Documents about Social Inequality

  • 2 Pages

    Student Strat & Social Inequality

    ASU, SOC 101

    Excerpt: ... Page 1 of 2 Outline for "Stratification and Social Inequality " Stratification What humans are inclined to evaluate What the ,higher ups demand of those who are lower down; why the ,lower downs give it Social inequality How the norms and values of our culture support the unequal distribution of opportunities and rewards Functionalist view of social inequality Historical note how our social institutions have contributed to social inequality ; examples: How socialization sets us up to be complacent about social inequality Conflict view of social inequality how those at the top got there; how and why those at the bottom are kept ,down Page 2 of 2 Stereotypes Prejudice Discrimination How you acquire your stereotypes, prejudices How stereotypes, prejudices can be dismantled ...

  • 1 Pages

    Social Problems M1

    USC, SOCI 142gm

    Excerpt: ... Social Problems Review Exam Thursday at 11 AM at THH2 Materials Covered Glassner Skolnick Kaplan Friday Night Lights Lecture Notes* Conflict Theory 9/13 There are social inequalities Inequalities emerge because of social difference Cannot be ...

  • 37 Pages

    Review1

    University of Florida, SYO 4530

    Excerpt: ... SYO 4530 Spring 06 Material Covered by Exam #1: B Ch. 1-4, 6-8; CM 1, 9, 12 & 13; Lecture & Discussion Key terms: Achieved status Affirmative action Anomic division of labor Ascribed status Assimilation Authority Bourgeoisie Civil rights Class consciousness Conspicuous consumption Cultural capital Differential association Discrimination Review Questions: 1) Distinguish between ascribed and achieved characteristics. Give examples of each. 2) How did Karl Marx conceptualize social inequality ? How did Max Weber conceptualize social inequality ? In what specific way does Weber's theory of inequality different from Marx's? Similar? 3) What is the Functionalist explanation of social stratification? Describe the contributions of Durkheim, Parsons, and Davis & Moore to this perspective. What criticisms have been made of it? 4) Distinguish between societal and individual consequences of inequality. Give an example of each to illustrate the distinction. 5) Describe three (3) ways that racial and ethnic social mobility ...

  • 8 Pages

    Lecture2 Powerpoint

    Michigan State University, ISS 215

    Excerpt: ... Classical Theories of Social Inequality Lecture 2 Outline I. Emile Durkheim A. B. C. Social Solidarity Anomie Durkheim and Social Inequality Bureaucracy Authority Weber and Social Inequality II. Max Weber A. B. C. III. Ruling Class and Elites A. Social Solidarity I. Emile Durkheim (18581917) 2. Organic Solidarity a) Complex division of labor b) Differences c) Interdependence e) Increased individualism f) Dehumanization a) Simple division of labor b) Homogenous c) Similarity of individuals d) Collective conscience e) Individual ego not prominent 1. Mechanical Solidarity I. Emile Durkheim Continued A. Anomie B. Durkheim and Social Inequality 1. Division of labor 2. Internal and external inequality 3. Class revolution II. Max Weber (1864-1920) A. Bureaucracy 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Impersonality Hierarchy Written system of rules Clear division of labor Contains precision, speed, unambiguity, knowledge, unity, produces less friction and is low cost II. Max Weber Continued A. Authority 1. 2. 3. Rational-Leg ...

  • 16 Pages

    2

    Michigan State University, ISS 215

    Excerpt: ... Lecture 1: Structural Functional Perspective and Social Inequality OUTLINE STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONAL PERSPECTIVE A. WHAT IS STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONAL PERSPECTIVE? B. MAIN FEATURES C. 1. 2. 3. 4. PIONEERS: AUGUST COMTE HERBERT SPENCER EMILE DURKHEIM TALCOTT PARSONS D. SOCIAL STRATIFICATION STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONAL PERSPECTIVE A. STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONALISM? STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONALISM LOOKS AT THE SOCIAL SYSTEM AS AN INTEGRATED WHOLE. IT SUGGESTS THAT BOTH PARTS AND WHOLE ARE FUNCTIONAL AND PRODUCE EQUILIBRIUM. FUNCTIONALITY MAY BE: C INDIVIDUAL C INTERPERSONAL C SOCIETAL B. MAIN FEATURES 1. SOCIETY AS AN INTEGRATED WHOLE 2. SYSTEMATIC 3. INDIVIDUALS ARE INDISPENSABLE 4. TEMPORARY IMBALANCES 5. DYSFUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS LEADING TO INTEGRATION AND EQUILIBRIUM SOCIAL 6. SOCIAL CHANGE IS EVOLUTIONARY 7. SOCIAL INTEGRATION THROUGH LEGITIMIZATION OF SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, AND POLITICAL STRUCTURE 8. SOCIAL STRATIFICATION IS GOOD C. PIONEERS 1. AUGUST COMTE (1798-1857) ...

