Documents about Extracellular Fluid

  • 3 Pages

    human physiology study questions 28

    University of Iowa, INTEGRATIV 130

    Excerpt: ... ncy, eventually decreasing ventilation Peripheral and central chemoreceptors will increase firing frequency, eventually increasing ventilation. There will be no change in respiration. Peripheral chemoreceptors will increase firing frequency, which will lead to an increase in ventilation. All above answers are incorrect. Correct answers: 1. b. 2. d. Central chemoreceptors are sensitive to pH in the brain extracellular fluid due to diffusion of CO2 (not the hydrogen ions) through blood brain barrier. ...

  • 5 Pages

    Fluid_and_Ion_Balance_Study_Questions

    Michigan State University, PSL 250

    Excerpt: ... Fluid and Ion Balance Study Questions (select the single BEST answer) 1. Which of the following is the water output that is closely regulated in order to maintain water balance in the body? A) water loss in urine B) insensible loss C) water loss in feces D) water loss in sweat 2. A decrease in extracellular fluid osmolarity causes an increase in C) both A and B D) neither A nor B A) ADH B) thirst 3. Na+ excretion would be increased the most when GFR _ and Na + reabsorption _. A) decreases, increases B) increases, decreases C) decreases, decreases D) increases, increases 4. Which of the following changes angiotensin I to angiotensin II? C) ADH D) angiotensin converting enzyme A) renin B) aldosterone 5. Which of the following increases renin secretion? A) increased sympathetic nerve activity B) increased blood pressure in the kidney C) both A and B D) neither A nor B 6. ADH is also called _ because it _ total peripheral resistance. A) vasopressin, decreases B) ...

  • 3 Pages

    Practice question help

    UCSB, PSYCH 003

    Excerpt: ... 4. Dr. Crack conducted an in vivo microdialysis experiment in rats. When he started to analyze his samples for neurotransmitter levels, he could not detect any increases in dopamine following a cocaine injection. Based on what you know about the regulation of neurotransmitter release, which salt did Dr. Crack likely forget to add to his buffer prior to the experiment? a. lithium-chloride b. magnesium-chloride c. calcium-chloride d. potassium-chloride See next page for clues Studying Neurochemistry in Animals Microdialysis Uses a probe with a thin membrane that is permeable to neurotransmitters (i.e. they can cross membrane). Probe is lowered into a brain region and buffer solution is passed through probe to mix with extracellular fluid surrounding tip. Concentration gradients allow collection of neurotransmitter (i.e. higher in brain there for go into buffer; note buffer needs to have same ion concentrations as extracellular fluid or it will increase or decrease ion levels and directly impact neuro ...

  • 1 Pages

    Section Handout #7

    UCSD, BIPN 100

    Excerpt: ... BIPN 100 Hand-Out #7 FIBER TYPE White Glycolytic POWER/INTENSITY TYPE OF TRAINING TWITCH DURATION High Anaerobic Fast Short (therefore fatigues rapidly) Red (because of Myoglobin) Oxidative Low Aerobic Slow Long (therefore fatigues slowly) *See Table on Lecture 22, p.6 of Outline TONICITY VS. OSMOLARITY *See Problem Set #8:5 WHAT HAPPENS TO VOLUME & OSMOLARITY WHEN YOU: Add ions: Volume of extracellular fluid increases at the expense of the intracellular fluid (because ions cannot traverse across the plasma membrane) Osmolarity of all three compartments becomes increased (the extracellular compartment's osmolarity increases because solute was added; the intracellular compartment's osmolarity increases because water was lost) Add water: Volumes of all three compartments increase Osmolarity of all three compartments reduced EQUATIONS TO KNOW: Concentration = Quantity / Volume Interstitial Fluid Volume = Total Extracellular Fluid Volume Plasma Volume Intracellular Volume = Total Body Water Total Extrac ...

