Documents about Metabolic Pathway

  • 1 Pages

    Bi Sci 001

    Penn State, BI SC 001

    Excerpt: ... Bi Sci 001 Monday February 22, 1999 Announcements: Review Session tonight cancelled, so are office hours for tomorrow. Lecture notes: Reactants: organic and inorganic substances able to enter into a reaction; also called substrates or precursors. Metabolites (intermediates): compounds being funneled through a metabolic pathway ; often, intermediate forms in assembly or breakdown reactions. Enzymes: proteins that serve as catalysts (substances that speed up chemical reactions) Cofactors: coenzymes (such as FAD and NAD+) and metal ions that help enzymes catalyze a reaction or that carry atoms or molecules stripped from the substrate to another site. Energy carriers: mainly ATP, which readily donates energy to diverse reactions. End products: the substances present at the conclusion of a metabolic pathway . ...

  • 1 Pages

    Lecture 7 Notes

    SUNY Stony Brook, BIO 202

    Excerpt: ... BIO 202 Notes Lecture 7: Enzymes and regulation of enzymes Chapter 8: An Introduction to Metabolism 8.5 Regulation of enzyme activity helps control metabolism All of a cells metabolic pathway s cannot operate simultaneously: chaos if they did Metabolic pathway s are regulated by when are where its enzymes are active Genes that encode specific enzymes can be switched on and off The activity of enzymes can be regulated once theyre made Allosteric Regulation of Enzymes A proteins function at one site is affected by the binding of a regulatory molecule to a separate site (like a reversible noncompetitive inhibitor) Inhibition or stimulation of an enzymes activity Allosteric Activation and Inhibition Most allosterically regulated enzymes are constructed from subunits (two or more polypeptide chains) Each subunit has its own active site Subunits are fit together so that a conformational change in one is transmitted to all Whole enzyme oscillates between ...

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    Carleton, BIO 125

    Excerpt: ... Q 07 Investigate metabolic pathway s in peroxisomes and glyoxysomes. ...

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    Laurentian, CHEM 200203

    Excerpt: ... 23 Metabolic Pathway s for Carbohydrates Study Goals Explain the role of ATP in anabolic and catabolic reactions. Compare the structures and function of the coenzymes NAD+, FAD, and coenzyme A. Give the sites, enzymes, and products for the digestion of carbohydrates. Describe the key reactions in the degradation of glucose in glycolysis. Describe the three possible pathways for pyruvate. Discuss the impact of ATP levels on glycogen metabolism. Describe gluconeogenesis and the Cori cycle. Chapter Outline 23.1 23.2 23.3 23.4 Metabolism and Cell Structure ATP and Energy Health Note:ATP Energy and Ca2+ Needed to Contract Muscles Important Coenzymes in Metabolic Pathway s Digestion of Carbohydrates Explore Your World: Carbohydrate Digestion Health Note: Lactose Intolerance Glycolysis: Oxidation of Glucose Pathways for Pyruvate Glycogen Metabolism Gluconeogenesis: Glucose Synthesis 23.5 23.6 23.7 23.8 Chapter Summary and Demonstrations The production of energy via metabolic pathway s is ...

  • 2 Pages

    Study Guide 2

    Saginaw Valley, BIOL 105C

    Excerpt: ... mitosis. 6. List the components of chromatin. Chapter 9 Gene Expression 1. Describe the differences between DNA and RNA. 2. Describe the central dogma of molecular genetics. 3. Identify the purpose of transcription. 4. Compare exons and introns. 5. Describe the basic process of translation including the enzyme involved in the process. 6. Identify the purpose of translation. 7. Describe the basic process of translation. 8. Describe how RNA is coded into a chain of amino acids and the role of ribosomes, tRNA and mRNA in this process. 9. Describe the role of codons in translation. 10. Describe why the genetic code is universal. Chapter 10 Proteins to Phenotype 1. Identify the final products of genes. 2. List the roles of proteins in a cell. 3. Describe an enzyme and how it is used in metabolic pathway s by the cell. 4. Describe what happens if an enzyme is missing from a metabolic pathway (for example: What happens in PKU?). 5. Compare galactosemia and lactose intolerance. 6. Compare sickle cell disease and t ...

