Documents about Sodium Bicarbonate

  • 2 Pages


    McGill, BIOL 111

    Excerpt: ... LAB 11 THE MAMMALS Answers to the lab manual questions: How may a plant diet influence the structure and functions of a rat's digestive system? (11-4) (This question relates to the 4th question below) The length of the digestive tract of a vertebrate is related to its diet. Herbivores require longer tracts because plant material is harder to digest (requiring more time) than meat (muscle tissue). The longer the tract, the more time it takes for the food to pass through it, and the more time available for digestion and absorption. So, if a rat's diet were largely plant material, they may evolve longer tracts with a large caecum. This is true for rabbits and other herbivorous vertebrates. Why would protein-digesting enzymes in the stomach normally be inactive? (11-4) To prevent digestion of the lining of the stomach. What is the role of the sodium bicarbonate released by the pancreas into the small intestine? (11-5) To neutralize the acidic secretions of the stomach that are entering the small intestine. Th ...

  • 2 Pages

    Lab 2 Answers

    Cornell, BIO G 110

    Excerpt: ... ntration, and release of bile 16) *mechanical breakup of food and hydrolysis of protein 17) *basically no (exceptions are glucose, alcohol, and drugs) 18) *stores food between meals 19) *continuous feeding; less time for other activities 20) *keep the contents of the small intestine and stomach separate so each can function at the proper pH 21) *plant material is inherently more difficult to digest because of its cellulose cell walls 22) example 225cm 23) 225cm / 28cm = 8.0 x (pig) 24) 22ft / 3ft = 7.3 x (human) 25) *orexin, ghrelin, neuropeptide Y 26) *Enzyme Substrate Product trypsin protein polypeptides chymotrypsin protein polypeptides dipeptidase dipeptides amino acids lipase fat glycerol, fatty acids amylase starch maltose DNase DNA deoxynucleotides RNase RNA nucleotides 27) *high, basic 28) *insulin 29) * sodium bicarbonate secreted by the pancreas 30) *small intestine 31) *appendix 32) *water and mineral absorption; its microorganisms produce vitamin K 33) *aquatic animals because they have less need ...

  • 6 Pages


    Marquette, CHEM 001

    Excerpt: ... 5 13 (darker green) 11 (clear) Tube 6 10 (light green) (not enough solvent left) Not enough Solv -ent Used acetone 15 (light green) 70% 5 isopropyl (clear w/ alcohol faint touch green) 4 Not (more enough greenish) Important observation: The sodium bicarbonate is tinted slightly green after hexane drip and becomes greener after the acetone solvent is dripped out. When sodium bicarbonate is added the band becomes darker green. The band makes its way down the tube farther and farther as each solvent drip is allowed to occur. Also, the cotton is spotted green during the hexane solvent drip. The importance and meaning of these observations is explained in the results. For paper chromatography of M&M's: Retention Factor of M&M's dyes Color Standard yellow Green Yellow (separates into yellow and blue) .88 cm (total) .62 cm .61 cm (for yellow) .88 (for blue) Blue Brown (separates into red and yellow) .62 (total) .52 (yellow) .62 (red) Retent -ion Factor 65. cm .96 cm * observations ...

  • 11 Pages

    Lecture 11 - The Cellular Basis of Human Metabo...

    Brock University, BIOL BIOL-1F25

    Excerpt: ... Lecture 11 Background Reading Textbook, Chapter 8 The Cellular Basis of Human Metabolism. Part 3: Digestion and Absorption in the Intestinal Tract Biology 1F25 for Biology Non-Majors The People Who Prepared This Lecture The Duodenum Harry Peery Jeff Stuart 1 First Problem: Protect against HCl If HCl from the stomach is not neutralized, it will eat holes in the intestinal tract. NOT GOOD! Brunner's glands secrete copious amounts of mucus to protect the first part of the duodenum. Second Problem: Neutralize the HCl In response to HCl, the intestinal hormone prosecretin is released by S cells into the intestinal lumen. It is activated by HCl to become secretin Secretin is absorbed through the intestinal wall and does the following: It inhibits gastric secretion It stimulates the production of a fluid high in NaHCO3 ( sodium bicarbonate ) by the pancreas Relationship of Stomach, Pancreas and Liver Branch of hepatic portal vein coming from both stomach and pancre ...

