Documents about Phylogenetic Relationships

  • 3 Pages


    Auburn, BIOL 1031

    Excerpt: ... those who thoroughly know the material, most will include several bits of information to assist you in finding the right answer. Also, note that some test questions will require that you recall general animal phylogeny knowledge covered in Topics 10-12 (what are metazoans, Bilateria, etc., and phylogenetic relationships between such groups). Study suggestions Topics 13-16 1. As usual, pay close attention to the taxonomic groups and the bold terms. Most questions about a taxonomic group (kingdom, subkingdom, phylum, class, etc.) will include several identifying traits, with an emphasis on unique traits or facts about the group; for such questions, you will be choosing the appropriate group based on a description. If a single common name is paired with a taxonomic group in the outline, usually that name will be paired with the taxonomic group name in the answer choices (for example, Aves/birds). Also, if a particular species, genus, or other group was mentioned in the description of a group, that detail h ...

  • 3 Pages

    Answers pracquestmidterm2

    University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign, IB 201

    Excerpt: ... you match a term to a definition or a scientist to a given scientific discovery or evolutionary insight. A. From the following terms, select the correct one to complete the sentences below. There are more terms than sentences so not all are used, and some terms might be used more than once. adaptive analogous bootstrap chance variation CHON cladogram Darwinian fitness Darwinian natural selection descent with modification DNA heritability homologous maximum likelihood maximum parsimony monophyletic outgroup phenotypic plasticity phylogram plesiomorphic ribozyme RNA sister group sympatric synapomorphic transformationism transmutationism 1. _ homologous _ characters are used to establish monophyletic groups. 2. Hennig identified a certain class of characters that were not useful for establishing phylogenetic relationships ; these he called _ plesiomorphic _. 3. One of the goals of phylogenetic analysis is to recover the true genealogical structure of relationships in nature. A "nat ...

  • 6 Pages


    Cornell, BIO G 109

    Excerpt: ... Prelim 1 Review Guide While studying, remember that this course will synthesize and build on 6 major concepts: 1. Study of life [what criteria defines life] 2. Who, what, where, when & why 3. Hierarchical structures [comparing Holism to Reductionism] ...

  • 3 Pages


    Texas A&M, ENTO 601

    Excerpt: ... t. Handwritten answers are acceptable, as are diagrams, charts, tables, however, these must be included in the length requirement. Clay models or any other type of three-dimensional figure must be submitted as electronic holograms. Please look at the relative number of points assigned to each question, and apportion your time and writing accordingly. The exam is worth 120 points. 1) Discuss the various methods for polarizing data (determining which character states are plesiomorphic or apomorphic in a particular set of taxa). What methods or criteria seem most reliable and which seem least reliable? What assumptions do the various criteria rest upon, and how critical are they? (30 points) 2) What is the basis for the use of parsimony to resolve conflicting data in phylogenetic analysis? Does the use of parsimony assume that evolution is parsimonious, or that homoplasy is rare? Why or why not? Under what conditions might parsimony methods fail to provide good estimates of phylogenetic relationships ? (20 points ...

  • 3 Pages


    Berkeley, BIO 1B

    Excerpt: ... d our understanding of organismal relationships and revealed the evolutionary histories of many taxa that were previously poorly understood. Broad scale, synthetic studies of the diversity of life are now underway for many organismal groups. Armed with a robust phylogeny for a particular clade, it is possible to rigorously investigate a wide range of questions in ecology, biomechanics, biogeography, and more. We looked at several examples, including the evolution of wings in stick insects, the geography of bat diversification, and the evolution of body lice and human clothing. The extant phylogenetic bracket is a method that infers the natural history features of extinct lineages based on cladograms that include both extinct and extant lineages. We looked at the example of parental care and vocalization in dinosaurs based on our understanding of the biology and phylogenetic relationships of crocodiles and birds. The precise branching relationships among the three great domains of life-Archaea, Eukarya, and B ...

  • 3 Pages


    Berkeley, IB 200

    Excerpt: ... ell as the criteria by which a taxon is ranked as a species rather than some other hierarchical level. Following the 3 arguments given previously supporting a Hennigian phylogenetic system of classification, the grouping criterion that should be used is monophyly. Under this view, apomorphies are considered to be the necessary empirical evidence for unambiguous phylogenetic species, as for phylogenetic taxa at all levels. There are difficulties applying the concept of monophyly at this level. As you consider less inclusive levels in the genealogical hierarchy there is an increasing probability that reticulating ("hybridizing") events will occur, rather than the diverging phylogenetic relationships assumed by the cladistic approach. However, the problem of reticulation is not specific to the species level; indeed reticulation can occur throughout the hierarchy of life, and so is one of more general difficulty, and one that is receiving a lot of attention in the professional literature. It is becoming cl ...

  • 4 Pages

    Chapter 1 Notes Biology 271

    UNC, BIOL 271

    Excerpt: ... name consist of two parts the genus or generic anme and the specific epithet. Cladistics: The most commonly used way today to name plants and is a form of phylogenetic analysis that explicitly seeks to understand phylogenetic relationships . Cladogram- a working model of the phylogenetic relationship between a group of organisms Three Domains of Life: Bacteria, archea, and eukarya Bacteria-no nuclear envelope, prokaryotic cells, one chromosome, and has chlorophyll based photosynthesis Archea-prokaryotic cell with one chromosome, and no nuclear envelope Eukarya-eukaryotic cells present nuclear envelope more than 1 chromosome, has organelles and a cytoskeleton, and is capable of photosynthesis Endosybionts- an organism that live in another dis-similar organism Phagocyte-cell eating bacteria capable of destroying cells Domains are the highest classification of life followed by kingdoms Make flash cards for table 12-4 page 231 Chapter 3 Ribosomes-small particles consisting ...

