Documents about Intestinal Tract

  • 6 Pages

    Lecture 2008

    Allan Hancock College, BIAN 2119

    Excerpt: ... HUMANS Introduction I first worked with non-human primates, which include lemurs, monkeys and apes. Relationship between primates diets in the wild and the function of the gastro- intestinal tract (= stomach + intestines, or the gut). All non-human primates are essentially plant-eaters bulk of the diets fruit and young leaves supplemented with a range of animal foods (insects, young birds, eggs, and occasionally small mammals) OR MEAT-EATERS? PLANT-EATERS? I became interested in human digestion when I read a paper written in 1995 called "The Expensive Tissue Hypothesis" Which is a theory that describes the evolution of the brain and the gastro- intestinal tract in human ancestors, and is used to explain why we are meat-eaters. Humans and apes and their fossil relatives belong to the Family Hominidae which is usually shortened to hominids The Expensive Tissue Hypothesis (Aiello & Wheeler, 1995) During the course of human evolution, as the brain increased in size there was a corresponding reduction in the ...

  • 2 Pages

    Class 2 EXSC 205 notes

    USC, EXSC 205LXG

    Excerpt: ... pound Can cause anal leakage due to undigested fat in large intesine Severe gas can occur due to bacteria o Syrup of Ipecac- makes you throw up Surgery o Bariatric surgery-surgery on gastronal intestinal tract Gastric banding-put a band at the top of the stomach that creates a small pouch at top of stomach/esophagis 5-6 small meals, must eat slowly, Gastric Intestine Bypass- food just doesn't digest completely, remove parts of the stomach Liposuction- remove fat with a vacuum Cosmetic surgery-not a weight loss method Fatality ratio is 1% ...

  • 4 Pages

    Lect35Carbon2

    Michigan State University, MMG 301

    Excerpt: ... MMG 301 Fall 2002 Page 1 Lecture 35: Carbon Cycle 2: Decomposers, Methanogenic Archaea and Methylotrophs (unless noted otherwise, all figures & tables are from: Microbial Life by Perry, Staley & Lory (2002) Sinauer Associates, Inc.) Comparison of respiratory versus fermentative decomposition of biomass Respiratory (can often be accomplished by single species of microbes) aerobic anaerobic CH4 (-4) CH3OH (-2) HCHO (0) HCOOH (+2) CO2 (+4) biomass Fermentative (requires many different species, cooperating in an anaerobic food web) Desired end products: CO2 + CH4 (why are these desireable?) e.g. nC6H12O6 (cellulose, a major component of plant biomass) 3n CO2 + 3n CH4 MMG 301 Fall 2002 Page 2 Habitats of fermentative communities anoxic sediments (esp. freshwater), sewage sludge digesters, landfills, animal intestinal tract s. MMG 301 Fall 2002 Page 3 Methanogenic Archaea: Methano prefix: Methanobrevibacter, Methanosarcina, etc. Strict anaerobes; terminal org ...

  • 4 Pages

    Tutorial 1 (new)

    Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College, BIO 150

    Excerpt: ... only 1 and 3 2 and 4 1, 3 and 4 7. Which of the following traits do archaea and bacteria share? 1. 2. 3. 4. a. b. c. d. e. composition of the cell wall presence of plasma membrane lack of nuclear envelope identical rRNA sequences 1 only 3 only 1 and 3 2 and 3 2 and 4 BIO122: Tutorial 1 2 8. If all the bacteria on Earth suddenly disappeared, which of the following would be the most likely and most direct result? a. b. c. d. e. the number of organisms on Earth would decrease by 10 20% human populations would thrive in the absence of the disease there would be little change in Earth's ecosystems the recycling of nutrient would be greatly reduced atleast initially there would be no more pathogens on Earth 9. Viruses are infectious a. Cell b. Living thing c. Particle d. Nucleic acid 10. A pathogen is most accurately described as a a. b. c. d. Parasite Commensal Saprobe Symbiont 11. Which of the following types of bacteria would you be most likely to find in the human intestinal tract ? a. spirochete b. ...

  • 11 Pages

    Lecture 11 - The Cellular Basis of Human Metabo...