  • 1 Pages


    Loyola Chicago, C 101

    Excerpt: ... Suggested Study Assignment for Wednesday, May 22: Fill-in all blanks in the table below. Name? Formula? Ionic? Molecular? Binary? Charges? Cation? Anion? MW? FW? Ni 2 + H 2 CO 3 trinitrogen tetraoxide KNO 3 methane Y Ba(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 silver(I) chloride ammonia ? phosphate Y cobalt(III) iodide (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 Y Sn Cl 2 C 2 H6 sodium bicarbonate nitrogen dioxide H2 O2 hydrofluoric acid Y n/a Y Ca 2 + N Li 1 + Y n/a OH 1 - n/a n/a 74 S2 - n/a 78 n/a 44 n/a ...

  • 13 Pages


    S.F. State, C 336

    Excerpt: ... Today, 9/30: Esterification Grignard reactions Next Tuesday, 10/7: Conclusion of Grignard. Following Tuesday 10/14: Practice. Introduction to Unknowns. Midterm 2:10 4pm in your lab (5 Problems. Total: 100 Pts.) Do Sample Midterms. Review/study labs with calculations and problems and our lab lectures. October 22, 6 9 pm, Family Science Night at Oak Grove Middle School! Methyl Benzoate Synthesis Esters and Esterifications 1. General properties of esters? 2. Compare the boiling points of carboxylic acids and esters of similar molecular weight and explain. 1. Examples of esters in biological systems? Salicin and Aspirin OH O -D-glucose O OH C O O C CH 3 Salicin in willow bark (Salix) Our Esterification Procedure 1. What are the advantages of "boiling under reflux? 2. What was the purpose of each of the following extraction steps: 1. rinsing with water 2. then extracting with sodium bicarbonate solution 3. extracting with sat. sodium chloride solution? 3. In our extra ...

  • 10 Pages


    Lehigh, CHEM 025

    Excerpt: ... at turns different colors as a function of pH: pH < 5.0 pH 5.5 6.0 pH 7.0-7.5 pH >8,5 red / pink yellow green blue/purple 2 Chem. 25: Studio #9 _ Chemical Periodicity STUDIO:_ GROUP: _ NAME:_ Procedure: Your station in the laboratory has the following: One stainless steel spatula 2 250 mL beakers, one to hold waste solutions and the other to hold the pipets bottles containing: saturated calcium hydroxide (aka. `limewater'), 2.0 M HCl, universal indicator, phenolphthalein, and solid reagents barium oxide, tetraphosphorus decoxide, magnesium oxide, sodium bicarbonate , and sodium bisulfite A wash bottle with deionized water 2 quart-sized ZiplocTM bags 2 large bulb pipets a set of clean, dry small beakers (1) Hydrolysis: (a) barium oxide, (b) tetraphosphorus decaoxide and (c) magnesium oxide Use the wash bottle to transfer enough water to each beaker to half fill it. Add a few mg (an amount generously covering the tip of the spatula) of the barium ...

  • 3 Pages

    Properties and Changes of Matter

    FIU, CHM CHM1045L

    Excerpt: ... . Examining physical properties: Obtain ten pieces of paper and label seven of them sulfur, iron fillings, sodium bicarbonate , sodium chloride, sucrose, sand, and magnesium. Use a spatula to put a portion of each substance on it's corresponding paper. For each of the substances, observe physical state, color, odor, solubility in water, and effect of magnet and record in a table. To test in water, add a small amount of substance in about 5mLof water and mix, then observe results. B. Physical changes: On an extra clean sheet of weighing paper, mix the remaining samples of sand and salt. Record the observations of this new substance using the same properties in part A. Use about 10mL of water for the solubility test. Carefully decant the liquid from the tube which contains the salt and sand into an evaporating dish. Place the dish on top of a 250mL beaker half filled with water and place on a heating pad until the water boils and water is evaporated. C. Chemical changes: Hold a strip of magnesium ribbon with ...

