evolve O2 Metabolism- The sum total of biosynthesis and energyharvesting reactions. Components of Metabolism -Enzymes - Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) -Chemical energy source -Electron carriers -Precursor metabolites -Process occurs in sequence of chemical reactions -Enzymes Biological catalysts: A specific enzyme facilitates each step of a metabolic pathway by lowering the activation energy of a reaction that converts SUBSTRATE into a PRODUCT. Components of Metabolism *Enzyme lowers the activation energy of a reaction -Accelerates the conversion of SUBSTRATE(S) into PRODUCT(S) Induced fit: Hexokinase http:/www.chem.ucsb.edu/~molvisual/ABLE/induced_fit/index.html Competitive Inhibition Inh ...

  • 24 Pages

    Thermodynamics and Enzymes

    Cal Poly Pomona, BIO 110

    Excerpt: ... ymes are sensitive to their environment Digests proteins in the stomach Digests proteins in the intestine How Cells Regulate Enzymes A cell can control the activity of an enzyme by altering its shape Allosteric enzymes have shapes that can be altered by the binding of signal molecules These molecules bind to the allosteric site Repressors bind and repress enzyme activity Activators bind and restore or increase enzyme activity How cells control enzymes Enzyme inhibition occurs in two ways: Competitive inhibition - Inhibitor binds at the enzyme's active site Noncompetitive inhibition - Inhibitor binds at the enzyme's allosteric site ATP: The Energy Currency of the Cell Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the main energy currency of the cell Due to electrostatic repulsion between phosphate groups Each ATP molecule is composed of three parts: ATP: The Energy Currency of the Cell Most energy exchanges in the cell involve cleavage of only the outermost bond in ATP ...