  • 5 Pages

    CP Homeostasis

    Kentucky, BIO 550

    Excerpt: ... Homeostasis Chapter 2 Definitions Ionoconformer: Animals with the same ion concentration of extracellular fluid as external environment Ionoregulators: Animals that to some extent regulate the ion composition of extracellular fluid Osmoconformers: Animals with the same osmolarity of extracellular fluid as external environment Osmoregulators: Animals that to some extent regulate the osmotic concentration of their body fluids Homeostasis & Regulation Regulation: The active maintenance of a physiological variable at a specific value, the setpoint. Homeostasis: The occurrence of a constant interior environment with respect to physiological variables (e.g., osmo- and ionoregulation, blood gasses, blood pressure, temperature) Note: regulation is not a precondition for homeostasis and regulation does not imply perfect homeostasis Tolerance & Resistance Tolerance Quantified by measuring survival at different levels of a chemical or other stressor LD50 (mol/kg): Lethal dose for 50% of ...

  • 3 Pages

    Homeostasis_Study_Questions

    Michigan State University, PSL 250

    Excerpt: ... ceptor) to the control (integrating) center is called the A) afferent pathway B) efferent pathway C) effector 8. Which of the following statements is (are) true about homeostasis? A) Homeostasis is a fixed, completely unchanging state. B) Homeostasis is a dynamic equilibrium in which variables are allowed to fluctuate, but within narrow limits. C) Homeostasis is most often maintained by positive feedback responses. D) In order to maintain homeostasis, regulated variables are normally kept as far from their set point as possible. E) B and C 9. Which of the following is part of the extracellular fluid ? C) both A and B D) neither A nor B A) plasma B) interstitial fluid 10. Physiology is the study of the _ of the body. Anatomy is the study of the _ of the body. A) structure, function B) function, structure 11. The "internal environment" of the body is the C) neither A nor B A) intracellular fluid B) extracellular fluid 12. In negative feedback control systems, the path from the inte ...

  • 5 Pages

    Lecture 14

    SUNY Stony Brook, BIO 202

    Excerpt: ... ugh to cross a membrane not free water Water Balance of Cells Without Walls Behavior of a cell in a solution depends on both solute concentration and membrane permeability Tonicity: ability of a solution to cause a cell to gain or lose water Partly depends on its own concentration of nonpenetrating solutes (cannot cross the membrane) relative to that the cells concentration Isotonic to the cell: no net movement of water Hyptertonic to the cell: net movement of water out of the cell Cell loses water, shrivels up, and dies Hypotonic to the cell: net movement of water into the cell Cells swells and lyses (bursts) Animals must live isotonic environments Seawater is isotonic to many marine invertebrates Cells of most terrestrial animals are bathed in an isotonic extracellular fluid Animals and organisms without cells walls which do not live in isotonic environments have special adaptations Osmoregulation: control of water balance Contractile vacuol ...

  • 1 Pages

    Bio - Lecture 5b

    Lansing, BIOL 121

    Excerpt: ... Lecture 5b Cell membranes Osmosis is the diffusion of water down its "free molecule" concentration gradient Solutions are made of solutes disolved in a solvent -Water is the main solvent in biology Osmotic concentration is the concentration of all solutes in a solution If two solutions have equal osmotic conentrations If they differ, hypertonic means more solutes and hypotonic means less solutes Water diffuses from hypotonic fluids to hypertonic ones If the ctyoplasm is hyperosmotic, water fom the outside will flow into the cell This causes swelling and the cytoplasm pushes out against the membrane (hydrostatic pressure) Osmotic pressure is the pressure that works against hydrostatic pressure Endocytosis is the process of "engulfing" material from the extracellular space Two different types: -Phagocytosis: "Cell eating" particulate matter -Pinocytosis: "Cell drinking" extracellular fluid s Exocytosis is the opposite of endocytosis It releases material from the cell ...

