Documents about Nitric Oxide

  • 9 Pages

    Control of blood flow

    SEMO, BS 114

    Excerpt: ... 1. The Basic Pattern 2. Fig. 21-5 3. During digestion of a meal 4. During exercise 5. How does the body control where the blood will be available? Go to your lecture notes for information to answer this question. Then you can come back here for an example in which nitric oxide (NO) is used in this process. 6. During sexual excitation 7. This does not happen! 8. Assuming vasoconstriction is the default value, how do vasoconstricted tissues receive an adequate blood supply? See the next slide for a reminder of the capillary bed neighborhood, then go to your notes for information that answers this question. 9. Fig. 21-5 ...

  • 8 Pages


    Colby, CH 141

    Excerpt: ... CH141tSPRING2003 Synthesis and Infrared Spectra of Nitric Oxide Infrared spectroscopy is used to study bonding in nitric oxide using the concepts of the molecular orbital theory. T. W. Shattuck and M. A. Omary Colby College, Waterville, Maine PRELAB: 1. Reading: Petrucci, Chapter 11 and 12. 2. Read the lab handout and prepare a short, concise procedure including the calculations for diluting the sulfuric acid. INTRODUCTION: This is the first of two experiments aimed at studying bonding in polyatomic molecules and ions. This experiment represents a "wet" lab because you will be dealing with chemical reagents and real instruments and equipment, while the next experiment represents a "dry" lab because you will be performing the whole experiment on the computer screen. At the end of both experiments we are hoping to demonstrate to you that wet and dry labs are complementary since each type has its own advantages. Bonding in the intriguing molecule nitric oxide (NO) is studied by infrared spectroscopy in this exp ...

  • 3 Pages


    USC, AME 514

    Excerpt: ... cted the work Summary of the methods and results Summary of the conclusions Merits: Your opinion of the merits of the work Weaknesses: Your opinion of the shortcomings of the work Here's an example of what I considered to be a really good report from a previous year, though I would prefer the 1 - 5 format as listed above. Report on "Formation of Nitric Oxide in Premixed Hydrocarbon Flames" by C. P. Fenimore, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Vol. 13, p. 373, 1971. (You can't review this one since I've already given you the "answer" below.) At the time this paper was written, the formation of nitric oxide in premixed hydrocarbon flames had not been completely characterized. Concentrations of NO resulting from simple N2O2-NO combinations could be calculated but it was still uncertain how fuel-rich flames could produce such high levels of nitric oxide . Fenimore set out to test the known laws of NO formation in relation to hydrocarbon flames in an attempt to find a more accurate explanation for how an ...

  • 2 Pages


    Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, ERTH 1020

    Excerpt: ... n Pressure vs. Height Ozone (O3) CFCs (Freons, F-11, F-12) NO ( Nitric Oxide ) Greenhouse Effect Demographic Transition; Stages within D.T. Fertility Rate Replacement Fertility Population Pyramid Study Questions Population 1. Explain the relationship between birth rate, death rate, and growth rate. Describe the first two stages of a demographic transition in terms of these concepts. 2. Discuss the relationship between population stabilization and fertility rate. 3. Estimate the total population in the year 2200 if the world maintains a) a 1% per year growth rate; b) a 2% per year growth rate. 4. Sketch the population pyramid for a typical LDC and a typical MDC. Explain the difference in shape. Study Questions Atmosphere 1. Why is there a local temperature maximum at the tropopause? 2. Based on the energy balance figure in the notes, construct the energy balance for the atmosphere. 3. If we stopped emitting CFCs tomorrow, CFC-related ozone depletion would continue for decades why? 4. Vertical mixing in ...

  • 8 Pages


    Lehigh, CHM 403

    Excerpt: ... ch ed to m etal ato m s, the lig and s a re "sem ib ridg in g." Lecture XI slide 15 csk - lecture 1 - 5 Polynuclear Metal Carbonyls H OAc Fe(C O) 5 h O OC OC Fe OC C C O C Fe CO CO O C Fe 2 (CO ) 9 electron counting F e(0) 3 t CO 3 b CO Fe-Fe total 8 6 3 1 18 elns O term inal C O 2082, 2019 cm 1829 cm -1 -1 bridging CO Lecture XI slide 16 Carbonyl Substitution Reactions M o(C O) 6 + Ph 3 P solvent h or heat(120 C ) o Ph 3 PM o(CO ) 5 - C O(g) W (CO ) 6 + 2 Ph 3 P PP h 3 OC CO W OC CO PP h 3 (trans) + CO OC P Ph 3 W PPh 3 OC CO (cis ) all are 18 eln sys tem s Fe(CO )5 + OC Fe CO CO Lecture XI slide 17 Ligands Similar to CO Transition metal complexes have been synthesized with the following ligands which are isoelectronic with CO. CS CSe CN N2 A ligand which behaves somewhat like CO is nitric oxide (NO). Biochemical studies have shown NO to play a number of important roles in mammalian physiology. Lecture XI slide 18 csk - lecture 1 - 6 Complexes with Nitric Oxide (NO) - 1 ...