  • 44 Pages

    Chapter 1 lecture

    University of Texas, SOC 308

    Excerpt: ... ia, 1.5 Source: Report on the global AIDS epidemic (2006) UNAIDS Diversity and Health: Issues of Race, Class and Gender Civil society, the State, and Health Care Non-Governmental Organizations AIDS Epidemic The Community Research Branch of the CDCP encouraged studies of social networks Social class and community culture were key variables in understanding routes of infection Less privileged social groups received later diagnosis of HIV disease, less access to treatments, & died sooner after diagnoses Homework Read Chapter 1 Tuesday, "Social Policy and the War on Terror" by Guest Lecture, Ambassador Greg Engle, Diplomat-in-Resident Thursday, Poverty in America: Waging a Living Chapter 1- continued Poverty, Social Inequality and Health Poverty is harmful to health because basic human needs for survival are insufficiently met Poverty contributes to a lack of trust & cohesiveness within a social group Increasing social inequality can result in deteriorat ...

  • 2 Pages

    Week 2 Lecture Notes

    Carleton CA, SOCI 1002

    Excerpt: ... to help guide the researchers to the most important questions facing that group. Survey research can also be used to gauge the presence of absence of characteristics in a given population, or to get an idea about the extent to which people agree or disagree with things. Fieldwork: Field research involves immersing yourself in a naturally occurring (rather than a `staged) environment or set of events in order to gain a firsthand knowledge of the situation. Field research produces qualitative data and is microsociological. It usually aims to describe and understand rather than to predict and explain. Available data: data that have already been collected by somebody else for some other reason. Available data is existing data produced for purposes not your own. Associated most strongly with history, it is used extensively in sociology as well. Available data are often the only data you can get, but they are not tailored to your purposes. Discussion of the concept of social inequality Social stratification: a syst ...

  • 2 Pages

    Chapter 1 Outline

    University of Texas, SOC 308

    Excerpt: ... Chapter 1 Outline Summary: This first chapter introduces models for thinking about health socially and proposes a political economy approach to examining health inequalities. Consider the following questions: 1. What are social influences on health and disease? 2. Why do some social groups become ill and die prematurely more often than others? 3. Are there social policies that can protect individuals from harmful influences? Chapter Outline: INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL INEQUALITY AND PUBLIC HEALTH What is a Healthy Society? THINKING SOCIALLY ABOUT HEALTH Public Health experts are used to thinking of health in individualistic terms Social aspects of health are poorly evaluated in U.S. health data, excluding measures of poverty SOCIAL NETWORKS, SOCIAL ISOLATIONS, & HEALTH Individualistic notion of health overlooks human social needs Social factors affect health THE AIDS EPIDEMIC After 1980's AIDS epidemic, to slow transmission of HIV social relationships (in which risk behaviors occurred) needed to be understood St ...

  • 2 Pages

    OUTLINE – Lecture 2

    Michigan State University, ISS 215

    Excerpt: ... OUTLINE LECTURE 2 CLASSICAL THEORIES OF SOCIAL INEQUALITY 1. EMILE DURKHEIM A. SOCIAL SOLIDARITY B. ANOMIE C. DURKHEIM AND SOCIAL MAX WEBER A. BUREAUCRACY B. AUTHORITY C. WEBER AND SOCIAL INEQUALITY 3. 1. A. 1. RULING CLASS AND ELITES EMILE DURKHEIM (1858-1917) SOCIAL SOLIDARITY MECHANICAL SOLIDARITY INEQUALITY 2. A. B. C. D. E. SIMPLE DIVISION OF LABOR HOMOGENOUS SIMILARITY OF INDIVIDUALS COLLECTIVE CONSCIENCE INDIVIDUAL EGO NOT PROMINENT 2. ORGANIC SOLIDARITY A. B. C. D. E. B. C. 1. 2. 3. 2. COMPLEX DIVISION OF LABOR DIFFERENCES INTERDEPENDENCE INCREASED INDIVIDUALISM DEHUMANIZATION ANOMIE DURKHEIM AND SOCIAL INEQUALITY DIVISION OF LABOR INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL INEQUALITY CLASS REVOLUTION MAX WEBER (1864-1920) A. BUREAUCRACY - thinks it is great 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. IMPERSONALITY HIERARCHY WRITTEN SYSTEM OF RULES CLEAR DIVISION OF LABOR CONTAINS PRECISION, SPEED, UNAMBIGUITY, KNOWLEDGE, UNITY, PRODUCES LESS FRICTION AND IS LOW COST B. AUTHORITY A. RATIONAL-LEGAL AUTHORITY B. TRADITIONAL AUTHORITY C. ...

