Documents about Cognitive Abilities

  • 41 Pages

    Gender_Differences_in_Cognitive_Ability

    East Los Angeles College, LEVEL 0809

    Excerpt: ... ation! Hormones & Cognitive Ability Evidence does appear to suggest that androgens (e.g. testosterone) do influence certain cognitive abilities , at least for certain spatial tasks. At the same time, it appears (high levels of) estrogens also have a negative impact on spatial tasks. However, the relationship is not straightforward, and certainly does not affect all aspects of cognition. It would appear further investigation needs to be undertaken before firm conclusions about the influence of hormones on cognitive ability can be drawn. Evolutionary explanations One explanation for the differences is evolutionary theory. Evolutionary theorists claim differences in cognitive ability between the sexes is due to our evolutionary history as hunter-gathers. During this time males & females adopted separate but complementary skills for survival. Divisions of labour Men were responsible for hunting and navigating unfamiliar terrain. Women were involved in child care and f ...

  • 1 Pages

    Review Sheet Exam 4

    Mt. SAC, PSYCH 1a

    Excerpt: ... Review Sheet Psy 1a Exam 4 Please note: These are some of the topics that will be covered on the exam. There may be additional information not included here that will be on the exam. As always, I advise that you read the chapters thoroughly and study the class notes when preparing for the exam. Sex vs. gender Transexualism vs. homosexualism Gender differences in cognitive abilities , personality, and leadership style What constitutes sexual harassment? What constitutes rape? Types of rape? Most common type? Theories of personality (psychodynamic, humanistic, and behavioral/cognitive) At what age do kids become aware of being a girl or a boy? Freud's views of homosexuality HPV info (from lecture) How to resist sexual harassment and how to help prevent it What % of women file formal complaints about sexual harassment? Id vs. ego vs. superego Know your defense mechanisms! What does fixation mean? What are archetypes? What is the collective unconscious? Adler's terms (e.g., inferiority complex, compensation, e ...

  • 13 Pages

    IntrotoOrganizationalLeadershipLectureNotes

    Rutgers, ORGANIZATI 713 202

    Excerpt: ... Intro to Organizational Leadership Lecture Notes Chapter 1Introduction 1/24/2008 3:18:00 PM Leadership Described Trait versus Process Inate quality or a process? Assigned versus Emergence PowerHow to use power in leadership Managementdifferent then ...

  • 2 Pages

    final xam psycc

    Texas A&M, PSYC 107

    Excerpt: ... This is the study guide for the final exam (exam 4). This outline should help organize your study time, but is not meant to cover all of the material for the exam. Remember that any material from the lecture or text is fair game for the exam. Good luck! I. Motivation and Reinforcement What initiates behaviors What determines strength of behaviors What determines persistence of behaviors II. Hunger Biological, Social, and Cultural influences How do these influences change motivation? III. Arousal and Achievement, Aggression Biological, Social, Cultural Influences IV. Sex and Gender Physical development and definitions Sexual responding Brain areas involved in sexual responding Sexual orientation Biological, cultural, social aspects V. Psychological differences between sexes Cognitive abilities , etc VI. Cultural influences on sexuality and sexual behavior Victorian England Alfred Kinsey/Masters and Johnson VII. Emotion Theories of emotion/expression V. Assessing Personality Types of tests What do they tell y ...

  • 3 Pages

    15Pres

    University of Texas, BIO 346

    Excerpt: ... Human Behavioral Genetics Behavioral genetics and the media Method used in behavioral genetics Violence Cognitive abilities Homosexuality Novelty seeking Genetic analysis of other human behaviors Appendix: Behavioral genetics and free will Relationship between genes and phenotypic traits Gene a, affecting more than one trait, is pleiotropic. Trait 2, being affected by more than one gene, is polygenic. Human Behavioral Genetics Behavioral genetics and the media Method used in behavioral genetics Violence Cognitive abilities Homosexuality Novelty seeking Genetic analysis of other human behaviors Appendix: Behavioral genetics and free will Human Behavioral Genetics Behavioral genetics and the media Methods used in behavioral genetics Violence Cognitive abilities Homosexuality Novelty seeking Genetic analysis of other human behaviors Appendix: Behavioral genetics and free will Human Behavioral Genetics Behavior ...

  • 76 Pages

    selfandvalues

    Western Kentucky University, PSY 321

    Excerpt: ... Chapter 12: Self and Values Chapter 12: Self and Value I. The concept of self: the objective self ("me") and the subjective self ("I") Chapter 12: Self and Value I. The concept of self: the objective self ("me") and the subjective self ("I") A. Sel ...

  • 2 Pages

    Notes 10-31

    University of Alabama in Huntsville, PSYCHOLOGY 315

    Excerpt: ... Notes 10-31-07 Sociocultural Theory Studied cognition rather than observable Studied cultural impact Child is not independent from surroundings Cognitive development emerges via innate abilities in nature and social experiences in nurture Assumptions Born with basic cognitive and perceptual abilities Interactions of infants are purposeful and adaptive Individuals are products of and servants to their society Sought to explain how cognition develops That people of all cultures have similar basic abilities Culture determines your higher cognitive abilities - language and thought Higher thought processes are a product of a culture or nurture This theory could lead to some cultures to being more superior to other cultures Speech and Thought Focuses on how speech regulation -directs our behavior Thought exists through language Speech is thought Develop through stages -Social speech-social contact always external and global -ego centric speech-a tool providing a solution to help yourself understanding -Inner spe ...

