Documents about Central Dogma

  • 1 Pages

    SG9- Transcription

    Maryland, BSCI 222

    Excerpt: ... Study Guide 9 Transcription After these lectures, you should be able to: Answer the following questions from your textbook o Chapter 13 1, 2, 3, 16, 19, 20, 22, 23, 31 Explain "the Central Dogma " in your own words Describe a transcription unit Explain the process of transcription in words and/or diagrams Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic promoters Describe the roles of the various RNA polymerases in transcription Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic RNA polymerases Compare and contrast basal transcription factors and transcriptional activator proteins Compare and contrast transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes WORD LIST basal transcription apparatus central dogma coding strand core promoter downstream elongation enhancer general transcription factors holoenzyme mRNA non-coding strand precursor mRNA Pribnow box primary transcript promoter rho dependent termination rho independent termination RNA polymerase rRNA sigma factor TATA binding protein TATA box template strand ter ...

  • 2 Pages


    Michigan State University, BS 111

    Excerpt: ... How was the "DNA code" cracked? (How did they find out which sequence of three nucleotides coded for which amino acid?) 6. Does every codon code for a unique amino acid? Does every codon code for an amino acid? 7. What is the central dogma ? Which of these defines a genotype? A phenotype? What are the exceptions to the central dogma ? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Chapter 16 1. Know the requirements for transcription to happen. - i.e. RNA polymerase, template strand, NTPs, etc. - How is RNA structurally different from DNA? (2 ways) 2. What is a phosphodiester bond? How do they form? 3. Know the three stages of transcription - What happens in each stage? 4. How do prokaryotes and eukaryotes differ in the stages of transcription? -Know which RNA polymerase transcribes which RNA in eukarytoes 5. What happens to the RNA after transcription in eukaryotes? Prokaryotes? 6. What is RNA splicing? What's involved? 7. What other RNA processing events take place in eukaryotes? 8. Where does each process in the central dogma ...

  • 8 Pages


    Cornell, BIO 2810

    Excerpt: ... Lecture15A GenesandProteins Lecture15A GenesandProteins ReviewofComplementation GeneticFineStructureAnalysis CentralDogma MetabolicPathwaysandEnzymes Crossingoverwithagene ProteinStructureareview YanofskyandColinearity Productionofm ...

  • 8 Pages


    Cornell, BIO 281

    Excerpt: ... Lecture15A GenesandProteins Lecture15A GenesandProteins ReviewofComplementation GeneticFineStructureAnalysis CentralDogma MetabolicPathwaysandEnzymes Crossingoverwithagene ProteinStructureareview YanofskyandColinearity Productionofm ...

  • 8 Pages


    Cornell, BIO 2810

    Excerpt: ... Lecture15A GenesandProteins Lecture15A GenesandProteins ReviewofComplementation GeneticFineStructureAnalysis CentralDogma MetabolicPathwaysandEnzymes Crossingoverwithagene ProteinStructureareview YanofskyandColinearity Productionofm ...

  • 2 Pages

    ASCI Final Exam Study guide

    Cal Poly, ASCI ASCI 112

    Excerpt: ... ASCI Final Exam Scientific Method ASCI Organization Who are they/what they do Animal Production Trends Nutrition Comparative anatomy and physiology of the species Function of each digestive tract Processes of digestion and absorbtion for each nurtion Nurtient classs and how how nutrient are provide to animals ( crude protein, NFE, DM, essential AA, Fat, etc. Reproduction Know name and function pf primary parts of the male and female reproduction and their functions Estrogen cycle and estrus in aimal Prganacy and the conceptus : what the body do and how female recognize Hormone Endocrinology Hormone types and where they are produced Mode of action of hormones in the body Negative Feedback Mechanism Meat Science Know terms associate with meat production Types of inspection/ grading conducted Food safety issue-method HACCP Genetics Central dogma of genetics Terms associate with genetics-allele, gene, locus, heterozygous Animal Behavior Know all types of behavior in animals Understand method of behavior modificat ...