  • 3 Pages


    USC, AME 514

    Excerpt: ... ont repeat text that is in the paper. Summarize in your own words it shows me that you really do understand the paper. Dont use buzz words from the paper without defining them. If you dont understand them and dont feel inclined to learn what they are (which is ok, I dont expect you to understand every detail of the paper) then leave the buzz words out! In other words: everything you say can and will be used against you (Sounds harsh, but thats the way real science is anything you write in a paper is subject to evaluation and criticism). Points 1 and 5 are the most important. Say more than 1 line about item 5, in particular. This really shows what you learned from the paper. It also helps you to generate your own ideas for research. Heres an example of wh at I considered to be a really good report from a previous year, though I would prefer the 1 - 5 format as listed above. Report on "Formation of Nitric Oxide in Premixed Hydrocarbon Flames" by C. P. Fenimore, Proc ...

  • 3 Pages


    Arizona, CHEM 481

    Excerpt: ... in studies of biological membranes is 1,6- diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (abbreviated DPH), whose structure is indicated below: Let us consider the application of Hckel molecular orbital theory to fluorescence spectroscopy of DPH. a) Write the expression for the Coulomb integral, the resonance integral, and the overlap integral for any two of the 2p atomic orbitals i and j and define explicitly the approximations used in the Hckel molecular orbital theory: b) Write the equation for the secular determinant of the hexatriene fragment of DPH which is indicated below: 1 3 5 2 4 6 c) Write the equation for the secular determinant of the phenyl group fragments of DPH: 2 1 6 5 3 4 -1- Problem 2. Nitric oxide , NO, is an important molecule that has been recently found to be involved in nerve signal transmission. (Let us assume the molecular orbitals of nitric oxide correspond to those of dioxygen.) a) Write the complete energy level diagram for all the molecular orbitals of NO formed from the atomic orb ...

  • 28 Pages

    Lecture 20, Blood pressure etc.

    UC Riverside, BCH 120

    Excerpt: ... BCH/BMD 120 Spring 2008 Outline for Lecture #17 Mineralocorticoids/NAF/Endothelins/KidneyI. Cardiovascular Regulation of Na+ Volume and Blood Pressure Mineralocorticoids A. Regulation of secretion of aldosterone 1. Main actions of aldosterone 2. Functions of Juxtaglomerular (JG) apparatus 3. Renin 4. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) 5. Angiotensin and adrenal zona glomerulosa B. Mode of action of aldosterone C. Disease states Atrial Natriuretic Factor (ANF) A. Biochemistry B. Biological Actions C. Integrated actions of Aldosterone and ANF II. Outline for Lecture #23 III. Endothelins A. Background on the cardiovascular system B. Biochemistry C. Biological actions Kallikrein-Kinin pathway Nitric Oxide System Homeostasis of fluid, electrolytes and blood pressure A. Water balance B. Cardiovascular system IV. V. VI. On Tuesday May 13th there are the following events: (a) Quiz # 5 on Lectures [#17 & #18 ]. (b) A Clinical Correlate on Blood Pressure Regulation; three PDF files will be available for dow ...

  • 2 Pages

    REDOX Eqs.

    UC Riverside, CHEM 1B

    Excerpt: ... Additional REDOX Equations for Balancing 1. Iron (II) ions react with nitrate ions in acidic solution to produce iron (III) ions and nitric oxide (NO) gas. 2. Solid cobalt (II) sulfide reacts with nitrate ions and chloride ions in acidic solution to produce cobalt (II) ions, elemental sulfur and nitrosyl chloride (NOCl). 3. Permanganate ions react with nitrogen dioxide gas in acidic solution to produce manganese (II) ions and nitrate ions. 4. Zinc metal dissolves in the presence of nitrate ions in acidic solution to yield ammonium ions and zinc II) ions. 5. Cobalt (II) hydroxide reacts with peroxide ions in basic solution to produce cobalt (III) hydroxide. 6. Colorless iron (II) ions react with hydrogen peroxide in acidic solution to produce yellow colored iron (III) ions. Elemental arsenic reacts with nitrate ions in acidic solution to produce arsenate (AsO 43-) ions and nitrogen dioxide gas. 7. 8. Hydrogen peroxide reacts with permanganate ions in acidic solution ...