  • 26 Pages


    University of Texas, BIO 311

    Excerpt: ... BIO 311C Spring 2009 Lecture 26 Wednesday 1 Apr. 1 Ways to Show a Metabolic Pathway That Consists of Three Metabolic Reactions enzyme 1 enzyme 2 enzyme 3 A B C B C D E3 Reactions may be shown coupled together by writing intermediate substrates once only. Often the reverse arrow is not shown. Individual metabolic reactions may be shown separately. A E1 B E2 C D A 3 Name of metabolic pathway D The entire metabolic pathway may be abbreviated by showing only initial reactants and final products, illustrated as a single reaction. * A metabolic pathway must have a net negative G value in order to progress in the forward direction. However, it is not necessary for every reaction in the pathway to have a negative G value in order for the pathway to proceed in the forward direction. G1 = - 8 kJ/mol G3 = - 14 kJ/mol A E1 B E2 C E3 D G2 = + 9 kJ/mol Gnet = G1 + G2 + G3 = (- 8 + 9 - 14) kJ/mol = - 13 kJ/mol Reaction 1 "pushes" reaction 2 in the forward direction. Reaction 3 "pulls" ...

  • 2 Pages


    Idaho, PEP 418

    Excerpt: ... LECTURE EXAM #2 STUDY GUIDE Please take the time to study these content areas from lecture and your book, as the exam will draw upon all of them. Work with one another to share notes and bounce ideas and concepts off each other. If you have questions, contact me and I can try and help. Good luck! 1. Know the difference between resting metabolism and exercise metabolism in terms of the contribution (%) from CHO, Fat, and Protein. 2. Describe the difference between anabolism and catabolism and explain ATPs role as a regulator between these types of reactions. 3. List and describe the three energy systems in terms of: 1) duration of energy production, 2) aerobic or anaerobic conditions, 3) where they occur in the cell, and 4) preferred nutrient source(s). List the specific metabolic pathway s that are inherent of each energy system. 4. Explain what energy system(s) would be used for each type of activity: 1) an explosive jump to dunk a basketball, 2) an all out run for 800m on the track, and 3) cycling 100 ...

  • 8 Pages


    Cornell, BIO 2810

    Excerpt: ... Lecture15A GenesandProteins Lecture15A GenesandProteins ReviewofComplementation GeneticFineStructureAnalysis CentralDogma MetabolicPathwaysandEnzymes Crossingoverwithagene ProteinStructureareview YanofskyandColinearity Productionofm ...

  • 8 Pages


    Cornell, BIO 281

    Excerpt: ... Lecture15A GenesandProteins Lecture15A GenesandProteins ReviewofComplementation GeneticFineStructureAnalysis CentralDogma MetabolicPathwaysandEnzymes Crossingoverwithagene ProteinStructureareview YanofskyandColinearity Productionofm ...

  • 8 Pages


    Cornell, BIO 2810

    Excerpt: ... Lecture15A GenesandProteins Lecture15A GenesandProteins ReviewofComplementation GeneticFineStructureAnalysis CentralDogma MetabolicPathwaysandEnzymes Crossingoverwithagene ProteinStructureareview YanofskyandColinearity Productionofm ...

