Documents about Metabolic Pathway

  • 1 Pages

    Bi Sci 001

    Penn State, BI SC 001

    Excerpt: ... Bi Sci 001 Monday February 22, 1999 Announcements: Review Session tonight cancelled, so are office hours for tomorrow. Lecture notes: Reactants: organic and inorganic substances able to enter into a reaction; also called substrates or precursors. Metabolites (intermediates): compounds being funneled through a metabolic pathway ; often, intermediate forms in assembly or breakdown reactions. Enzymes: proteins that serve as catalysts (substances that speed up chemical reactions) Cofactors: coenzymes (such as FAD and NAD+) and metal ions that help enzymes catalyze a reaction or that carry atoms or molecules stripped from the substrate to another site. Energy carriers: mainly ATP, which readily donates energy to diverse reactions. End products: the substances present at the conclusion of a metabolic pathway . ...

  • 1 Pages

    Lecture 7 Notes

    SUNY Stony Brook, BIO 202

    Excerpt: ... BIO 202 Notes Lecture 7: Enzymes and regulation of enzymes Chapter 8: An Introduction to Metabolism 8.5 Regulation of enzyme activity helps control metabolism All of a cells metabolic pathway s cannot operate simultaneously: chaos if they did Metabolic pathway s are regulated by when are where its enzymes are active Genes that encode specific enzymes can be switched on and off The activity of enzymes can be regulated once theyre made Allosteric Regulation of Enzymes A proteins function at one site is affected by the binding of a regulatory molecule to a separate site (like a reversible noncompetitive inhibitor) Inhibition or stimulation of an enzymes activity Allosteric Activation and Inhibition Most allosterically regulated enzymes are constructed from subunits (two or more polypeptide chains) Each subunit has its own active site Subunits are fit together so that a conformational change in one is transmitted to all Whole enzyme oscillates between ...

  • 2 Pages

    Study Guide 2

    Saginaw Valley, BIOL 105C

    Excerpt: ... mitosis. 6. List the components of chromatin. Chapter 9 Gene Expression 1. Describe the differences between DNA and RNA. 2. Describe the central dogma of molecular genetics. 3. Identify the purpose of transcription. 4. Compare exons and introns. 5. Describe the basic process of translation including the enzyme involved in the process. 6. Identify the purpose of translation. 7. Describe the basic process of translation. 8. Describe how RNA is coded into a chain of amino acids and the role of ribosomes, tRNA and mRNA in this process. 9. Describe the role of codons in translation. 10. Describe why the genetic code is universal. Chapter 10 Proteins to Phenotype 1. Identify the final products of genes. 2. List the roles of proteins in a cell. 3. Describe an enzyme and how it is used in metabolic pathway s by the cell. 4. Describe what happens if an enzyme is missing from a metabolic pathway (for example: What happens in PKU?). 5. Compare galactosemia and lactose intolerance. 6. Compare sickle cell disease and t ...

  • 8 Pages

    281Lecture15A_genesprot_(2)

    Cornell, BIO 2810

    Excerpt: ... Lecture15A GenesandProteins Lecture15A GenesandProteins ReviewofComplementation GeneticFineStructureAnalysis CentralDogma MetabolicPathwaysandEnzymes Crossingoverwithagene ProteinStructureareview YanofskyandColinearity Productionofm ...

  • 8 Pages

    281Lecture15A

    Cornell, BIO 281

    Excerpt: ... Lecture15A GenesandProteins Lecture15A GenesandProteins ReviewofComplementation GeneticFineStructureAnalysis CentralDogma MetabolicPathwaysandEnzymes Crossingoverwithagene ProteinStructureareview YanofskyandColinearity Productionofm ...

  • 8 Pages

    281Lecture15A_genesprot_

    Cornell, BIO 2810

    Excerpt: ... Lecture15A GenesandProteins Lecture15A GenesandProteins ReviewofComplementation GeneticFineStructureAnalysis CentralDogma MetabolicPathwaysandEnzymes Crossingoverwithagene ProteinStructureareview YanofskyandColinearity Productionofm ...

  • 23 Pages

    web_L27_08BIO311C

    University of Texas, BIO 311C

    Excerpt: ... BIO 311C March 28, 2008 Induction or Repression A E1 B E2 C E3 D Repression is a decrease in the concentration of enzymes E1, E2 and E3. Induction is an increase in the concentration of enzymes E1, E2 and E3. Repression or induction can result from cellular regulation of transcription, posttranscriptional processing or translation, any of which may affect the concentration of functional enzymes. Typically the concentrations of all enzymes of a metabolic pathway are controlled together as a unit. * For the metabolic pathway shown, the higher the concentrations of Enzymes E1, E2 and E3, the faster initial reactant A can be converted to final product D (providing that ample "A" is available). E1 E2 E3 A B C D In a separate set of processes (not considered here), the rate of destruction of functional enzymes is also regulated in cells. * Activation/Inhibition is a set of processes that control how rapidly the enzyme catalyzing the first reaction of a metabolic pathway can function. A E1 B ...

