Documents about Gastrointestinal Tract

  • 9 Pages

    diseases_gi_tract_fig_06

    UCSD, BIMM 120

    Excerpt: ... Diseases of the Lower Gastrointestinal Tract Source for all figures: Microbiology: A Human Perspective, 5th edition, New York, Boston, 2007 Note: only Hepatitis A and E cause gastrointestinal diseases ...

  • 1 Pages

    gi_tract_quiz_05

    UCSD, BIMM 124

    Excerpt: ... Bacteria in the Gastrointestinal Tract 12Over_ species of bacteria in the GI tract. About _ bacteria compared to _cells in the body _% of indigenous flora of the large intestines are anaerobic. _the most extensively studied organisms in the large intestines. About _% of the indigenous GI flora has not been cultured in the laboratory. 3- 4- 5- ...

  • 6 Pages

    Lecture 2008

    Allan Hancock College, BIAN 2119

    Excerpt: ... Orang utan Pongo pygmaeus Gorilla Gorilla gorilla Bonobo Pan paniscus Human Homo sapiens A DIGESTIVE STRATEGY DESCRIBES HOW AN ANIMAL PROCESSES ITS FOOD. 1. Different diets have different processing requirements which are reflected in the structure of the gastrointestinal tract . 2. It is possible to predict the digestive strategy of a given species on the basis of its natural diet, gut morphology and evolutionary history. DIAGNOSIS OF DIGESTIVE STRATEGY The diagnosis of the digestive strategy of a given species is based on the answers to 3 questions. 1. Diet - What is its natural diet, and how easily is it digested, i.e. how much fibre does it contain? 2. Morphology - Is the gut adapted for processing plant foods? 3. Digesta passage studies - What is the average time taken for the components of a meal to pass from mouth to anus? STRUCTURE OF PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS Stomach storage and preparation of digesta starch grain cell membrane nucleus Small Intestine digestion and absorption Caecum vacuole Prox ...

  • 3 Pages

    studyQs-digestive

    Colorado, IPHY 3415

    Excerpt: ... DIGESTIVE SYSTEM STUDY QUESTIONS 1. In the gastrointestinal tract , the _ _ surrounds the submucosa and consists of two layers of smooth muscle. 2. Name the 4 lobes of the liver. A. _ B. _ C. _ D. _ 3. List 5 intraperitoneal and 5 retroperitoneal organs. Intraperitoneal A. _ B. _ C. _ D. _ E. _ Retroperitoneal A. _ B. _ C. _ D. _ E. _ 4. What type of luminal epithelium is found in both the small intestine and the colon? 5. Name 2 specialized structures or generalized features found within the stomach. A. _ B. _ 6. TRUE or FALSE: The flexure in the colon adjoining the ascending colon and transverse colon is called the splenic flexure. ...

  • 1 Pages

    Fiche_Valo_%20(00346)

    Northwestern State University of Louisiana, PLS 202330

    Excerpt: ... #Ref: 00346 October 2006 In vitro gastrointestinal model system and uses thereof Technology The invention relates to an in vitro culture system to model the gastrointestinal tract , and uses thereof. The system consists in using cells immobilization in anaerobic continuous-flow cultures for modelisation of the gastrointestinal flora. Fresh faecal samples are used as the source of inocula for immobilisation in a mixed gel of gellan and xanthan. The beads produced are then introduced in a single or multi-stage chemostat fed with a nutrient media. The composition and metabolic activities of the flora are monitored daily in reactors operated with conditions simulating the characteristics of different segment of the gastrointestinal tract . Competitive advantages The only in vitro models of the gastrointestinal flora using free-cell fermentations, both with batch and continuous cultures. High cell density in gel beads in the reactor effluent (greater than about 109 CFU/ml). High stability of the syste ...

  • 17 Pages

    Lecture_7_notes

    University of Florida, RAD 6190

    Excerpt: ... Abdomen I Gastrointestinal Tract Chris Sistrom, MD, MPH Sistrom, Diagnostic Radiology University of Florida College of Medicine Objectives Be able to identify the musculature of the anterior and lateral abdominal wall. Refresh your knowledge of the musculature about the pelvis. Be able to identify the regions of the gastrointestinal tract and their appearance on contrast studies as well as in planar images. Be able to identify the biliary system and its appearance in contrast studies. Be able to identify the intraperitoneal organs of the abdomen as they appear in plain radiographs and on axial, sagittal and coronal images. (continued) Objectives Be familiar with which structures of the gastrointestinal tract are retroperitoneal in location. Understand the portal vascular system as unique within the overall circulatory system. Be able to identify the modalities used in imaging the abdomen. Be able to identify the vascular anatomy of the abdomen including all major branches. ...