  • 9 Pages


    Michigan State University, ZOL 313

    Excerpt: ... The cladistic method explicitly recognizes difference between homologous and homoplastic similarity Makes assumption that homoplastic similarity is harder to achieve than homologous similarity (because it requires independent evolutionary events, and evolution is a conservative process) By parsimony, the likeliest evolutionary scenario is the one that involved the fewest evolutionary changes Homoplasy is inferred if it is most parsimonious intepretation Similar trait (yellow bill) in two bird species Black Black Yellow Yellow Black Yellow Black - Black - Yellow Homoplasy Homology (more parsimonious) + Homology Homoplasy (more parsimonious) Feb 28: Phylogeny-Cladistics contd Cladistics contd Two goals in cladistics Construct tree representing phylogenetic relationships The most likely tree is one that requires fewest evolutionary changes Use tree to study evolutionary history of other traits The most likely history is one that requires fewest evolutionary changes ...

  • 81 Pages

    Lec 6&7

    UC Davis, BIS 2c

    Excerpt: ... informative traits 38 Woese 1987 - rRNA Microbiological Reviews 51:221 39 rRNA and the tree of life Why have rRNA sequences been so useful in the study of phylogenetic relationships among all branches of the Tree of Life? 1. Conserved function 2. Some of rRNA regions evolve slowly and others more rapidly 3. All regions of rRNA evolve at equal rates 4. Structure of rRNA is highly variable which leads to more phylogenetic characters 5. Structure rRNA is highly conserved, which helps make alignments 6. Choices 1, 2, and 5 7. Choices 1, 3, and 4 40 12.3 From Gene to Protein 41 Sequencing 42 Molecular Systematics Sequences provide multiple characters within homologous genes (i.e., homologous traits) How make sure compare homologous positions? 43 Alignments Alignments Method of assigning homology to individual stretches of nucleotides in different sequences Allows one to have multiple traits within individual genes 44 Figure 4A - Alignment - No Gaps Taxa 45 Figure 4B - A ...

  • 2 Pages


    Washington, BOT 113

    Excerpt: ... CLASSIFICATION OF BIODIVERSITY Biological diversity infers a richness of living forms or species that have developed usually over a long period of geological time and that are adapted to the wide array of ecological habitats that exist on earth. In our search to understand the natural world, to appreciate both scientifically and aesthetically the variety of life we see, it is necessary to note the basic characteristics of organisms and to decipher how those characteristics developed. In addition, knowledge of the taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships of organisms permits the construction of classification systems and provides information that is critical both in selective breeding programs and in determining which habitats should be set aside for preservation or conservation. In plants, as in animals and other groups, certain morphological characteristics tend to be 'conservative' in their expression, that is, they do not vary when the organisms grow in different habitats. These 'conservative' characters a ...

  • 5 Pages


    Maryland, PLSC 201

    Excerpt: ... ilies" perceived relationships Conifers Cereals Thistles Poplars Birches Assigned Greek names 2. Numerical a. Carl von Linn (Linneaus) - 1737 Genera Plantarum 7,300 Plants Binomial Nomenclature Genus - Number of parts (pistils, stamens, etc) Species - variations within genus b. Subdivisions of all organisms Kingdom Plantae Animalae Orders Plantae - 24 Classes Genera Species 2 3. Natural a. Phylogenetic relationships b. Charles Darwin - 1859 "Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life" c. August Eichler - 1875 "Die Natrlichen Pflanzenfamilien" 20 Volumes - continued by Adolph Engler, Karl Prantl, etc. Based on evolutionary relationships d. Taxonomy (Taxon - unit of classification) Domains 1. Bacteria (Monera no nucleus) bacteria cyanobacteria 2. Archea 3. Eukarya (true nuclei) Kingdom (Eukarya) 1. Plantae 2. Animalae 3. Protista - single cells algae protozoa 4. Fungi (Mycophyta) Division (Plantae) (Eichler 4) 1. Thallophyta now i ...

  • 10 Pages


    UCSB, EEMB 142

    Excerpt: ... Lecture # 24 Chemoautotrophy Lalli and Parsons Chpt 8.9 Intro to Molecular Approaches Great Plate Count Anomaly Giovannoni and Stingl 2005 Doney et al. 2004 on line Cultivation independent techniques Hydrothermal Vent Environment - supported by ...

  • 7 Pages


    Wisconsin, BIO 151

    Excerpt: ... the questions. 1. What set of characteristics is shared by all of the invertebrate animal phyla in the chart? 2. What unique combination of characteristics defines each of the invertebrate phyla as separate from the other phyla? 3. If you compare the characteristics of one phylum of the invertebrates with the next, what key differences separate the groups from each other? 4. a. Looking across the rows, what major trends appear to occur in the evolution of various organs or organ systems in these animal groups? b. Does this analysis provide evidence for or against the statement: "Evolution adds onto or modifies what already exists"? Explain. 5. The chart organizes the major groups of animals based on grade or shared body plan features. What changes would you need to make in this organization to reflect the possible phylogenetic relationships uncovered using molecular evidence (see the SSU-rRNA analysis in Biology)? 6. How would your answers to questions 2, 3, and 4 differ (if at all) if the chart were rearrang ...