  • 22 Pages


    Colorado, SESSION 3

    Excerpt: ... The Observed Response of the Lower Thermosphere to Solar Energetic Inputs Scott M. Bailey, Erica M. Rodgers, Justin Yonker Geophysical Institute University of Alaska Charles A. Barth, Daniel N. Baker Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics University of Colorado Scott M. Bailey, LWS Workshop March 24, 2004 Abstract The production of nitric oxide is a key response of the upper atmosphere to solar energy deposition. NO plays a strong role in the thermospheric energy balance as it emits efficiently in the infrared, it is the terminal ion in the lower ionosphere, and if transported to lower altitudes will catalytically destroy ozone. NO is primarily produced through the reaction of excited atomic nitrogen with molecular oxygen. One of the primary loss mechanisms of NO is photo-dissociation by solar ultraviolet irradiance. In order to produce the excited atomic nitrogen atom, the strong N2 molecular bond must be broken. At low latitudes, solar soft X-ray irradiance is the energy ...

  • 9 Pages


    Arizona, NRSC 581

    Excerpt: ... Neuron, Vol. 16, 541549, March, 1996, Copyright 1996 by Cell Press Inhibition of Nitric Oxide Synthase Impairs a Distinct Form of Long-Term Memory in the Honeybee, Apis mellifera Uli Muller Institut fur Neurobiologie der Freien Universitat Berlin Konigin-Luise-Strasse 2830 D-14195 Berlin Federal Republic of Germany Drosophila (Regulski and Tully, 1995). Interestingly, the antennal lobes, the lateral protocerebral neuropil, and the mushroom bodies, all potential sites of associative olfactory learning in the honeybee (Hammer and Menzel, 1995), are also prominent areas of NOS expression (Mu ller, 1994). It was shown that the NO system within the antennal lobes is involved in chemosensory information processing in vivo (Mu ller and Hildebrandt, 1995), as Breer and Shepherd (1993) previously suggested for olfaction in general. However, learning studies in Drosophila and the honeybee (Heisenberg, 1989; Davis, 1993; DeZazzo and Tully, 1995; Hammer and Menzel, 1995) have not provided any i ...

  • 1 Pages


    Maryville MO, MILLERR 031609

    Excerpt: ... THE MECHANISM FOR PARAQUAT TOXICITY INVOLVES OXIDATIVE STRESS AND INFLAMMATION: A MODEL FOR PARKINSON'S DISEASE Rebecca Louise Miller Dr. Albert Y. Sun, Dissertation Supervisor ABSTRACT Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder known to affect the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Epidemiological studies have shown an increased risk of developing PD with exposure to paraquat. In this study, we examined the source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the underlying signaling pathway for paraquat-induced cytotoxicity to BV-2 microglial cells. Paraquat-induced ROS production was attenuate by inhibitors for NADPH oxidase, protein kinase C and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2. Under inflammatory conditions, microglial cells respond to cytokines by induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase which produces nitric oxide (NO). Our results show that paraquat inhibited cytokine-induced NO production but only moderately enhanced ROS production in microglial cells. We wanted to d ...

  • 1 Pages


    Bryn Mawr, CHEM 104

    Excerpt: ... CHEM104 Spring 2009 Due Monday at 12 noon. QUIZ 3 1. If the rate of formation of oxygen from ozone 2 O3(g) 3O 2(g) is 1.8 x 10-3 M sec-1, (a) what is the rate of decomposition of ozone? (b) what is the rate of reaction? (c) Can the rate law be determined from this information? 2. The reaction 2 NO(g) + O 2 NO 2(g) 2(g) was studied by following the initial rate of disappearance of nitric oxide , [NO(g)]o/ t, for different initial reactant concentrations. Expt # t, M sec-1 1 0.0202 2 0.0803 3 0.0409 [NO(g)]o, M 0.0125 0.0250 0.0125 [O2(g)] o, M 0.0183 0.0183 0.0370 [ NO(g)]o / (a) What is the order of the reaction with respect to NO(g)? (b) What is the order of the reaction with respect to O2(g)? (c) What is the reaction rate in each experiment? (d)Write out the rate law and determine the value of the rate constant. (e) If the reaction were carried out with [NO(g)]= [O2(g)]= 0.0200M, What would be the observed rate of disappearance of nitric oxide ? ...