  • 16 Pages

    2040abd1

    East Los Angeles College, HUMB 2040

    Excerpt: ... Functional Human Morphology (2040) & Functional Anatomy of the Head, Neck and Trunk (2130) Gastrointestinal & Urogenital Systems Recommended Text: TEXTBOOK OF ANATOMY: ROGERS Published by Churchill Livingstone (1992) 1 HUMB2040/ABD/SHP/97 2 Practical class 1 GASTROINTESTIN TRACT OINTESTINAL GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OBJECTIVES 1. Outline the support provided by the bones, muscles and fasciae of the abdomen and pelvis which contribute to the support and protection of the gastrointestinal tract . 2. Define the parietal and visceral peritoneum and know which organs are suspended within the peritoneum and which are retroperitoneal. 3. Understand the arrangement of the mesenteries and ligaments through which vessels and nerves reach the organs. 4. Outline the gross structures, anatomical relations and functional significance of the major functional divisions of the gastrointestinal tract . Background reading Rogers: Chapter 16: The muscles and movements of the trunk 29: The peritoneal cavity 30: Oesophagus and ...

  • 4 Pages

    notes DEVELOPMENT

    Ill. Chicago, BIOS 100

    Excerpt: ... y become the adult organism. These cells are pluripotent ( they are able to differentiate into any tissue type) and are the Embryonic Stem Cells that have become rather controversial in the past couple of years. At about day 7-10, blastocyst becomes implanted into wall of uterus, in humans. Cytoplasmic determinants. Cleavage is under control of mothers eggs proteins (transcription factors) in the egg cytoplasm. Fig 21.11 In most species this goes up until about 12th division ( lots of cells!). However in mammals, zygote mRNAs can be seen as early as the two cell stage! See Activating Zygotic Genome, p 456 C. Gastrulation - Fig. 21.14 During gastrulation, some cells start to move inward. This is the beginning of a tube that is formed that eventually become the gut ( gastrointestinal tract ) By the end of gastrulation, cells have started to become different and three layers are formed which will become ectoderm (outside), mesoderm (middle), and endoderm (inside). D. Organogenesis further differentiation oc ...

  • 3 Pages

    2320-Boucher(s08)

    University of Texas-Tyler, BIOL 2320

    Excerpt: ... sed to calculate your overall grape point average. A student will receive grade forgiveness (grade replacement) for only three (undergraduate student) or two (graduate student) course repeats during his/her career at UT Tyler. (2006-08 Catalog, p. 35) LECTURE SCHEDULE DATE LECTURE Prokaryotic Profiles Viruses CHAPTER 4 6 JAN 14 JAN 21 NO CLASSES Martin Luther King Jr. Holiday Microbial Nutrition & Metabolism Microbial Genetics 7/8 9 End Exam 1 Material FEB 8 EXAM 1 Microbial Control: The Antibiotic Infection and Disease & Diagnosing Disease Microbial Diseases of the Skin and Eyes 4, 6 - 9 12 13/17 18 End Exam 2 Material MAR 3 EXAM 2 Microbial Disease of the Nervous System Microbial Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Diseases Microbial Disease of the Respiratory System 12, 13/17, & 18 19 20 21 MAR 10-14 MAR 21 NO CLASSES Spring Break LAST DAY TO WITHDRAW End Exam 3 Material APR 7 EXAM 3 Microbial Disease of the Respiratory System Microbial Disease of the Gastrointestinal Tract Microbial Diseas ...

  • 9 Pages

    Fall_2006_Biopsych_one_genetics_neurotransmitters

    Wisconsin, PSY 202

    Excerpt: ... ing Environments: Mother Nurture article: epigenetics again, stress-reactivity: How Are Neural Messages Integrated into Communication Systems? Three syste ms are coordinated: 1)The Central Nervous System (CNS) 2) The Peripheral Nervous Syste m (PNS) 3) The Endocrine System Structure of the Nervous System: The Central Nervous System (CNS) Consists of the Brain and Spinal Cord The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) connects the CNS to the rest of the body through subdivisions: 1) The Somatic Nervous System, which acts on skeletal muscles (the muscles attached to bone) 2) The Autonomic Nervous System, which acts on visceral muscles (e.g., heart, arteries, gastrointestinal tract ) and glands (e.g., salivary, sweat) In the Somatic Nervous Syste m: 1) Sensory Neurons (Afferent Neurons) transmit somatosensory information from peripheral sensory organs to CNS; and 2) Motor Neurons (Efferent Neurons) bring motor informational commands from CNS to the muscles: Fig. 3.8 In the Autonomic Ne ...

  • 11 Pages

    Biopsych_one_genetics_neurotransmitters_Notes_O...