    Brock University, BIOL BIOL-1F25

    Excerpt: ... Lecture 11 Background Reading Textbook, Chapter 8 The Cellular Basis of Human Metabolism. Part 3: Digestion and Absorption in the Intestinal Tract Biology 1F25 for Biology Non-Majors The People Who Prepared This Lecture The Duodenum Harry Peery Jeff Stuart 1 First Problem: Protect against HCl If HCl from the stomach is not neutralized, it will eat holes in the intestinal tract . NOT GOOD! Brunner's glands secrete copious amounts of mucus to protect the first part of the duodenum. Second Problem: Neutralize the HCl In response to HCl, the intestinal hormone prosecretin is released by S cells into the intestinal lumen. It is activated by HCl to become secretin Secretin is absorbed through the intestinal wall and does the following: It inhibits gastric secretion It stimulates the production of a fluid high in NaHCO3 (sodium bicarbonate) by the pancreas Relationship of Stomach, Pancreas and Liver Branch of hepatic portal vein coming from both stomach and pancre ...

  • 5 Pages

    Exam 1 Sample Questions KEY

    Texas Tech, ZOOL 3405

    Excerpt: ... bryonic tissue that induces the formation of many of the structures of the vertebrate head: a) notochord b) hypomere c) mesomere d) neural crest e) endoderm 21) Possession of limbs rather than closely attached lateral fins is a trait that characterizes what major group? a) deuterostomes b) chordates c) gnathostomes d) sarcopterygians e) vertebrates 22) A basic premise of modern taxonomic classification is that all groups of organisms that are given formal names must: a) be parsimonious b) be monophyletic c) have only apomorphic traits d) have only ancestral traits e) be polymorphic 23) Sea urchins, lancelets, and lizards are all: a) protochordates b) hemichordates c) chordates d) vertebrates e) deuterostomes 24) The first vertebrate group to develop jaws were the: a) cephalochordates b) conodonts c) ostracoderms d) cyclostomes e) placoderms 3 25) In the post-gastrula vertebrate embryo, the sequence of major structures in the midsaggital plane, from dorsal to ventral, is: a) intestinal tract , notochord, ...

  • 5 Pages

    Exam 1 Sample Questions

    Texas Tech, ZOOL 3405

    Excerpt: ... embryonic tissue that induces the formation of many of the structures of the vertebrate head: a) notochord b) hypomere c) mesomere d) neural crest e) endoderm 21) Possession of limbs rather than closely attached lateral fins is a trait that characterizes what major group? a) deuterostomes b) chordates c) gnathostomes d) sarcopterygians e) vertebrates 3 22) A basic premise of modern taxonomic classification is that all groups of organisms that are given formal names must: a) be parsimonious b) be monophyletic c) have only apomorphic traits d) have only ancestral traits e) be polymorphic 23) Sea urchins, lancelets, and lizards are all: a) protochordates b) hemichordates c) chordates d) vertebrates e) deuterostomes 24) The first vertebrate group to develop jaws were the: a) cephalochordates b) conodonts c) ostracoderms d) cyclostomes e) placoderms 25) In the post-gastrula vertebrate embryo, the sequence of major structures in the midsaggital plane, from dorsal to ventral, is: a) intestinal tract , notocho ...

  • 1 Pages

    crains-health-pulse,0

    Cornell, MED 883

    Excerpt: ... Crains Health Pulse Monday, November 26, 2007 Weill Cornell Takes on Obesity, Diabetes Surgeons at New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center will soon offer metabolic surgery to treat both diabetes and weight loss. Dr. Francesco Rubino will head a new center for gastrointestinal metabolic surgery. Formerly a surgeon at Catholic University of Rome, Dr. Rubino is among a small group of surgeons experimenting with treating type 2 diabetesthe most common kindwith surgery to bypass the duodenum, the upper part of the intestinal tract . In a clinical trial believed to be the first in the United States, he will combine that procedure with obesity surgery, operating on diabetic patients with a body mass index of at least 35. If it is successful he wants to do a second study on diabetics who are not overweight. It could take 10 years of follow-up to discern any negative side effects. But, if the procedure works, it could become standard treatment for diabetes, an NewYorkPresbyterian sp ...

  • 13 Pages

    Lecture04

    UVA, PHYS 102

    Excerpt: ... Figure 3-1 The GI (GastroIntestinal) Tract Figure 3-1 The GI (Gastro-Intestinal) Tract: Mouth, Salivary Glands Figure 3-1 The GI (Gastro-Intestinal) Tract: Esophagus & Stomach Figure 3-1 The GI (Gastro-Intestinal) Tract: Intestines (Small & Large) ...