  • 3 Pages

    Study Guide for Exam1

    Utah, HONOR 3215

    Excerpt: ... Honor 3215, Fall 2008 Study Guide for Exam #1 Central Concepts Below is a fairly comprehensive list of concepts and topics that will be covered in the first exam. You should be able to define each major concept and be able to describe how it works with other concepts. More information about each concept/topic is available in the readings and lecture notes. You will be expected to bring a clean BLUEBOOK to class on the day of the exam, September 25, 2008. Basic Steps in Human Biological Development Cells, Proteins (and Amino Acids), DNA Importance of DNA Discovery and Structure of DNA Vitalism vs. material explanations of life: (e.g., Morgans flies, Pneumonia S and R, Mullers radiation.) Complementarity Central Dogma Genes and Gene expression (Promoters, transcription factors, alternative splicing, epigenetics, and environment) Inheritance: Traits and some old theories Mendels patterns of heritability (Dominant, Recessive, Semi-dominant, Sex-Linked) (Genotype and Phenotype ,Homozygous vs. Heterozygous ...

  • 3 Pages


    UCSD, BIMM 100

    Excerpt: ... Textbook :Molecular Cell Biology, http:/ Lodish et al 5th edition Brandon, Molesworth Cook, Peter Doedens, Andrew Heidi Tan, Radhika Kadakia Taylor, Laura Zhaoqing Ding Mid Term Exam: May 3, 2005, in class Final Exam: June 2, 2005, 7:00-10:00 PM Lecture Notes: A part of lecture notes will be posted in the class web site. However, this IS only a part of my lecture. You will still need to take your own notes as some of the material will NOT be posted. Central Dogma DNA transcription RNA translation Protein priones replication retrovirus (HIV, Polio) Chapter 10 The central dogma but-additional significant bits of truth DNA -replicate RNA-can be converted to DNA (retrovius) Genome of these virus is RNA prions- Bivone Sponge Encephalopathy (BSE) Creutsfeldt-Jacob disease (CJD) Fig 4-1 Nucleotide Structure base ...

  • 3 Pages

    Chem 114A 2009 LEC 1 AS GIVEN 0106091

    UCSD, CHEM 641999

    Excerpt: ... 6 What is biochemistry? 7 What is biochemistry? (BTS p. 1). Biochemistry is the study of the chemistry of life processes. 8 The Central Dogma of Biology involves three classes of chemicals and nothing else. DNA RNA Protein 9 What is biochemistry? modern molecular biology where physics, biology, and chemistry have merged (A. Lightman, 2005). 10 What is biochemistry? Fundamental disciplines of science. Physics. Chemistry. Molecular view of biology. Molecular biology. Structural biology. Biochemistry. Biophysics. Systems biology provides an integrated view of organisms. 11 Structural molecular biology. 12 What is Biochemistry? (Judson p. 1820). 13 What is biochemistry? (Judson p. 5). 14 Beginning of biochemistry. 15 Beginning of biochemistry. (Judson p. 13). 180 years ago 16 Beginning of biochemistry: Judson p11 17 Beginning of biochemistry. (Juds ...

  • 2 Pages

    Study Guide 2

    Saginaw Valley, BIOL 105C

    Excerpt: ... mitosis. 6. List the components of chromatin. Chapter 9 Gene Expression 1. Describe the differences between DNA and RNA. 2. Describe the central dogma of molecular genetics. 3. Identify the purpose of transcription. 4. Compare exons and introns. 5. Describe the basic process of translation including the enzyme involved in the process. 6. Identify the purpose of translation. 7. Describe the basic process of translation. 8. Describe how RNA is coded into a chain of amino acids and the role of ribosomes, tRNA and mRNA in this process. 9. Describe the role of codons in translation. 10. Describe why the genetic code is universal. Chapter 10 Proteins to Phenotype 1. Identify the final products of genes. 2. List the roles of proteins in a cell. 3. Describe an enzyme and how it is used in metabolic pathways by the cell. 4. Describe what happens if an enzyme is missing from a metabolic pathway (for example: What happens in PKU?). 5. Compare galactosemia and lactose intolerance. 6. Compare sickle cell disease and t ...