  • 17 Pages

    Lecture1 Powerpoint

    Michigan State University, ISS 215

    Excerpt: ... Structural Functional Perspective and Social Inequality Lecture 1 Structural Functional Perspective Part 1 Outline A. What is Structural Functional Perspective? B. Main Features C. Pioneers: 1. August Comte 2. Herbert Spencer 3. Emile Durkheim 4. Talcott Parsons D. Social Stratification A. Structural Functionalism? Structural Functionalism looks at the social system as an integrated whole. It suggests that both parts and whole are functional and produce equilibrium. Functionality may be: Individual Interpersonal Societal B. Main Features Society as an integrated whole Systematic Individuals are indispensable Temporary imbalances Dysfunctional elements leading to social integration and equilibrium Social change is evolutionary Social integration through legitimization of social, economic, and political structure Social stratification is good C. Pioneers August Comte (1798-1857) Organic Whole Individuals are ...

  • 3 Pages

    (1-23)Classical Theories on Social Inequality

    Michigan State University, ISS 215

    Excerpt: ... Notes: Classical Theories on Social Inequality 1/23/08 1. Emile Durkheim: Social organisms: life being used by him for society suggesting that society is life, a living organism A. Social Solidarity i. Mechanical Solidarity: ruler societies 1. Simple Division of Labor: only a few jobs that are done by people. 2. Homogenous: people lived in small rural communities, same language, culture, religion, jobs, very similar to one another. 3. Similarity of Individuals: people live in communities that they felt comfortable in. Germans with Germans, Irish with Irish 4. Collective Conscience: 5. Individual Ego Not Prominent: individualism was not promoted ii. Organic Solidarity 1. Complex Division of Labor: we have so many specializations in every field in society. Jobs, Doctors: specialist, heart, back, leg, feet, etc. 2. Differences: way different from homogenous communities 3. Interdependence: modern society, so interdependent, they cannot live unless other people are there to fulfill their needs. 4. Increase ...

  • 2 Pages

    notes6

    Michigan State University, ISS 335

    Excerpt: ... oint of view Achievement ideology The social class one is born into is a determinant of where one will end up Clarendon Heights small low-rise development set in a working class neighborhood, mainly white, family headed by single women. Hallway hangers: pessimistic about their futures, mostly white except Boo-boo and Chris Brothers: optimistic about their futures, mostly black except for Mike. Dessert earthy dialogue Vegetables theory and discussion Why do working class children end up in working class jobs? Reproduction theory - schools reinforce social inequality , while pretending to do the opposite Deterministic theories structural determinates of behavior, class structure determines opportunities and outcomes. Culturally attuned models structural forces are mediated by culture, humans aren't robots focus on human agency and autonomy Bowles and Gihtis (most deterministic) Marxist -schools treat students differently based on their social class -correspondence principle: there is a corresponden ...

  • 3 Pages

    SGUIDE2

    Coe College, SOC 107

    Excerpt: ... he different stages of economic systems that societies go through & be aware of what characterizes each stage. Know the difference between capitalism and socialism. What are mixed economies & in what ways might the United States be considered a mixed economy? Be aware of the difference between felonies and misdemeanors. Also know the main ways that crime data are collected (Uniform Crime Reports & National Crime Victimization Survey). What are the advantages/disadvantages of each of these methods? Know the four reasons why societies generally punish criminal offenders. What are the differences between property crimes, violent crimes, and victimless crimes? Be aware of the different types or perspectives of deviance. Also, understand how various theories might explain deviance. What are Merton's Modes of adaptation to anomie (hint: this is in the book)? How are these related to crime & deviance? What is social stratification? How does it differ from social evaluation and social inequality ? What are the dif ...