  • 4 Pages

    NS 116 lecture Review Quiz4

    Cornell, NS 1160

    Excerpt: ... NS 116 lecture Review Quiz Week 4 Part I: Multiple Choice: Please circle the correct answer to each of the following. Note there is only one correct answer per question. 1. A triglyceride molecule has 3 _ attached to a glycerol? a. b. c. d. amino groups omegas fatty acids (*) hydroxyls 2. Which is not a function of fat in the body? a. b. c. d. Energy reserve Quick fuel supply for brain (*) Provides insulation Transportation of vitamins 3. Most fat absorption takes place in the. a. b. c. d. Mouth. Stomach. Small intestine. (*) Large intestine. 4. When most fatty acids leave intestinal cells, they are in the form of? a. b. c. d. Free fatty acids. Triglycerides. (*) Monoglycerides. Diglycerides. 5. Which food is most likely to decrease cholesterol absorption? a. b. c. d. Pinto beans (*) Refined white bread Watermelon Lean hamburger 6. Chylomicrons are formed in the.? a. b. c. d. Liver Intestinal tract (*) Kidney Pancreas 7. The digestion of protein begins in the.? a. b. c. ...

  • 4 Pages

    NS 116 lecture Review Quiz10F06

    Cornell, NS 1160

    Excerpt: ... NS 116 lecture Review Quiz Iron and Protein Part I: Multiple Choice: Please circle the correct answer to each of the following. Note there is only one correct answer per question. 1. Which of the following is the fourth most abundant mineral in the earth's crust, yet its deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency in the world? a. b. c. d. Calcium Sulfur Iron (*) Magnesium 2. Which form of iron in foods is most easily absorbed by intestinal cells? a. b. c. d. ferric ferrous (*) ferritin transferrin 3. The regulation of the body's iron concentration is influenced by which of the following? a. b. c. d. blood loss Absorption from the intestinal tract The body's storage capacity All of the above (*) 4. Which of the following factors enhances iron absorption? a. b. c. d. High physiological need for iron (*) High calcium content of certain foods High amount of phytates in whole grains High levels of dietary zinc 5. The primary storage form of iron in the body is? a. b. c. d. transferrin seroto ...

  • 4 Pages

    Chpt_43__DIGESTION_AND_NUTRITION_1_

    Virginia Tech, BIOL 1106

    Excerpt: ... nergy flow in an ecosystem, we have to balance energy income with energy outgo. The food that we take in has to be low in calories, nutritious, with essential vitamins - AND we need to get some exercise. walking is a good method. To complicate things, much of our desire to eat is tightly regulated via the brain and endocrine system. Diet pills try to mimic brain chemicals to tell the endocrine system that you don't need to eat. This might not be too good. For example, the hormone "leptin" is a major controller of appetite (Fig. 43.20). So take a pill that blocks leptin, reduce the appetite, and we'll loose weight. But, it turns out that leptin is also a mediator of bone growth. So by reducing our weight by manipulating our endocrine system, we could be setting ourselves up for osteoporosis. Furthermore, the picture has become more complicated by the discovery that obese people tend to have a different flora in their intestinal tract which results in more energy absorption (discuss the Nature article). Cou ...

  • 4 Pages

    BIO 226T - Lecture 21 Study Questions (last half)

    University of Texas, BIO 226T

    Excerpt: ... but can rashes, drugrelated fever, and bone marrow suppression) Greater affinity for bacterial reductase than for the human enzyme; used in treatment of urinary tract infections, Pneumocystis pneumonia, shigellosis, and prophylaxis in granulopenic patients (prevents opportunistic infections) Active against organisms that cause infections of the lower respiratory tract, intestinal tract , urinary tract, and skeletal and soft tissues; not recommended for children and pregnant women b/c they damage growing children Used for the treatment of tuberculosis, prophylaxis in close contacts of patients with meningitis caused by N. meningitidis or H. influenzae, prosthetic-valve endocarditis from S. epidermidis; given in combination with other drugs b/c resistant mutants appear at a high rate when it is used alone Cyclic peptides composed of 10 amino acids, 6 of which are diaminobutyric acid positively charged free amino groups act like a cationic detergent to disrupt the phospholipid structure of the cell membrane; to ...