  • 1 Pages


    Alabama, CHEM 237

    Excerpt: ... CH 237 Spring 2006 Quiz #4, Version 1 February 27th, 2006 Name: ANSWER KEY Lab Day: 1. Place the following compounds in order of increasing retention time if they were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). Briefly explain why you chose that order. CH3 H3C 4-Methylcyclohexene bp = 101 C Cyclohexene bp = 83 C 1-Methylcyclohexene bp = 110 C cyclohexene < 4-methylcyclohexene < 1-methylcyclohexene 2. After distilling your alkenes last week, you washed them with sodium bicarbonate . Why was sodium bicarbonate used? Sodium bicarbonate is a base. It was used to consume the phosphoric acid used in the reaction. ...

  • 2 Pages

    study guide #14

    Virginia Tech, BIOL 1006

    Excerpt: ... leased from the stomach through the pyloric sphincter. Duodenum- The first part of the small intestine which receives the chyme and additional digestive agents from the pancreas, gall bladder and wall of the duodenum. Pancreas- a glandular organ which has both endocrine and exocrine functions. Endocrine- secretion of insulin and glucagon for regulation of blood sugar and metabolism. Exocrine- 1) Sodium bicarbonate -acts as a buffer to neutralize the harsh acidic condition of chyme. 2) Amylase-breaks carbohydrates into sugars, requires alkaline pH to function. 3)Lipase-hydrolyzes fats in to components. It works in conjunction with bile. 4) Trypsin and chymotrypsin which act as additional endopeptidases 5) Carboxypeptidase and aminopeptidase enzymes which hydrolyze only terminal amino acids(exopepitidase). Note: all enzymes are secreted in inactive form and are activated by enterokinase. 6) Nucleaseswhich hydrolyze DNA and RNA into nucleotides for absorption. Small Intestine- long tubular organ which varies in l ...

  • 5 Pages


    Cornell, CHEM 2080

    Excerpt: ... B1. Dehydration of Copper Sulfate Pentahydrate CuSO4 x 5H2O -HEAT-> Anhydrous CuSO4 Creating anhydrous CuSO4 is accompanied by a popping noise and a direct color change from blue to white, with a tint of light green. This material once again immediately turns to the color blue when it again mixes with water. B2. Decomposition of Sodium Bicarbonate 2NaHCO3 = CO2 + H2O + Na2CO3 This is a decomposition reaction in which sodium bicarbonate will give off carbon dioxide allowing us to test the reaction for calcium hydroxide. B2.A Ca(OH)2 + CO2 = CaCO3 + H2O By bubbling gaseous CO2 off of the heated decomposition of NaHCO3 will cause a cloudy creation of CaCO3. CO2 + H2O = H+ + HCO3After continued bubbling, the CaCO3 dissolves to form a complexion reaction creating two ions. B2.B This is the same reaction as experiment A, but this time a bromthymol blue indicator is able to show the neutralization part of this reaction. The solution starts out a fairly basic but after about a minute it turns to green, showing neu ...

  • 5 Pages


    Hawaii, BIO 172

    Excerpt: ... tion o Activation of protein-digesting enzymes in the small intestine Enzymatic digestion in the human digestive system Hormones help coordinate the secretion of digestive juices into the alimentary canal Amino acids or fatty acids in the duodenum trigger the release of cholecystokinin (CCK), which stimulates the release of digestive enzymes from the pancreas and bile from the gallbladder. Enterogastrone secreted by the duodenum inhibits peristalsis and acid secretion by the stomach, thereby slowing digestion when acid chyme rich in fats enters the duodenum. Gastrin from the stomach recirculates via the bloodstream back to the stomach, where it stimulates the production of gastric juices Secreted by the duodenum, secretin stimulates pancreas to release sodium bicarbonate , which neutralizes acid chyme from stomach. The small intestine is adapted to maximize nutrient absorption Amino acids and sugars Pass through the epithelium of the small intestine and enter the bloodstream After glycerol and fa ...