  • 1 Pages

    cell-trans-hmwk-ans07

    Washington, FACULTY 118

    Excerpt: ... if http:/www.stolaf.edu/people/giannini/flashanimat/transport/atpase.swf http:/www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/library/biology107/bi107vc/fa99/terry/images/PhagoAnA.gif http:/www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/library/biology107/bi107vc/fa99/terry/images/ExocyAnA.gif 1. Which conditions below (a, b & c) have a gradient? a) Room temp. = 70 deg. F & outside air = 70 deg. F. No thermal gradient, temperatures are at equilibrium b) Intracellular fluid has 0.9% solute concentration & extracellular fluid has 9.0% solute concentration. Higher solute concentrations in extracellular fluid ; gradient exists c) Liver cells contain lots of glycogen, very little glycogen in plasma under resting conditions. Higher glycogen within the liver cells; gradient exists. Answer the following questions: 2. What are the differences between diffusion & facilitated diffusion? Diffusion across a cell membrane may be through phospholipid bilayer or channel. Facilitated diffusion across a cell membrane occurs th ...

  • 30 Pages

    Lecture 4-Neurotransmission

    UCSB, PSYCH 003

    Excerpt: ... ative enzymes in synaptic cleft Small Large Neurotransmission-Let's Think Depression may be associated with low serotonin levels in the parts of your brain involved in emotion and motivation. Johnny has been feeling depressed about the amount of material he has to know for his Psych3 exams. Knowing nothing about pharmacotherapy but knowing what you now know about neurotransmission, what can you do to help him elevate his serotonin levels and alleviate his depression? -we'll see if you're right in a few lectures. Overview Anatomy and configuration of synapses Neurotransmitter release Classes of neurotransmitters Studying neurotransmission Studying Neurochemistry in Humans Spinal tap The extracellular fluid in your brain is shared with your spinal cord Sampling the extracellular fluid in the spinal cord will give an indication of pathology in neurotransmission in the brain Extremely painful but conducted in humans, primates and rodents Pro: can identify the type and amount of neurotransmitter Con: ...

  • 8 Pages

    Lecture 4-Neurotransmission-4 slides

    UCSB, PSYCH 003

    Excerpt: ... ative enzymes in synaptic cleft Neurotransmission-Let's Think Depression may be associated with low serotonin levels in the parts of your brain involved in emotion and motivation. Small Johnny has been feeling depressed about the amount of material he has to know for his Psych3 exams. Knowing nothing about pharmacotherapy but knowing what you now know about neurotransmission, what can you do to help him elevate his serotonin levels and alleviate his depression? -we'll see if you're right in a few lectures. Large 6 Overview Anatomy and configuration of synapses Neurotransmitter release Classes of neurotransmitters Studying neurotransmission Studying Neurochemistry in Humans Spinal tap The extracellular fluid in your brain is shared with your spinal cord Sampling the extracellular fluid in the spinal cord will give an indication of pathology in neurotransmission in the brain Extremely painful but conducted in humans, primates and rodents Pro: can identify the type and amount of neurotransmitter Con: ...

  • 6 Pages

    m1_03Sample

    UCSD, BILD 2

    Excerpt: ... Multiple choice: Consider a typical spiking neuron that is being grown in a culture dish. Unless otherwise noted, assume that the neuron is being bathed in a solution that is identical in composition from normal human extracellular fluid . A. Sodium B. Calcium C. Potassium D. Iodine E. Chloride 1. _ Adding high concentrations of this ion to the extracellular fluid would strongly depolarize the neuron. 2. _ Removing this from the extracellular fluid would make it impossible to generate an action potential 3. _ If you depolarized the neuron with an electrode, this ion would flow out of the cell 4. _ Removing this ion from the extracellular fluid would make it impossible for the neurotransmitter GABA to generate an IPSP. 5. _ The absence of this ion from the extracellular fluid would not alter the normal electrical properties of the neuron. 6, _ Removing this ion from the extracellular fluid would make it prevent the neurotransmitter ACh from efficiently generating ...