  • 2 Pages

    BILD10 The Micro-world

    UCSD, BILD 10

    Excerpt: ... have multiple sclerosis have their own cell attacking and break down the myelinated part of the neurons. Fluorescence microscope, where things are dyed with a fluorescence dye. Optics o Stains, Electron microscope, Fluorescence. Film o Digital Imaging, Video Cell culture o Hela. Derived from Helen something. Her cells were kept alive through cell culturing. o Bacteria o Yeast o Plankton(Small Plants) Cells from multicellular organisms o Epithelial. Flat and tightly stuck together, lined outside of our body, outside of intestinal tract and outside of our organs, protect cells that are inside of us from the outside world. o Connective tissue, a tissue is a collection of cells, connected to a loose or liquid-like substance. i.e. bone, cartilage, blood o Nervous tissue, made of neurons o Muscle, made to contract and expand o Sperm, missiles of DNA. Has almost no component of regular cells. o Egg, provides the push for development. Million times bigger than the sperm. Yeast takes sugar ->ethanol o Process of getti ...

  • 1 Pages

    Case Study outline

    University of Indianapolis, EXSS 112

    Excerpt: ... n? (3 pts) 4) What is more important in water toxicity.the quantity of water that is consumed or the rate at which it is consumed? Why? (2 pts) A red hot bacterial infection of the intestinal tract irritates the intestinal cells and interferes with digestion. Such a condition is often accompanied by diarrhea, which causes loss of body water. On the basis of what you have learned about osmotic water flow, explain why diarrhea may occur. (2 pts) The normal function of one tumor-suppressor gene normally found in the body is to prevent cells with damaged chromosomes and DNA for "progressing from the G1 to S phase of the cell cycle", whereas another tumor suppressor gene prevents "passage from G2 to M". When these tumor-suppressor genes fail to work, cancer can result. Explain in detail what the phrases in quotations are describing and what goes on into those phases, etc. (3 pts) ...

  • 6 Pages

    4_Diplomonid

    Evansville, B 43403

    Excerpt: ... 1 Ch. 6, Other Flagellated Protozoa: Diplomonadida and Trichomonadida Taxonomy P. Retortamonada C. Diplomonadea O. Diplomonadida G. Giardia P. Axostylata C. Parabasalea O. Trichomonadida G. Trichomonas, Pentatrichomonas P. Chromista C. Opalinea O. Opalinida G. Opalina P. Retortamonada Mitochondria and dictyosomes are absent; usually with four flagella (three anterior, one recurrent); typically parasites of the intestinal tract or free-living in anoxic environments O. Diplomonadida Possess two karyomastigonts; each mastigont with 4 pair of flagella (one recurrent) Genus Giardia They lack mitochondria Phylogenetic analysis of rRNA suggests that they diverged somewhere near the point that prokaryotes and eukaryotes split Giardia is cosmopolitan in distribution G. lamblia is a common parasite of the intestinal tract of humans 2 Morphology The trophozoite is rounded at its anterior end, tapered posteriorly, and flattened dorsoventrally The dorsal surface is convex; the ventral surface is usually concave and ...

  • 38 Pages

    Chapter 11a

    CSU San Marcos, BSC 380

    Excerpt: ... a-cellular and/or florescent pigments Opportunistic pathogen Metabolize wide variety of substrates Resistant to many anti-microbials Denitrification Azotobacter and Azomonas Nitrogen fixing, free-living soil bacteria Large ovoid cell with heavy capsule Moraxella Aerobic coccobacilli Moraxella lucunata Conjunctivitis Legionella Found in streams, warm-water pipes, cooling towers L. pneumophilia Causes a form of pneumonia called legionellosis Survive inside aquatic amoebae Coxiella Coxiella burnetii Q fever Obligate intracellular pathogen transmitted via aerosols or milk Resistant sporelike body Vibrio Facultative anaerobic vibrio Vibrio cholerae Cholera Dysentery V. parahaemolyticus Less severe gastroenteritis Undercooked shellfish Enterobacteriales (enterics): Facultatively anaerobic, rods Peritrichous flagella Most ferment glucose and other sugars Inhabit intestinal tract of animals (humans) Enterics Escherichia Coliforms ...

  • 5 Pages

    139 Lec 12 08

    UCSB, MCDB 139

    Excerpt: ... MCDB 139 12 November 2008 Lecture 12: Enterobacteriaceae, contd Salmonella Shigella Next Week: Tues: Helicobacter, Campylobacter Thurs: Streptococcus Tgiving Tues: Tuberculosis, Prions 1 Salmonella Gastroenteritis/Colitis Salmonella are ingested and pass through stomach ATR (Acid Tolerance Response) genes set of proteins that allow Salmonella to survive pH 2-3 of stomach acid by providing a buffering effect 2 Pathogenicity Bacteria attaches to cells lining intestinal tract Bacteria invade and replicate in Microfold cells; then passed to macrophages, neutrophils, and lymphoid tissue in Peyers patches 3 1 MCDB 139 12 November 2008 Pathogenicity Important genes for pathogenicity SPI (Salmonella pathogenicity island) codes for 2 proteins that allow bacteria to enter cells lining intestinal tract Bacteria produce catalase and superoxide dismutase to survive in neutrophils and macrophages Endotoxin potentiates inflammatory response 4 Salmonella Gastroenter ...