  • 15 Pages


    CSU Long Beach, ENGR 302

    Excerpt: ... Hydrogen production Via Electrolysis Daniel Southard Hydrogen: A gaseous colorless odorless highly flammable chemical element that is the lightest of the elements Hydrogen Production Hydrogen can be produced many different ways other than from electrolysis, such as Steam reforming Carbon monoxide water gas shift reaction Biological hydrogen production High-temperature electrolysis Thermo chemical production electrolysis: theproducingofchemicalchanges bypassageofanelectriccurrent throughanelectrolyte Formula for electrolysis in water Overall reaction: 2H2O(l) 2H2(g) + O2(g) Cathode (reduction): 2H+(aq) + 2e H2(g) Anode (oxidation): 2H2O(l) O2(g) + 4H+(aq) + 4e Note: The above reactions disregard the electrolyte sodium bicarbonate which is used in my hydrogen production machine Electrolysis Apparatus Power supply: 12V 14A Electrolysis Unit Power Supply Its a Modified computer power supply, the electric current i ...

  • 7 Pages


    UMass (Amherst), CHEM 269

    Excerpt: ... her insoluble and water soluble by carrying out an acid-base reaction. The solubilities of acidic and basic compounds can thus be changed at will. Once the layers are separated as before, the neutral acid or base can be regenerated by yet another acid-base reaction. An example of such a manipulation of solubilities is shown below for a carboxylic acid. O O H NaOH / HOH O O O O H Na HCl / HOH carboxylic acid - high solubility in ether - low solubility in water salt of carboxylic acid - low solubility in ether - high solubility in water carboxylic acid - high solubility in ether - low solubility in water In the experiment done in this lab, a mixture of a carboxylic acid and a neutral compound will be separated by an acid-base extraction. The separate compounds will be purified by recrystallization and identified by melting points. A general scheme for the separation is given below. Note that instead of using sodium hydroxide as the base, sodium bicarbonate is used. A strong base such as sodium hydroxid ...

  • 3 Pages


    Bryn Mawr, CHEM 103

    Excerpt: ... ng sure the tube location corresponds to information noted for this sample on the log sheet. Later, an instructor will chromatograph the water samples on an anion exchange column using a sodium bicarbonate eluent solution. The chromatograms will be available for you to analyze at the beginning of lab next week. ...

  • 1 Pages


    CSU Fresno, CHEM 129A

    Excerpt: ... Pre-lab Notes: Experiment 13B (Synthesis of Banana Oil) Assemble a reflux apparatus on top of a hot plate using a 25 mL round-bottom flask and a water-cooled condenser Place a drying tube packed with calcium chloride on top of the condenser - Weigh an empty 10-mL graduated cylinder, then add 2.5 mL isopentyl alcohol and reweigh it to determine the weight of alcohol used - Disconnect the round-bottom flask and put the alcohol in it - Measure 3.5 mL of glacial acetic acid and add it to the alcohol in the flask - Add 0.5 mL concentrated sulfuric acid, mix immediately, add a boiling stone and reconnect the flask Start circulating water in the condenser and let the mixture boil Continue heating for at least 60 minutes When time is up disconnect and allow it to cool - Transfer the reaction mixture to a 15 mL centrifuge tube - Add 5 mL of water, cap the tube and shake carefully - Let the layers separate and remove the lower aqueous later - Extract the organic layer with 2.5 mL of aqueous sodium bicarbonate - E ...

  • 2 Pages


    Uni. Westminster, RTM 0701

    Excerpt: ... Tommy Mtichell Quiz 10 NOTE: Each question is worth 1.5 points for an exam total of 12 points. Click on the radio button to identify the correct answer. 1. (Review) An unknown compound is insoluble in water but dissolves in sodium bicarbonate with a release of carbon dioxide bubbles. The compound is almost certainly: a. a carboxylic acid an amine 2. Which of the following is the strongest acid? d. fluoroacetic acid 3. LiAl [OC(CH3)3]3H will reduce an acid chloride to an: d. aldehyde . 4. Provide the IUPAC name for the compound shown below. IUPAC name: _(5-E)-5,2-dimethyloct-5-enoic acid_ 5. Carboxylic acids can be made from Grignards by treating the Grignard reagents with: e. carbon dioxide 6. Which of the following are strongly hydrogen bonded in the liquid phase? c. secondary amides 7. Acids can be reduced to aldehydes by: b. conversion to the acid chloride followed by treatment with LiAlH[OC(CH3)3]3. 8. Which of the following reagents convert(s) benzoyl chloride to ...