  • 3 Pages

    Cellular Energy & Enzymes

    Rhode Island, BIO 101

    Excerpt: ... 1. Metabolism is efficient Capturing energy from glucose may include 25 different chemical reactions Each reaction controlled by a separate enzyme Glucose is converted to many short-lived metabolic intermediates before it ends up as CO2 & H2O Step-wise reactions allow capture of energy efficiently Captured energy can be used other places in the cell Energy consuming reactions (anabolism) also have many steps & are efficient Cellular metabolism (catabolic or anabolic reactions) follows metabolic pathway s - sequences of enzyme-controlled chemical reactions - end product of one reaction serves as reactant in next reaction 2. Metabolism is efficient Enzyme only binds to specific type of molecule (substrate) Enzymes only lower energy of activation for molecules to which they bind Metabolic pathway s have many enzymes, each of which catalyzes only one reaction involving one substrate Cells have thousands of enzymes that continuously synthesize and break down molecules Enzymes can interact with substrates & other mol ...

  • 8 Pages

    Lec22-F08-Handout

    Arizona, LEC 22

    Excerpt: ... Bioc 460 - Dr. Miesfeld Fall 2008 Lecture 22 - Introduction to Metabolism: Regulation Key Concepts Six major groups of metabolic pathway s Regulation of metabolic flux Glucagon, epinephrine, and insulin signaling pathways KEY CONCEPT QUESTIONS: What mechanisms control flux through metabolic pathway s? How do glucagon, epinephrine, and insulin control glucose levels? The DC metro system Overview of metabolic pathway s Small biomolecules serve as metabolites (reactants and products) in biochemical reactions within cells that are required for life-sustaining processes. Enzymes (either protein or RNA) are the chemical catalysts Figure 1. that drive these biochemical reactions. In these enzymemediated biochemical reactions, the products of one reaction are inevitably the reactants for other functionallyrelated reactions. The thousands of reactions in a cell required for sustaining life are interdependent and highly regulated to maximize efficient use of limiting metabolic resources. The emerging discipline o ...

  • 3 Pages

    Lecture 8 Notes

    SUNY Stony Brook, BIO 202

    Excerpt: ... BIO 202 Notes Lecture 8: Energy in biology, ATP Chapter 8: An Introduction to Metabolism 8.1 An organisms metabolism transforms matter and energy, subject 2 the laws of thermodynamics Metabolism: totality of an organisms chemical reactions Organization of the Chemistry of Life into Metabolic Pathway s Metabolic pathway : a specific molecule is altered in a series of defined steps, resulting in a certain product Each step is catalyzed by a specific enzyme Catabolic pathways: a.k.a. breakdown pathways: release energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler compounds Cellular respiration: glucose and other organic fuels + O2 CO2 + H2O Energy becomes available to do the work of the cell Anabolic pathways: a.k.a. biosynthetic pathways: consume energy to build complicated molecules from simpler ones Synthesis of a protein from amino acids Catabolic and anabolic pathways can work together Energy from catabolic reactions can be stored and be used to fuel a ...

  • 2 Pages

    TOPIC 2

    University of Ottawa, BIO 1140

    Excerpt: ... first appeared about 3.5 X 109 years ago (Note: 3.5 billion years ago can be written 3.5 bya) no nucleus, rather a nucleoid region no nucleolus 0.25 to 3 mm DNA, 5000 proteins, 5 X 106 bp (bp = base pairs) single, circular, naked DNA molecule no cytoskeleton (although some homologous proteins are present) certain bacteria have specialized membrane-enclosed structures called vesicles (or vacuoles) but in general we can say that prokaryotes do not have membrane enclosed organelles complex photosynthetic membranes in cyanobacteria asexual, one copy of chromosome no exo- or endocytosis ribosomes are smaller and simpler divide my binary fission (prokaryotic fission in the lab manual) genetic code almost identical to that of eukaryotes metabolic pathway s almost identical to that of eukaryotes membrane structure almost identical to that of eukaryotes A few self-test questions from lectures 1 & 2. Try them without looking them up in your text or notes. Then mark them yourselves, or better yet, get a friend to mar ...

  • 6 Pages

    Bio113_Lecture_4_SLIDES (6 per pg)

    Ohio State, BIO 113

    Excerpt: ... April 3, 2008 Biology 113, Lecture 4 Part 1 - Overview Energy transformations and metabolism ATP, the universal energy currency Concept of coupling exergonic reactions to endergonic reactions Concepts: 7.5, 8.1, 8.2 and 8.3 An organism's metabolism transforms matter and organism' energy, subject to the laws of thermodynamics Metabolism Chemical reactions of cell provide or consume energy (capacity to do work). A metabolic pathway has many steps. Enzyme 1 A Reaction 1 Starting molecule B Reaction 2 Enzyme 2 C Reaction 3 Product Enzyme 3 D Two classes of metabolic pathway s Catabolism Breakdown of molecules Releases energy (e.g., hydrolysis of polymers) Thermodynamics study of energy transformations First law of thermodynamics "Energy can be transferred and transformed but it cannot be created or destroyed." light energy chemical energy chemical energy (plants) mechanical work (animals) Anabolism Synthesis of complex molecules Consumes energy (e.g., synthesis of polymers) I ...