  • 2 Pages

    Response 8

    Cornell, S&TS 3551

    Excerpt: ... John Xu 10/25/07 The primary problem of social inequality that existed with both the Tuskegee syphilis study as well as the Human Genome Diversity Project involved the selection of a specific group of groups of people for the study. The type of social inequality was evident in the Tuskegee study in that African Americans were targeted due to the fact that there were already many cases of syphilis in their population as a result of their promiscuity. However, Heller also claimed that the African Americans were unintelligent and this type of generalization showed the racism that made this type of study possible. In the Human Genome Diversity Project, the selection as well as the definition of a group would result in social inequality due to the separation it makes between certain people. As Reardon says, "Discourses of race and ethnicity undergird discriminatory practices. They legitimate barriers to education and jobs" (367). They justify hate crimes. In this case, it is not only the selection of the group tha ...

  • 2 Pages

    Chapter 12 Notes

    BU, SO 100

    Excerpt: ... Anjelie Patidar Chapter 12 Notes 10/ 31 Aging and the Life Course Gerontology- the scientific study of the aging process; gerontologists try to better understand the aging process in order to improve the health and quality of life of the aged Age Stratification- social rankings of individuals at different stages of the life course who, in turn, are given differential access to society's resources, rewards, and opportunities on the basis of their age Ageism- social inequality that results from age stratification; when people practice ageism, they use age to define an individuals capabilities and social roles, and to determine the individual's access to societal resources, rewards, and opportunities Gerontophilic- societies that respect and revere the aged Gerontophobic- fear of aging and the aged; a strong dislike or hatred of aging and the aged Modernization Theory- the idea that the economic transformation of a society from agriculture to industry produces a progressive devaluation of aging Disengagement The ...

  • 5 Pages

    week 3 Lecture Notes

    Carleton CA, SOCI 1002

    Excerpt: ... y of the industrial system into the hands of the state. The state would then equally redistribute the wealth it generated among all citizens. Discussions on the Weberian critique of Marx The Weberian critique of Marx charges that Marx's construction of social inequality is too simplistic. By equating social inequality solely with material inequality, Marx ignored other aspects of the social system from which power could be gained. Weber rejects Marx's assertion that all power ultimately derives from control of the economy and the productive process. He asserts that the political, religious, educational and other social structures of society are not just subsets of economic power, serving only the interests of the ruling class, but rather that these possess some power in their own right, and have their own recognized spheres of control and influence. Discussions on Weber's use of the terms Status and Party A status group, in Weberian usage, includes such things as ethnic or religious groups. Party refers to bo ...

  • 1 Pages

    Essay%201

    Colorado, ANTH 1190

    Excerpt: ... ANTH 1190: Origins of Ancient Civilizations Essay #1 The essay is due in LECTURE (i.e., Hale 270 at 12:00 noon) on Monday 1/28 for discussion during that week's recitations. We often think of the last 10,000 years as involving a history of great progress leading up to the modern world. The origins of domestication and the rise of cities and states are often seen as hallmarks in human progress. Apart from the ethnocentric biases that this progressive view entails, discuss some of the disadvantages that people face living in densely occupied cities and states with social inequality and complex economies characterized by economic specialization and intensive systems of production. How might life in cities and states be less satisfying than in small, family-based, egalitarian societies? This essay should be 2-3 pages, typed, and double-spaced. ...

  • 11 Pages

    chapter1_day_2_SOCIOLOGY

    Lebanon Valley, SOC 110

    Excerpt: ... ships or restructuring social institutions 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-10 Developing a Sociological Imagination Theory in Practice: Parent-Child Game Research in Action: Foster Families Thinking Globally Globalization: worldwide integration of government policies, cultures, social movements, and financial markets through trade and the exchange of ideas 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-11 Developing a Sociological Imagination The Significance of Social Inequality Social inequality : condition in which members of society have differing amounts of wealth, prestige, or power Speaking Across Race, Gender, Age 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. ...