  • 4 Pages

    study exam exam 1

    Illinois State, BIO 101

    Excerpt: ... Study Guide for Exam 1 For Exam 1 there will be 24 Multiple Choice questions with a value of 2.5 points each. There will be four Essay questions with a value of 10 points each. Your Lab Instructor will review the key concepts listed below in Lab the Week of Feb 12, 2008. Listed below are key concepts presented in lecture. You are responsible for all concepts presented in lecture. Clicker questions can also be used on the exam. LEC 2 The process for individual uniqueness o Mendel's laws First Second Genetic Terminology: Haploid, Diploid, Autosome, Sex Chromosome, Somatic Cell, Gametes, Alleles, Dominant, Recessive, Heterozygous o o Meiosis versus mitosis Chromosome crossover (exchange of material) Monozygotic/Dizygotic LEC 3 Commonality of life Central Dogma o o o Transcription Translation Genetic code Nucleic Acid o Nucleotide (Sugar, Phosphate, Bases (A, T, G, C) Viral infection Genetic engineering Mutation o Cystic Fibrosis (Autosomal Recessive) LEC 4 Genetic disorders o Mutation o Tay- ...

  • 5 Pages


    CSU Channel Islands, CS 284

    Excerpt: ... Gene Regulation and Motif Discovery Scribe notes for lecture 2 of CS284A Notes by James Foulds (Jimmy), based on a lecture by Xiaohui Xie October 4, 2008 1 Gene Regulation The task of identifying regulatory motifs is an important problem in computational biology. In this section we first introduce the relevant biological concepts. A basic method for solving the motif discovery problem is described in Section 2. 1.1 The Central Dogma Genetic information is stored in living organisms in DNA, RNA and protein molecules. The primary structure of these molecules is a linear chain, and hence they can be viewed as sequences of letters. This sequential biological information can be transferred between DNA, RNA and protein molecules. The so-called " central dogma of molecular biology" describes which types of transfers are allowed: information cannot be transferred from protein to either protein, DNA or RNA, but all other transfers are allowed. Under normal conditions, only three transfers typically occur: DNA to ...

  • 9 Pages


    SUNY Buffalo, BIO 201

    Excerpt: ... BIO201A Cell Biology Lecture 24 Friday 03/23/07 Important Announcements: Exam 2 will be on Wednesday, March 28th. Today's lecture will be on the exam. Monday, March 26th lecture will not be on the exam. Exam 2 will consist of 34 multiple choice questions worth a maximum of 100 points. Lecture 13 - 25. Please do not enter room on Wednesday until invited. Pencils and erasers only will be needed. Science news: Scientists Announce Mad Cow Breakthrough Richt et. al., Nature Biothechnology (2007) 25:132 Washington Post January 1, 2007 (refer to separate pdf Washington Post news file) Prions discovered by: Dr. Stanley Ben Prusiner, UCSF 1982 discovered protein as self-reproducing infectious agent = prion 1997 Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology Prusiner's work was controversial because it went outside of the central dogma . Accepted as reliable in 1990's after connection to CJD and British mad cow (BSE) became news. Prion information flow is outside of the central dog ...