  • 1 Pages

    HW Paper

    Drexel, MEM 444

    Excerpt: ... compression stocking, as mentioned in the article, are seemingly excellent ways to keep blood flowing. In my mind, a dialysis machine hooked up to the legs would be another way to go, but this brings infections and even more complications into the picture. As learned in class, Nitric Oxide (NO) is released into the body to reduce the value of the wall shear stress and to dilate the vessel. If the wall shear stress is too large, NO can be introduced into the surgery process to decrease the wall shear stress. Another idea is to increase the level of oxygen in the blood. "After a major surgery, hematocrit often drops from 45 to 30%" (MEM 444 Lecture Notes), and this can lower the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. Giving the patient oxygen could be another potential suggestion. The increase of blood clots after surgery (from 9/1000 in 1996 to 14/1000 in 2006) is not something to be taken lightly. The fact that these hospitals are participating in the "Partnership for Patient Care" means that the hospitals ...

  • 28 Pages


    Colby, PS 111

    Excerpt: ... ynaptic neurons 5. Inhibition is communication too! Action potential is generated and propagated to the axon terminals Neurotransmitters are released into the synapse Neurotransmitters diffuse across the synapse and bind to their receptors on postsynaptic dendrites/cell body Receptor is an ion channel that opens to allow flow of positive ions (Na+) into the postsynaptic neuron Depolarization is sufficient to generate an action potential Types of Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine Amino acids Glutamate Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) Aspartate Glycine Neuropeptides Endorphins Substance P Neuropeptide Y Monoamines Catecholamines Dopamine Norepinephrine Epinephrine (adrenaline) Indolamines Serotonin Melatonin Soluble gases Nitric oxide Carbon monoxide Types of Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine Amino acids Glutamate Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) Aspartate Glycine Neuropeptides Endorphins Substance P Neuropeptide Y Monoamines Catecholamines ...

  • 5 Pages


    Washington, BIOC 440

    Excerpt: ... s. 15 pts total +5 for identifying Asn +3 for glycosylation +2 for higher molecular weight due to sugar +2 for LDL can't bind to receptor 3 +3 for high LDL levels lead to atherosclerosis 4) 20 points You have a conversation with your father, who you know sometimes uses Viagra, and he tells you that he is going to the dentist in a week for some minor dental surgery. He tells you that the dentist is going to give him nitric oxide as an anesthetic. Alarmed, you tell him that he must be sure not to take Viagra before the appointment. What are you concerned about? Provide a complete molecular explanation (a drawing plus a couple of sentences is one way to answer this). You father actually confused nitrous oxide (laughing gas) with nitric oxide the signaling molecule, but you are right to be alarmed based on what he told you. Nitric oxide , if it were to get to the smooth muscle cells in the penis, will cause those cells to produce cGMP by activating a guanyl cyclase (+5). The cGMP will cause the smooth muscl ...

  • 2 Pages

    Literary review

    Emory, BIO 142

    Excerpt: ... Musi Nde February 10, 2008 Literary Review Bioligy 142 9A The question posed for this particular research project is what the effects of Nitric Oxide (NO) are on bacteria that are collected the waterways of the Mt. Arabia outcrops. Based on research, it is proposed that the addition of nitric oxide to the bacteria samples will facilitate the growth of the bacteria and increase the rate at which the bacteria multiplies and increase the colony sizes. In the article" Effects of nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide on bacterial growth" The effects of NO are not bactericidal, but rather are bacteriostatic. This means that at the concentrations that were tested, it was shown that nitric oxide halted the reproduction of the bacteria. rather than kill the bacteria. The reproduction of the bacteria became static, no deaths and no reproductions. It was shown however that bacterial survival rates increased when the initial concentrations of nitric oxide were increased past 1.0 ppm. The second article, , bacteria that is ...