  • 12 Pages

    Development and then Some

    Indiana State, PSY 101

    Excerpt: ... s come to fear strangers Age 2 to age 7 Kids = egocentric jerks; heightened understanding and representation (development of symbolic thought) but lack logical reasoning (centration and irreversibility); kids especially prone to errors (Piaget's Conservation Task) Preoperational Concrete Operational Age 7 to Age 11 Develop logical reasoning about concrete events; mastery of conservation; hierarchical classification Formal Operational Age 11 through adulthood Continual development of complex abstract and hypothetical thinking (i.e. introduction of abstract thought); capacity for logical, systematic thinking Answer: Both. Specifically, various studies have supported and refuted aspects of the model For: Prayer studies Sequence Stage "mixing" Underestimation of children' cognitive abilities Timetable Against: Kohlberg: Stage theory of moral development Reasoning not Behavior Subjects presented with moral dilemmas each stage represe ...

  • 1 Pages

    Read2

    University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign, LIS 370

    Excerpt: ... Read one of the following papers and report the requested information for that paper. Use as many words as you think are required but please, keep answers as brief as possible. Meadow, Charles T., Wang, Jiabin, and Yuan, Weijing. 1995. "A Study of u ...

  • 34 Pages

    Cognitive Decline

    East Los Angeles College, LEVEL 0809

    Excerpt: ... Stereotypes of old age and cognitive abilities Ramble on and on Intelligence decreases Memory becomes weaker Tend to live in the past Grouchy, withdrawn and self-pitying What is cognition the term applied to those processes or functions that contribute to intelligence and consciousness (Cohen 2001) Cognitive abilities Memory Attention Logical reasoning Language skills Problem solving Spatial orientation Numerical ability Speed of processing Intelligence Hard to define (a theoretical construct) Factor analysis used to produce a number of intelligences Spearmans general intelligence Thurstones primary mental abilities Crystallised Intelligence Like knowledge Results from education, experience and acculturation Measured with tests of verbal comprehension, vocabulary and numerical skill Fluid Intelligence Ability to adjust ones thinking to unfamiliar situations Measured through performance ...

  • 18 Pages

    PersonSelection

    UNLV, MGT 367

    Excerpt: ... Cognitive abilities , verbal comprehension, numerical reasoning, verbal fluency, mechanical/clerical abilities, physical/psychomotor abilities Formal Informal Bennett Mechanical Comprehension Test (BMCT) Minnesota Clerical Test (MCT) Personality An individual's consistent pattern of behavior composed of psychological traits Personality Testing Ability & motivation Informal v. formal assessment Projective Selfreport inventories Rorschach Inkblot Graphology Miner Sentence Completion Scale (MSCS) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) The "Big Five" Personality Factors Extroversion/introversion Emotional stability/neuroticism Agreeableness/disagreeableness Conscientiousness/lack of conscientiousness Openness/closure to experience Personality Testing: Problems Erroneous results Poorly designed research Behavior is situational Widely used Legal precedent Validity studies Saroka v. Dayton Hudson PreEmployment Screenin ...

  • 29 Pages

    02_Lect_2_Literacy

    Cornell, COMM 1300

    Excerpt: ... Aspects of Visual Literacy Aspects of Visual Literacy Working hypotheses: A hypothesis is a proposal suggesting a possible relationship between two phenomena. Lect 1 Aspects of Visual Literacy Working hypotheses: 1. Visual literacy is a prerequisite for the comprehension of visual media Lect 1 Aspects of Visual Literacy Visuals often differ considerably from real world. Do we learn to comprehend visuals? Lect 1 Aspects of Visual Literacy Do we learn to comprehend visuals? Lect 1 Aspects of Visual Literacy Highly abstract representations can be recognized as representing some reality. Do we learn to comprehend visuals? Lect 1 Aspects of Visual Literacy Working hypotheses: 1. Visual literacy is a prerequisite for the comprehension of visual media 2. Experience with visual media leads to enhancement of cognitive abilities . Lect 1 Aspects of Visual Literacy Do cognitive skills used in interpretation of film & TV (for example) improve cognitive abilities in other areas? Lec ...

  • lecture7

    Berkeley, IS 247

    Excerpt: ... SIMS 247: Information Visualization and Presentation Marti Hearst March 3, 2004 1 Today Discuss EDA assignment Infoviz Evaluations Role of Cognitive Abilities Studies of 3D Comparison of Viz in Information Retrieval 2 The Role of Cognitive Abilities Leitheiser & Munro 95 Summarizes the results of earlier psychological research on spatial aptitiude Also summarizes work on effects of spatial aptitude and UI use Presents a study comparing a GUI with a command line interface, taking spatial abilities into account 3 The Role of Cognitive Abilities Leitheiser & Munro 95 Hypotheses: Users with high spatial ability would benefit more from the GUI than those with low spatial ability (H1) Users with high verbal ability would perform better on command line interfaces (H2) Tasks: Obtain system time, list files, look up a file update time, open a subdirectory, move a file, copy a file, etc Between subjects GUI (Mac) vs. Command line (DOS) ...