  • 1 Pages


    University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign, CHEM 108

    Excerpt: ... Chemistry 108, Spring 2008 Lecture Activity: In each box of the table, write the expected observation for the tests you would carry out for the particular substance (a +, a -, or a color for the pH test). For any box in which a test is not necessary, write NA (not applicable) in the box. For example, there is no need to run a pH test on the substances that are not watersoluble. Test Water Solubility 10% HCl Vinegar pH Test Iodine Test NaOH Copper(II) Reduction Conductivity Test 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 = NaCl 2= NaHCO3 3 = C12H22O11 4 = C6H12O6 5 = CaSO4 6 = (C6H12O6)n 7 = MgSO47H2O 8 = Na2B4O7 9 = KHC4H4O6 10 = CaCO3 11 = NaOH 12 = Na2CO3 sodium chloride sodium bicarbonate sucrose glucose calcium sulfate cornstarch magnesium sulfate (hydrated) sodium borate potassium bitartrate calcium carbonate sodium hydroxide sodium carbonate ...

  • 6 Pages


    Cal Poly, CHEM 125

    Excerpt: ... anol C6H13OH P In the table below, record your observations when salicylic acid is added to either pure water or basic water. Title this table in the space below Salicylic Acid in . Solubility of Salicylic Acid Observations Solubility Chem 125 Winter 2008 Dr. Retsek S = Soluble I = Insoluble P = Partially soluble Pure Water Water with Sodium Bicarbonate No reaction Powder bubbles and fizzes to the top. Powder dissolves, thick foam results on top. S P Chem 125 Winter 2008 Dr. Retsek Part 1: Solubility of Ionic Compounds In the table below, fill in a result for each tube. If there was a precipitate, describe the color of the precipitate and give the correct formula for the resulting precipitate. If there was no precipitate, write "S", meaning soluble. Title this table (in the space below). If you need to re-size the columns or rows, feel free to do so. - Cl NH4+ S Na+ S K+ S Mg2+ S Ca2+ S Sr2+ S Ba2+ S Zn2+ S Br S Solubilities of Ionic Compounds of Varying Charge Dens ...

  • 2 Pages


    Wisconsin, CHEM 329

    Excerpt: ... gh the lining of the stomach or the intestines. Because the mucous lining of the stomach is hydrophobic ("water-fearing"), the neutral form of drugs will usually pass through the stomach lining and be effective as drugs, while the charged forms stay in the stomach and are degraded before they can be effective . Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), shown at left, is a weak monoprotic acid with a Ka=3x10-4. A typical dose is 325 milligrams per tablet, with 2 tablets. a) What pH would result if you took 2 tables of aspirin along with 500 ml of water? Assume that your stomach does not have anything in it and has no buffering capacity. 3b) The stomach normally is maintained at a pH of about 4 by excreting hydrochloric acid into the stomach. At this pH, is most of the aspirin in its protonated or deprotonated form ? Explain. 3c) Because aspirin is acidic, sometimes people take a antacid such as sodium bicarbonate along with it. What does sodium bicarbonate do to the pH of the stomach ? Don't do any calculations, but giv ...

  • 2 Pages

    Fuel cell

    Stevens, BT 131

    Excerpt: ... Fuel cell Prevents fuel leaks Has an inner bladder made of flexible neoprene to prevent open gashes in the fuel tank The neoprene is coated in a nylon web to prevent punctures Includes sponges that impede the flow of gasoline out of punctures in the bladder Other Improvements Fuel cut off system that closes all hoses connected to the fuel cell in case of serious collisions Automatic fire extinguisher the injects sodium bicarbonate into the fuel cell Both can be attached to the airbag sensors already on the car ...