  • 3 Pages


    Washington State, FEQL 532

    Excerpt: ... in coastal cities, valleys Contaminants do not disperse The larger the vertical column in which turbulent mixing occurs, thee more effective the dispersion process Mixing and dispersion will lower the concentrations of gaseous and organic contaminants emitted from a point source Drawing from Godish (1991) Air Quality, Lewis Publ. Chemical Composition of Atmosphere Constituent Chemical Formula Constant nitrogen N2 oxygen O2 argon Ar neon Ne helium He krypton Kr hydrogen H2 xenon Xe Variable water vapor H2O carbon dioxide CO2 methane CH4 nitrous oxide N2O carbon monoxide CO ozone O3 ammonia NH3 nitrogen dioxide NO2 sulfur dioxide SO2 nitric oxide NO hydrogen sulfide H2S Concentration (ppm) 780,840 209,460 9,340 18.18 5.24 1.14 0.50 0.09 0.1 -30,000 350 1.67 0.30 0.19 0.04 0.004 0.001 0.001 0.0005 0.00005 Emission of Primary Pollutants (1970 vs 1987) Source CO2 Particles Hydrocarbons NOx SOx Total Primary Pollutants Emitted in 1970 (Millions of Metric Tons/Year) Transportation 79.2 1.1 12.6 8.4 0 ...

  • 3 Pages


    Washington, BIOL 212

    Excerpt: ... the following molecules, when present in its normal, functional form, does not help "brake" or slow down the cell cycle? a. p53 b. p21 c. ATM d. cyclin B1 4. Viagra promotes blood flow to the you-know-what by a. stimulating the production of nitric oxide 1 Biology 212: Cell Biology Practice final exam questions b. stimulating the production of cGMP c. inhibiting the production of nitric oxide d. inhibiting the production of cGMP e. inhibiting the destruction of cGMP 5. Which of the following traits is not common to many cancer cells? a. uncontrolled growth and division b. abnormal numbers of chromosomes c. increased mobility d. absence of a cytoskeleton e. decreased adhesion to other cells 6. "Ras" is a. a G protein b. a tyrosine kinase c. a phosphatase d. a transcription factor e. an unflattering nickname 7. If a proto-oncogene mutated into an oncogene in an otherwise normal cell, the immediate result would likely be a. apoptosis b. arrest of the cell cycle c. not much; perhaps a slight quickening of th ...

  • 12 Pages


    Maryland, COMM 107M

    Excerpt: ... Athletic Boosters Will Lattanzio Types of Boosters Sports Drinks Power Bars Metabolism boosters Energy Drinks Whey Protein, Creatine, Nitric Oxide Human Growth Hormone (HGH) Steroids Sports Drinks Are you just drinking them for the taste? Recent studies have shown that Sports drinks don't hydrate you better than water Different types: Gatorade PowerAde Propel Sports Drinks They provide vitamins and minerals lost during exercise If you aren't exercising, this is NOT good for your body What is so special about sports drinks? They taste better than water, so athletes are more likely to drink a larger volume, thus hydrating you more Bottom line: You end up retaining the water in the sports drink and peeing everything else out anyway POWER Bars Usually used as a quick meal before or after a workout Contain high levels or Protein, sodium, calories, and other vitamins Come in three different forms: Energy (pre-workout) Refuel (during workout) Re ...

  • 4 Pages

    List of Terms Test 1_1

    UT Arlington, BIO 311c

    Excerpt: ... teins: integral, peripheral, transmembrane: transport (channel and carrier), receptor, recognition Membrane function: transport, enzymatic, signal transduction, intercellular joining, cell-cell recognition, cytoskeletal attachment Transport across cell membranes: Passive transport, diffusion, facilitated diffusion, Active transport: ion pumps, membrane potential, electrochemical gradient, proton pump Endocytosis: phagocytosis, pinocytosis, receptor-mediated endocytosis Exocytosis Cell signaling: endocrine, paracrine, autocrine, Three stages of signal transduction: reception, transduction, response Internal receptors: steroid receptors, nitric oxide receptors Cell surface receptors: ...

  • 1 Pages


    Virginia Tech, ECE 08

    Excerpt: ... AERONOMY OF ICE TOM ELKLUND cott Bailey is interested in the interactions of space weather with the Earths atmosphere. Why did noctilucent (night shining) clouds appear at about the same time as industrialization? Do the auroras play a part in ozone destruction? To get the data to study such questions, he has been active in building satellites, spacecraft, and equipment. S a lot of theories. Once we understand how they form, we will be able to go back and determine if they have anything to do with global warming or human activity. Do auroras take part in destroying the ozone layer? Bailey is also involved with studying if and how the auroras impact Earths protective ozone layer. There is a large and growing body of evidence showing that solar energetic particles from the aurora lead to production of nitric oxide (NO), he describes. We know that there is an abundance of nitric oxide in the thermosphere (in the region of the auroras). When we get to polar winter, the night is so long, the nit ...