  • 2 Pages

    chapter_11

    Liberty, SOCI 200

    Excerpt: ... _- by itself does not constitute social inequality . What constitutes social inequality is the fact that universally, greater _ is give _ activities regardless of what they are. Globally, _ are _ against in the areas of _, _, paid employment, and _ against _. They are frequently subjected to acts of male violence. Violence against women continues to be a _ _ rights issue. Historical examples of violence against women include foot binding in China, witch burning in Europe, and suttee (burning a living widow over her dead husband's body) in India. Current examples included _, wife beating, female _, forced prostitution, and female circumcision. Around the world, gender is the primary _ between people with every society setting up barriers that ensure unequal access to power, property and prestige on the _ _ sex. _ is the belief that men and women should be pol ...

  • 2 Pages

    study questions

    Berkeley, LS 107

    Excerpt: ... Lecture 1. What is the difference between negative liberty and choice-based liberty? Can you think of a situation where choice-based liberty is not violated but negative liberty is (or vice-versa)? How does Friedman define equality of opportunity? What might more egalitarianminded people say is missing from this definition? What are the differences and similarities between Friedman's and Nozick's argument that we should maximize liberty as the logical mandate of basic human value or characteristics? What is a "public good"? Why is it permissible to infringe liberty to support public goods? What are the four sources of social inequality identified by Professor Song in lecture? Can you devise an argument for or against allowing each of the four sources of social inequality as an allowable reason for inequality between individuals in society? How does Friedman argue against "starting gate equality"? What logical fallacy in this argument did Professor Song identify? 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. ...

  • 2 Pages

    Social Stratification

    Texas A&M, SOCI 205

    Excerpt: ... Social Stratification Social Stratification- Scientific Study of Social Inequality Covers all kinds of inequality-financial, poverty, racial, ethnic, and gender Topics close to religion We start dealing with discrimination Data support neither liberal nor conservative orthodoxies All comfortable positions are wrong. Awesome Causes- many come from purposeful actions of white people to restrict the activities of other groups; some comes from inequalities and failings within the competing groups Cynically, yes, the white guys cheating, and yes, the other guys put a bad team on the field. No one comes out a winner. Insisting on data and going evidence first, conclusion second, is absolutely the way to go with stratification studies. Once you start looking at the number, a lot of favorite theories fall apart. Not experimental data Running statistical tests on outcomes of labor market and education. Conservative Social Stratification Lecture General thrust- in the second model, the role of values in produci ...

  • 4 Pages

    Anth125 Lecture 3 Notes

    UCSB, ANTH 125

    Excerpt: ... Anth125 Lecture 3 Notes - April 8, 2008 Anthropology of gender o Early androcentrism Focus on males Sex and gender biological Assumed universal male/female sex differences o Margaret Mead 1920s-30s Coming of Age in Samoa (1928) Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies (1935) Studied 3 cultures in New Guinea Found that all societies had different roles, behaviors and personalities for masculinity and feminity ,Masculine and ,feminine roles, personalities, behaviors Not biological Not universal o Womens Movement Gender not a central field of anthropology until the womens movement Feminist Anthropology 1970s Constructions of feminine and masculine in different cultures Variations in gender roles and meanings Questioned gender assumptions, biological determinism Emphasized cultural construction, socialization Social inequality , gender oppression, social change, justice Womens status, differential evaluations, access to resources Exposed androcentric biases Importance of gender in society and ...

  • 4 Pages

    LECTURE TWO

    Michigan State University, ISS 215

    Excerpt: ... LECTURE TWO CLASSICAL THEORIES ON SOCIAL INEQUALITY 1. EMILE DURKHEIM (1858-1917) A. SOCIAL SOLIDARITY 1. MECHANICAL SOLIDARITY-agricultural, small A. SIMPLE DIVISION OF LABOR-In every society there are people who are assigned different economic responsibilities leading to different roles. B. HOMOGENOUS-people who live in those societies tend to be very close to each other, maybe relatives or extended family, or members of the tribe. C. SIMILARITY OF INDIVIDUALS D. COLLECTIVE CONSCIENCE-Family/group is very important E. INDIVIDUAL EGO NOT PROMINENT-Individual is not as important, but the family/tribe was. 2. ORGANIC SOLIDARITY A. COMPLEX DIVISION OF LABOR-So many people do so many things. Ex. 300 years ago if you went to a doctor they were responsible for your whole body, now we have specialists for every different part of your body. B. DIFFERENCES C. INTERDEPENDENCE-Every step of your life, other people are helping you do it. D. INCREASED INDIVIDUALISM E. DEHUMANIZATION-Ex. The man that died and no on ...