Documents about Gastrointestinal Tract

  • 4 Pages

    notes DEVELOPMENT

    Ill. Chicago, BIOS 100

    Excerpt: ... y become the adult organism. These cells are pluripotent ( they are able to differentiate into any tissue type) and are the Embryonic Stem Cells that have become rather controversial in the past couple of years. At about day 7-10, blastocyst becomes implanted into wall of uterus, in humans. Cytoplasmic determinants. Cleavage is under control of mothers eggs proteins (transcription factors) in the egg cytoplasm. Fig 21.11 In most species this goes up until about 12th division ( lots of cells!). However in mammals, zygote mRNAs can be seen as early as the two cell stage! See Activating Zygotic Genome, p 456 C. Gastrulation - Fig. 21.14 During gastrulation, some cells start to move inward. This is the beginning of a tube that is formed that eventually become the gut ( gastrointestinal tract ) By the end of gastrulation, cells have started to become different and three layers are formed which will become ectoderm (outside), mesoderm (middle), and endoderm (inside). D. Organogenesis further differentiation oc ...

  • 9 Pages

    Fall_2006_Biopsych_one_genetics_neurotransmitters

    Wisconsin, PSY 202

    Excerpt: ... ing Environments: Mother Nurture article: epigenetics again, stress-reactivity: How Are Neural Messages Integrated into Communication Systems? Three syste ms are coordinated: 1)The Central Nervous System (CNS) 2) The Peripheral Nervous Syste m (PNS) 3) The Endocrine System Structure of the Nervous System: The Central Nervous System (CNS) Consists of the Brain and Spinal Cord The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) connects the CNS to the rest of the body through subdivisions: 1) The Somatic Nervous System, which acts on skeletal muscles (the muscles attached to bone) 2) The Autonomic Nervous System, which acts on visceral muscles (e.g., heart, arteries, gastrointestinal tract ) and glands (e.g., salivary, sweat) In the Somatic Nervous Syste m: 1) Sensory Neurons (Afferent Neurons) transmit somatosensory information from peripheral sensory organs to CNS; and 2) Motor Neurons (Efferent Neurons) bring motor informational commands from CNS to the muscles: Fig. 3.8 In the Autonomic Ne ...

  • 11 Pages

    Biopsych_one_genetics_neurotransmitters_Notes_O...

    Wisconsin, PSY 202

    Excerpt: ... ting Environments: "Mother Nurture" article: "epigenetics" again, stress-reactivity: How Are Neural Messages Integrated into Communication Systems? Three syste ms are coordinated: 1)The Central Nervous System (CNS) 2) The Peripheral Nervous Syste m (PNS) 3) The Endocrine System Structure of the Nervous System: The Central Nervous System (CNS) Consists of the Brain and Spinal Cord The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) connects the CNS to the rest of the body through subdivisions: 1) The Somatic Nervous System, which acts on skeletal muscles (the muscles attached to bone) 2) The Autonomic Nervous System, which acts on visceral muscles (e.g., heart, arteries, gastrointestinal tract ) and glands (e.g., salivary, sweat) In the Somatic Nervous Syste m: 1) Sensory Neurons (Afferent Neurons) transmit somatosensory information fro m peripheral sensory organs to CNS; and 2) Motor Neurons (Efferent Neurons) bring motor informational commands from CNS to the muscles: Fig. 3.8 In the Autono ...

  • 3 Pages

    lecture_notes_12_03_07

    Wisconsin, BIOCORE 301

    Excerpt: ... Lecture Notes December 3, 2007 Two Prokaryotic groups: Bacteria and Archaea Total biomass may be greater than that of all plant life Found everywhere: collectively, prokaryotes in and on the human body outnumber all of the cells in the body For example, one estimate is that the skin has 1012 bacteria, that there are 1010 in the mouth, and 1014 in the gastrointestinal tract (It has been estimated that there are more bacteria in your digestive tract than humans on earth) Nutrition refers to how organisms obtain: Energy to power life processes Carbon to build the organic molecules of cells Prokaryotes exhibit great nutritional diversity, and include anaerobic and aerobic forms 4 modes of nutrition (source of energy, and of Carbon) Photoautotroph Chemoautotroph Photoheterotrophs Chemoheterotrophs All are present in prokaryotes; two (chemoautotroph, photoheterotroph) seem to be unique to prokaryotes Photosynthetic prokaryotes are responsible for our O2 atmosphere The production of O2 was a major environmental chan ...

  • 2 Pages

    11-2-07 anatomy notes

    TCU, BIOL 20204

    Excerpt: ... . tongue (skeletal muscle) 6. extrinsic eye muscles (moves eyes in orbits) ii. cardiac muscle-heart iii. smooth muscle 1. walls of hollow organs a. blood vessels b. gastrointestinal tract : small and large intestine, stomach i. walls of hollow structures c. respiratory tract (bronchioles) d. e. f. g. excretory tract-ureters and urinary bladder capsule of spleen-outer layer arrector pili-associated w/hair follicles intrinsic eye muscles (ciliary muscle, dilator pupillae, and spincter pupillae) ...