  • 2 Pages

    unit 3 lect 19

    Marquette, PRE MED 101

    Excerpt: ... Lecture 19 Reading: Biol 002 3/05/07 Chapter 15: 301-309 Today's topics: Central dogma of gene expression The genetic code Transcription I. The " Central Dogma " of gene expression: (pages 302-303) What is the " central dogma " of gene expression? What is transcription? What is translation? What structures are needed to carry it out? What are the types of RNA and what is the role of each one? II. What is the "genetic code" and how does it work? (pages 304-305) Why is a genetic code needed? What is encoded by the "codons" of the code? How was it deduced that the code was in triplets of bases (the bases of nucleotides)? Which molecules carry the genetic code? What is meant by "reading frame" and "frameshift mutation"? How can a DNA molecule encode more than one protein? (how are "starts" and "stops" of proteins encoded?) To practice with how the code works, 1) draw out a hypothetical polypeptide with 5 amino acids and put together a base sequence that could code for this amino-acid sequence 2) draw out ...

  • 3 Pages

    MCB 41 - lect4

    Berkeley, MCB 57739

    Excerpt: ... Lecture 4 (FW) February 2, 2009 The Central Dogma Reading: Chapters 8 and 9 for this and lecture 5. Announcements: 1. The "Final Exam" will be held . 2. There will a "review" session for the first mid-term Lecture 4. DNA has the code for proteins: the Central Dogma Primary goal: Understand the central dogma : DNA RNA Protein I. There are two functions of a gene A. The passing on of information: heredity. Parent-child; fidelity of transmission. B. The governance of how cells and organisms develop, attain their form, and function in the adult. 1. This latter aspect of gene function is related to dictating the synthesis of proteins, a polymer composed of 20 different amino acid building blocks, strung into long polymers. DNA has the code for these proteins. 2. Illustration of proteins and bodily function: Sickle Cell Anemia. a. The structure and function of hemoglobin., red pigment in blood cells that carries oxygen: composed of 4 protein chains ( and globins , each with 146 amino acids, +4 hemes. b. ...

  • 3 Pages

    CH 12 MCAT

    ASU, BIO 188

    Excerpt: ... proteins and small RNAs that are needed for translation. In protein synthesis, the endoplasmic reticulum is the site of translation of membranebound and exported proteins. Retroviruses do not follow the " central dogma " of DNA RNA protein because they contain RNA that is used to make DNA. Mutations are heritable changes in the sequence of DNA bases. The type of mutation that stops translation of a protein is a nonsense mutation. The type of mutation that is an insertion or a deletion of a single base is a frame-shift mutation. The " central dogma " of molecular biology states that info flow in the cell is unidirectional, from DNA to RNA protein. Transcription is the process of synthesizing an RNA molecule using a DNA template. A transcription start signal is called a promoter. Initiation of transcription requires a temporary separation of the strands of the DNA template. The genetic code is best described as redundant but not ambiguous. The three codons in the genetic code that do not specify amino acids are ...

  • 39 Pages


    UC Davis, CS 234

    Excerpt: ... ECS 234 Lecture: The Genome and Biotechnologies Today: Basic Molecular Biology Genes, Proteins, etc. Genomes Central Dogma Observing the Central Dogma PCR - amplification DNA Sequencing - genome Microarrays - transcriptome ChIP Protein DNA interactions Yeast Two-Hybrid Protein Protein Interacts. Biological Preliminaries Life is survival of information Properties of life: Information exchange (communication) Procreation (passing on information) Evolution (change) - A machine thats set in motion and never stops Preliminaries Top-down Organization of life Social groups etc. Organisms Species, etc. Organs, Tissues Cells: units of life Organelles etc. Molecules of life: DNA, RNA, proteins Preliminaries DNA: Inheritable information Units of Inheritance: genes, regulatory regions, ? Proteins: Day-to-day footwork Both are complex polymer molecules DNA: String over the alphabet {A,C,G,T ...