  • 1 Pages

    Answers - Cellular phys 07

    Washington, BIOL 220

    Excerpt: ... ith a 100 mOsM urea solution through a water permeable membrane, water would flow from the urea solution to the more concentrated NaCl solution. 9. The intracellular fluid is the total volume of fluid contained within the bodys cells. It represents about 40% of body weight, and its major unique solute is the potassium ion. The extracellular fluid represents about 20% of body weight and its major solute is the sodium ion. Two thirds of the extracellular fluid is interstitial (the fluid existing between cells), and the remaining one third of the extracellular fluid is the blood plasma. The large protein called albumin is restricted to the plasma space (the interior of blood vessels) and helps to maintain plasma volume by virtue of its osmotic pressure. Since sodium is excluded from cells, its osmotic pressure determines the relative volume of extracellular fluid . However, water moves freely among all of the body fluid compartments so the osmolarity of intracellular fluid is always equal to the osmolarity of ...

  • 7 Pages

    Neural Communication for Freshman Seminar

    UCSB, PSYCH 003

    Excerpt: ... on will "fire" Threshold of activation=depolarization of about 5-20 mV (so the neuron goes from -70 mV to -65 mV or -50 mV) Action potential=massive momentary (~1 msec) reversal of the membrane potential (from -70 mV to +50 mV) Not graded! It's All-or-None! Occurs to its full extent or not at all Membrane Potentials in Excitable Cells Recordings from Cells Neuron 50 Action Potentials Vm 0 -50 2 mSec 2 Studying Neurochemistry in Animals Used in many techniques including study of neurochemistry in animals -can also implant a cannula through which you can: - inject a drug -sample extracellular fluid for neurotransmitter levels Thrantham et al. (2002) Neuroscience Figure 1. Effects of the D1 receptor antagonist SCH 23390 in the current-evoked excitability of PFC neurons Ecstasy also reduces PFC activity Nogueira, L. et al. J. Neurosci. 2006;26:12308-12313 Copyright 2006 Society for Neuroscience 3 Propagation of the Action Potential Once generated at the axon hillock, the action potential ...

  • 3 Pages

    Notes

    Colorado, IPHY 1010

    Excerpt: ... Notes: EXAM 1 PHYSIOLOGY: The study of the functions of a living organism and its component parts, including all chemical and physical processes. ANATOMY: The study of structure with much less emphasis on function. INTEGRATE: To bring varied elements together to create a unified whole. LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION: 1. Atoms 2. Molecules 3. Cells 4. Tissues 5. Organs 6. Organ Systems 7. Organisms 8. Population of one species 9. Ecosystem of different species 10. Biosphere ORGAN SYSTEMS: 1. Integumentary 2. Immune 3. Circulatory 4. Nervous 5. Urinary 6. Reproductive 7. Endocrine 8. Digestive 9. Muscoskeletal 10. Respiratory EMERGENT SYSTEM: Some property of a system that is greater than the simple sum of the systems individual parts. TELEOLOGICAL APPROACH: This approach answers why a certain event exists but say nothing as to how. Answers the "WHY" MECHANISTIC APPROACH: Examines process, answers the question "HOW". HOMEOSTASIS: The body's ability to maintain internal stability. EXTRACELLULAR FLUID : The vast majority ...

  • 5 Pages

    MCB3208Ch6lec

    Berkeley, MCB 57703

    Excerpt: ... MCB32F08 Chapter6,Membranetransportofsolutes,waterandionsbydiffusion,mediatedtransport,active transport,secondaryactivetransport,filtrationandosmosis.Generationofvoltages. Outline Diffusioninsolution Permeationacrossamembrane Watertransport:filtratio ...