    Wisconsin, PSY 202

    Excerpt: ... ting Environments: "Mother Nurture" article: "epigenetics" again, stress-reactivity: How Are Neural Messages Integrated into Communication Systems? Three syste ms are coordinated: 1)The Central Nervous System (CNS) 2) The Peripheral Nervous Syste m (PNS) 3) The Endocrine System Structure of the Nervous System: The Central Nervous System (CNS) Consists of the Brain and Spinal Cord The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) connects the CNS to the rest of the body through subdivisions: 1) The Somatic Nervous System, which acts on skeletal muscles (the muscles attached to bone) 2) The Autonomic Nervous System, which acts on visceral muscles (e.g., heart, arteries, gastrointestinal tract ) and glands (e.g., salivary, sweat) In the Somatic Nervous Syste m: 1) Sensory Neurons (Afferent Neurons) transmit somatosensory information fro m peripheral sensory organs to CNS; and 2) Motor Neurons (Efferent Neurons) bring motor informational commands from CNS to the muscles: Fig. 3.8 In the Autono ...

  • 4 Pages

    b19lec1708b

    Allan Hancock College, BIAN 2119

    Excerpt: ... s - occur in epithelia, i.e. skin, respiratory & gastrointestinal tract s, glands sarcomas - occur in supporting tissues, i.e. bone, blood vessels, muscle leukaemias etc. affecting white blood cells then classified by exact site majority of cancers are carcinomas What affects cancer risk? cancer risk may vary hugely according to cancer type age sex population / geography Other aspects including lifestyle, occupation socio-economic status, other medical history 5 6 1 Note the huge scale of variations in this table And also note that the results in this table have been corrected for age structure Some things are not a surprise, e.g. Queenslands high skin cancer rate Some are at higher frequency in developed than developing countries in the table, e.g. lung, colon Some vary greatly within those categories Some are at higher frequency in developing than developed countries in the table, e.g. liver 9 Why this variation? could changes in diagnosis be responsible? not wholly heredity? environment? cancer gene ...

  • 3 Pages

    lecture_notes_12_03_07

    Wisconsin, BIOCORE 301

    Excerpt: ... Lecture Notes December 3, 2007 Two Prokaryotic groups: Bacteria and Archaea Total biomass may be greater than that of all plant life Found everywhere: collectively, prokaryotes in and on the human body outnumber all of the cells in the body For example, one estimate is that the skin has 1012 bacteria, that there are 1010 in the mouth, and 1014 in the gastrointestinal tract (It has been estimated that there are more bacteria in your digestive tract than humans on earth) Nutrition refers to how organisms obtain: Energy to power life processes Carbon to build the organic molecules of cells Prokaryotes exhibit great nutritional diversity, and include anaerobic and aerobic forms 4 modes of nutrition (source of energy, and of Carbon) Photoautotroph Chemoautotroph Photoheterotrophs Chemoheterotrophs All are present in prokaryotes; two (chemoautotroph, photoheterotroph) seem to be unique to prokaryotes Photosynthetic prokaryotes are responsible for our O2 atmosphere The production of O2 was a major environmental chan ...

  • 2 Pages

    11-2-07 anatomy notes

    TCU, BIOL 20204

    Excerpt: ... . tongue (skeletal muscle) 6. extrinsic eye muscles (moves eyes in orbits) ii. cardiac muscle-heart iii. smooth muscle 1. walls of hollow organs a. blood vessels b. gastrointestinal tract : small and large intestine, stomach i. walls of hollow structures c. respiratory tract (bronchioles) d. e. f. g. excretory tract-ureters and urinary bladder capsule of spleen-outer layer arrector pili-associated w/hair follicles intrinsic eye muscles (ciliary muscle, dilator pupillae, and spincter pupillae) ...

  • 1 Pages

    Cryptosporidium

    Washington, ZEPI 526

    Excerpt: ... Cryptosporidium Sporulated oocysts, containing 4 sporozoites, are excreted by the infected host through feces and possibly other routes such as respiratory secretions . Transmission of Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis occurs mainly through contact with contaminated water (e.g., drinking or recreational water). Occasionally food sources, such as chicken salad, may serve as vehicles for transmission. Many outbreaks in the United States have occurred in waterparks, community swimming pools, and day care centers. Zoonotic and anthroponotic transmission of C. parvum and anthroponotic transmission of C. hominis occur through exposure to infected animals or exposure to water contaminated by feces of infected animals . Following ingestion (and possibly inhalation) by a suitable host , excystation occurs. The sporozoites are released and parasitize epithelial cells ( , ) of the gastrointestinal tract or other tissues such as the respiratory tract. In these cells, the parasites undergo asexual multiplication (sch ...