  • 3 Pages


    Virginia Tech, BIOL 9

    Excerpt: ... Handout 9 How do we study gene function in multicellular organisms? September 12, 2003 Objectives: 1. To learn the typical philosophy that drives research on gene function in multicellular organisms. 2. To learn how transgenic mice, targeted disruptions (knock outs) and RNAi experiments are performed. 3. To appreciate, by example, the power of these techniques What can we learn by studying gene function in multicellular eukaryotes that we cant learn in yeast or isolated cells in culture? The typical philosophy for studying gene function: 1. express the gene exogenously 2. knockout endogenous gene expression Why is this the more difficult experiment? Remember the central dogma : gene function can be manipulated at multiple steps along the central dogma Making transgenic mice to express a gene exogenously: Targeted disruption by homologous recombination to make gene-knockouts RNA interference a new tool for targeted disruption What can we learn by altering gene function in multicellular organi ...

  • 52 Pages

    Lecture 15 - Transcription & Translation 10-29

    NYU, BIO V23.0011

    Excerpt: ... ic pathway Allelic (noncomplementing) mutants in a class defective at same step Pathway can be defined. Genetic analysis of a metabolic pathway Order of chained substrate pathway (one involving intermediate substrates of enzymes) can be inferred Genetics of a metabolic pathway A mutation results in a defective enzyme a. In the following simple metabolic pathway, what would be a consequence of that mutation? enzymes: substrates: A a) b) c) d) e) a B b C an accumulation of A and no production of B and C an accumulation of A and B and no production of C an accumulation of B and no production of A and C an accumulation of B and C and no production of A an accumulation of C and no production of A and B What about a defective enzyme b? How does DNA make enzymes (proteins)? Central Dogma Replication: DNA DNA Transcription: DNA RNA Translation: RNA protein Reverse transcription: RNA No reverse translation DNA Cell biology of central dogma ...

  • 2 Pages

    study guide 2

    UCSC, BME 80H

    Excerpt: ... re (sugar-phosphate backbone, base paining rules, antiparallel chains) What DNA and RNA stand for. Secondary structure in RNA (e.g. stem-loop) Chromosome structure: chromatin, histones, and nucleosomes. When, in the cell cycle, the chromosomes are most highly condensed. From lecture 11 General mechanism of DNA replication Replication enzymes, role of the origins (Oris) Semiconservative nature of replication Replication occurs in S phase Central Dogma of Molecular Genetics Subunits of RNA and protein Cellular locations of replication, transcription and translation Key points about transcription (from outline) Gene structure basics and the basics about regulation of transcription initiation RNA Processing events Genetic code mRNA, tRNA and ribosomes Translation process (know the details) Levels of protein structure ...

  • 8 Pages


    Toledo, BIO 250

    Excerpt: ... of first term 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) DNA, RNA, and protein structure; cell division Replication = _ Transcription = _ Translation = _ Organization of genes Regulation of gene expression Techniques for studying DNA, RNA, and proteins 12 Central Dogma DNA mRNA translation tRNA rRNA Messenger RNA (mRNA) Transfer RNA (tRNA) Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) 13 Review Q's 1) Why study cell and molecular biology? 2) Some applications in today's world: 14 The End 15 ...

  • 5 Pages


    Santa Clara, BIOL 18

    Excerpt: ... mples of different functions of proteins b. Know the general structure of an amino acid. How do the amino acids differ from each other? What are the 2 main types of amino acids (hydrophobic, polar), and where in a protein's 3D structure would you tend to find them? c. Be able to define/describe primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure. d. What determines the 3-D structure of a protein? Why is this important? 8. Nucleic acids: a. What are the main components of a nucleotide? b. (More on this in Lecture 5) 9. Antibodies and ELISA: See Lab 2 Bio 18 Fall 2007 Midterm 1 Study Guide Page 3 Lectures 5 and 6 DNA Structure, The Central Dogma Reading: Chapter 2 pp. 44-45, 55-56, Chapter 4 Section 4.1 Practice Problems: p. 143 (Sec. 5.2 Review questions), pp. 155-156 Questions 1-2, 4, 6-7; Activity 5.2 (pp. 157-158) 1. Discuss important experiments that led scientists to determine that DNA is the inherited genetic material of living organisms. a. How did Darwin and Mendel's studies contribute t ...