  • 4 Pages

    Lecture 4 Chapter 40.1, 45.1-45.2 Book notes

    Vanderbilt, BSCI 110b

    Excerpt: ... e with the environment occurs as substances dissolved in the aqueous medium of cells diffuse and are transported across the cells plasma membrane. This organization only works if all the cells of the animal have access to a suitable aqueous environment. The animals body plan must reflect the need the animal has for a suitable aqueous environment. (Page 822) Most animals are more complex and made up of compact masses of cells; their outer surfaces are relatively small compared with their volumes. Extensively folded or branched internal surfaces facilitate the necessary exchanges with the environment in these animals. Complex body forms do have distinct benefits, they: a. Protect against predators b. Enable rapid movement c. Break down food to control the release of stored energy (Page 943) Biology 110b Chapter 40.4, 45.1-45.2 Book notes An animal hormone is a chemical signal that is secreted into the extracellular fluid , is carried by the circulatory system and communicates regulatory messages within t ...

  • 7 Pages

    Body_Basics09

    Michigan State University, HNF 150

    Excerpt: ... HNF150 Prof. Alaimo BODY BASICS ON YOUR OWN Definition of Cells = A. Cell membrane B. Microvilli C. Nuclear membrane D. Mitochondria E. Nucleus The bodys cells need (3): 1. Energy 2. Oxygen 3. Water Definition of Tissues = muscles, bones, blood Definition of Organs = heart, brain, liver SYSTEMS OF THE BODY A. Circulatory and Lymphatic System 2 Types of BODY FLUIDS: 1) Blood and 2) Lymph SPRING 2009 Learning Notes Functions (2): Supply tissues with energy, oxygen, and nutrients. Also carry away waste materials. Arteries = carry blood containing fresh oxygen from heart to tissues Veins = carry blood with carbon dioxide from tissues to heart Red Blood Cell = carry oxygen to cells Lymphatic = has own separate vessels Extracellular fluid = fluid residing outside the cells that transports materials to and from the cells. Adequate circulation requires (3): Fluid, cardiovascular fitness, good nutrition B. Hormonal System = changes conditions that demand responses from the body organs 1 HNF150 Prof. Alaimo Hor ...

  • 59 Pages

    Chapter 4

    LSU, BIOL 1001

    Excerpt: ... Cell membrane structure and Function The cell membrane is usually the outermost barrier of the cell. An exception to this is found in cells which have a cell wall plants - cellulose Chitin- fungi The cell wall is mainly for structural support and protection. It usually doesnt act as a barrier to molecules. The Plasma Membrane The plasma membrane contains the cell but still allows the cell to interact with the environment. (See figs 4-1) extracellular fluid (outside) glycoprotein binding site phospholipid bilayer carbohydrate cholesterol phospholipid receptor protein transport protein protein filaments recognition protein cytoplasm (inside) The plasma membrane functions: 1. Isolate the cell environment 2. Regulate exchange between inside and outside 3. Communicate with other cells 4. Identify the cell type -Plasma membrane is the membrane at the boundary of every cell that acts as a selective barrier, thereby regulating the cells chemical environment. 1. Membranes are made of lipid 2. P ...

  • 5 Pages

    Final Exam Lecture 11

    Rutgers, HIST 102

    Excerpt: ... sin) regulates the permeability if the late distal tubule and collecting duct: its secretion makes them more permeable to water increases water reabsorption ADH secreted out of the posterior pituitary by cells originating in the hypothalamus An increase in osmolarity of extracellular fluid is the signal for ADH release Osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus monitor the osmolarity of extracellular fluid s Also, decreased baroreceptor activity signals for an increase in ADH secretion (low volume and/or pressure of plasma indicates not enough water) ADH secretion water reabsorption up raise plasma volume and pressure Fig 20.16 Angiotensin II stimulates aldosterone secretion Na reabsorption up extracellular fluid osmolarity increases water follows water reabsorption up Angiotensin II also stimulates ADH secretion permeability of late distal tubule and collecting duct to water increases water reabsorption up ADH signals for the synthesis and insertion of aquaporin 2, a protein that acts as a pore for water ...