  • 3 Pages

    Week11

    Idaho, UIWEB 250

    Excerpt: ... he had a juicy, seared chicken sandwich that is the talk of the town. A. Analysis of Organisms from the Intestinal Tract Work in groups of 4 1. Obtain the following samples from the instructor: Control: Escherichia coli (Lactose +) Control: Enterobacter aerogenes (Lactose +) or Proteus mirabilis (Lactose -) Control: Klebsiella pneumoniae (Lactose +) Control: Salmonella Typhimurium (Lactose -) or Shigella sonnei (Lactose -) The Fecal (Stool) sample 2. The media, day one (label them): MacConkey Agar (Mac), 1 Selective Isolation - 3 plates Levine Eosin-Methylene Blue (Levine-EMB) Agar, 1 Selective Isolation - 3 plates Rappaport-Vassiliadis Broth (RV) or Selenite-Cysteine Broth (SC), Selective Enrichment - 5 tubes 3. Inoculate the media. a. The stool sample: Using your inoculating loop, aseptically streak for isolation on one Mac plate and one Levine EMB plate. Inoculate one RV or SC broth tube. Make sure you record which stool sample you use: _. b. The controls: Divide ...

  • 13 Pages

    Lecture 19 - X-linked Disorders

    Brock University, BIOL BIOL-1F25

    Excerpt: ... ed Recessive Disorders : Hemophilia A Hemophilia A is due to a deficiency of Factor VIII in the intrinsic pathway of coagulation. This disease is due to a defective gene on the X chromosome. As it was the first to be described, it is often called classical hemophilia. Part of the Extrinsic Pathway of Coagulation 10 The Classic Coagulation Pathway Three Pathways of Coagulation Intrinsic Pathway coagulation due to internal bleeding (as from the intestinal tract ). Pathway is long. Extrinsic Pathway coagulation from an outside trauma. Pathway is short. Final Common Pathway Both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways use the Final Common Pathway. Blood Components Essential in Coagulation Red Blood Cells get trapped in fibrin mesh act like a plug. Platelets provide factors necessary for coagulation to occur. Plasma contains the protein clotting factors (most are produced by the liver) and calcium. Normal Clotting of Blood (hemostasis) Illustration from Damjanov, ...

  • 11 Pages

    Lecture 26 - How Cancer Starts

    Brock University, BIOL BIOL-1F25

    Excerpt: ... etic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death". Apoptosis permits us to have fingers. The tissue between the fingers dies, giving us digits. If it remains, we have flippers (which happens in some disorders). In humans, programmed cell death in response to hormones, permits the differentiation of the sexes. Otherwise, we would have reproductive organs for both sexes, as some lower animals do. Apoptosis in the intestinal tract hollows out the intestinal lumen Pictures here and the following 4 slides are copyright by the Nobel Committee for Physiology or Medicine at the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, Sweden 9 Hermaphrodite (above) and smaller male (below). Note that the male (which occurs infrequently) has a curved tail. Sydney Brenner was the first to suggest and use the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (abbreviated C. elegans) for research. The nematode is transparent so each cell can be seen with the microscope. C. elegans also has only 959 cells, a small number compared ...

  • 7 Pages

    Bio lab paper

    University of Iowa, BIO 002:010

    Excerpt: ... ties in the human body. These communities work to perform many of the body's normal functions, such as breaking down food into energy and defending us against disease. One of the communities of human body that has been researched extensively is located in the gastro- intestinal tract . One of the principal bacterium in this community studied is B. thetaiotaomicron and has been used as a prototype for this specific community. B. thetaiotamicron consumes the sugar fucose in our intestines and converts it to energy to be used by the body. The production of the fucose sugar is also regulated by B. thetaiotamicron and the community it thrives in. The bacteria sense when sugar levels fall below the desired level and signals the cells of the gastro- intestinal tract to release the sugar. Another type of bacterial community helps to fight infections and diseases in the human body. For example, researchers have found evidence that links the bacterial community in the oral cavity to the resistance to periodontal disea ...