  • 23 Pages


    University of Texas, BIO 311C

    Excerpt: ... BIO 311C March 28, 2008 Induction or Repression A E1 B E2 C E3 D Repression is a decrease in the concentration of enzymes E1, E2 and E3. Induction is an increase in the concentration of enzymes E1, E2 and E3. Repression or induction can result from cellular regulation of transcription, posttranscriptional processing or translation, any of which may affect the concentration of functional enzymes. Typically the concentrations of all enzymes of a metabolic pathway are controlled together as a unit. * For the metabolic pathway shown, the higher the concentrations of Enzymes E1, E2 and E3, the faster initial reactant A can be converted to final product D (providing that ample "A" is available). E1 E2 E3 A B C D In a separate set of processes (not considered here), the rate of destruction of functional enzymes is also regulated in cells. * Activation/Inhibition is a set of processes that control how rapidly the enzyme catalyzing the first reaction of a metabolic pathway can function. A E1 B ...

  • 3 Pages

    Cellular Energy & Enzymes

    Rhode Island, BIO 101

    Excerpt: ... 1. Metabolism is efficient Capturing energy from glucose may include 25 different chemical reactions Each reaction controlled by a separate enzyme Glucose is converted to many short-lived metabolic intermediates before it ends up as CO2 & H2O Step-wise reactions allow capture of energy efficiently Captured energy can be used other places in the cell Energy consuming reactions (anabolism) also have many steps & are efficient Cellular metabolism (catabolic or anabolic reactions) follows metabolic pathway s - sequences of enzyme-controlled chemical reactions - end product of one reaction serves as reactant in next reaction 2. Metabolism is efficient Enzyme only binds to specific type of molecule (substrate) Enzymes only lower energy of activation for molecules to which they bind Metabolic pathway s have many enzymes, each of which catalyzes only one reaction involving one substrate Cells have thousands of enzymes that continuously synthesize and break down molecules Enzymes can interact with substrates & other mol ...

  • 2 Pages


    Idaho, FCS 361

    Excerpt: ... o treat obesity? Why or why not. 2. What are some factors that a person should take into consideration or preparations that should be made when a person is contemplating the use of surgical interventions for weight loss (name and describe at least 3). 3. What enzyme is missing or in low production in lactose intolerant persons? What metabolic pathway does this affect? 4. What is the difference between primary and secondary lactose intolerance? 5. What causes a gastric ulcer? How is stress involved? 6. Why are antibiotics prescribed in the treatment of a gastric ulcer? 7. Compare and contrast McArdle's disease and Pompe's disease. 8. What enzyme is defective in von Gierke's disease? What metabolic pathway does this affect? 9. Compare and contrast lactose intolerance and galactosemia. ...

  • 8 Pages


    Arizona, LEC 22

    Excerpt: ... Bioc 460 - Dr. Miesfeld Fall 2008 Lecture 22 - Introduction to Metabolism: Regulation Key Concepts Six major groups of metabolic pathway s Regulation of metabolic flux Glucagon, epinephrine, and insulin signaling pathways KEY CONCEPT QUESTIONS: What mechanisms control flux through metabolic pathway s? How do glucagon, epinephrine, and insulin control glucose levels? The DC metro system Overview of metabolic pathway s Small biomolecules serve as metabolites (reactants and products) in biochemical reactions within cells that are required for life-sustaining processes. Enzymes (either protein or RNA) are the chemical catalysts Figure 1. that drive these biochemical reactions. In these enzymemediated biochemical reactions, the products of one reaction are inevitably the reactants for other functionallyrelated reactions. The thousands of reactions in a cell required for sustaining life are interdependent and highly regulated to maximize efficient use of limiting metabolic resources. The emerging discipline o ...

  • 3 Pages

    Lecture 8 Notes

    SUNY Stony Brook, BIO 202

    Excerpt: ... BIO 202 Notes Lecture 8: Energy in biology, ATP Chapter 8: An Introduction to Metabolism 8.1 An organisms metabolism transforms matter and energy, subject 2 the laws of thermodynamics Metabolism: totality of an organisms chemical reactions Organization of the Chemistry of Life into Metabolic Pathway s Metabolic pathway : a specific molecule is altered in a series of defined steps, resulting in a certain product Each step is catalyzed by a specific enzyme Catabolic pathways: a.k.a. breakdown pathways: release energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler compounds Cellular respiration: glucose and other organic fuels + O2 CO2 + H2O Energy becomes available to do the work of the cell Anabolic pathways: a.k.a. biosynthetic pathways: consume energy to build complicated molecules from simpler ones Synthesis of a protein from amino acids Catabolic and anabolic pathways can work together Energy from catabolic reactions can be stored and be used to fuel a ...

  • 2 Pages

    TOPIC 2

    University of Ottawa, BIO 1140

    Excerpt: ... first appeared about 3.5 X 109 years ago (Note: 3.5 billion years ago can be written 3.5 bya) no nucleus, rather a nucleoid region no nucleolus 0.25 to 3 mm DNA, 5000 proteins, 5 X 106 bp (bp = base pairs) single, circular, naked DNA molecule no cytoskeleton (although some homologous proteins are present) certain bacteria have specialized membrane-enclosed structures called vesicles (or vacuoles) but in general we can say that prokaryotes do not have membrane enclosed organelles complex photosynthetic membranes in cyanobacteria asexual, one copy of chromosome no exo- or endocytosis ribosomes are smaller and simpler divide my binary fission (prokaryotic fission in the lab manual) genetic code almost identical to that of eukaryotes metabolic pathway s almost identical to that of eukaryotes membrane structure almost identical to that of eukaryotes A few self-test questions from lectures 1 & 2. Try them without looking them up in your text or notes. Then mark them yourselves, or better yet, get a friend to mar ...

  • 2 Pages


    Cedar Crest, BIO 121

    Excerpt: ... Figure 7.17 Relationships Among the Major Metabolic Pathway s of the Cell Figure 7.17 Relationships Among the Major Metabolic Pathway s of the Cell ...

  • 6 Pages

    Bio113_Lecture_4_SLIDES (6 per pg)

    Ohio State, BIO 113

    Excerpt: ... April 3, 2008 Biology 113, Lecture 4 Part 1 - Overview Energy transformations and metabolism ATP, the universal energy currency Concept of coupling exergonic reactions to endergonic reactions Concepts: 7.5, 8.1, 8.2 and 8.3 An organism's metabolism transforms matter and organism' energy, subject to the laws of thermodynamics Metabolism Chemical reactions of cell provide or consume energy (capacity to do work). A metabolic pathway has many steps. Enzyme 1 A Reaction 1 Starting molecule B Reaction 2 Enzyme 2 C Reaction 3 Product Enzyme 3 D Two classes of metabolic pathway s Catabolism Breakdown of molecules Releases energy (e.g., hydrolysis of polymers) Thermodynamics study of energy transformations First law of thermodynamics "Energy can be transferred and transformed but it cannot be created or destroyed." light energy chemical energy chemical energy (plants) mechanical work (animals) Anabolism Synthesis of complex molecules Consumes energy (e.g., synthesis of polymers) I ...

  • 1 Pages


    Virginia Tech, LIB 012299

    Excerpt: ... MACROMOLECULAR ORGANIZATION OF FLAVONOID BIOSYNTHESIS IN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA. by Ian Eric Burbulis B. Winkel-Shirley, Chairman Living cells manufacture and degrade thousands of chemical compounds in vivo. To do this cells rely on the activities of thousands of different protein catalysts distributed in aqueous interior compartments. Over the past several decades studies have shown that the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of most proteins, including enzymes, are different in vivo as compared to in vitro. Based on in vitro studies metabolic pathway s have traditionally been thought to consist of intermediates randomly diffusing between soluble enzymes and are still portrayed as such in many biochemistry textbooks. A large number of metabolic pathway s however are now known to exist as enzyme complexes due to molecular crowding effects in vivo. These differences have contributed to the controversy that surrounds explanations of how metabolic pathway s are spatially organized and regulated in the living cell. ...