Documents about Spatial Scales

  • 38 Pages

    Lecture_2

    East Los Angeles College, GEOG 5891

    Excerpt: ... is it? Analyse data and look for correlations, patterns ? think about processes Preliminary method, Horton 1945 stream laws Good for data rich projects Beto Quesada Controls of rainforest productivity Found correlations between variables This used as the basis for further investigation 0.6 Example: SB P Biochang pH CN Biomass turnover QUESADA WP MgC wd SAND Alsat -0.6 -0.6 0.6 A few words about scale 3. We can map scales Large time scales Small spatial scales Large time scales Large spatial scales Time Small time scales Small spatial scales Small time scales Large spatial scales Space 3. We can map scales Large time scales Small spatial scales Large time scales Large spatial scales Activity groups ~ 4 Time 5 minutes think of 1 type of geomorphological research that fits in each quadrant Small time scales Small spatial scales Small time scales Large spatial scales Space 3. We can map scales Large time scales Small spatial scales Large ti ...

  • 24 Pages

    FOR565 Lecture 3

    Wisconsin, FOR 565

    Excerpt: ... Scale and Hierarch Theory Lecture 3 January 25, 2005 Scale "The problem of pattern and scale is the central problem in ecology, unifying population biology and ecosystems science, and marrying basic and applied ecology. Applied challenges . require the interfacing of phenomena that occur on very different scales of space, time, and ecological organization. Furthermore, there is no single natural scale at which ecological phenomena should be studied; systems generally show characteristic variability on a range of spatial, temporal, and organizational scales." Simon Levin 1992 Landscape Ecology has endeavored to develop tools and theories for resolving the scale conundrum. Temporal and Spatial Scales in Ecology Different patterns may emerge at differing scales of investigation of almost every aspect of every ecological system. Early example were speciesarea curves, which showed that nonlinear patterns existed, and that study area size must be accounted for when interpreting results of studies ...

  • 2 Pages

    Scale

    Humboldt State University, MDJ 510

    Excerpt: ... cept of scale is usually easier to comprehend through examples than abstract definition, and most ecologists first consider spatial scale and then extend their understanding to temporal scale. Spatial scale. Imagine you are a porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) selecting among various forested habitats in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. The age of a forest is probably important because the fastest growing trees (=moderately young forests) provide the best food and older forests provide the best cover (via downed logs, etc.). Once youve chosen a forest stand that balances these needs, youll need to choose exactly where to feed, and in this case tree species will probably be a very important consideration. Once youve chosen the stand and the tree species, youll need to decide exactly which tree and where in the tree to forage, and those decisions will likely be made after considering proximity to cover, branch architecture, etc. The above scenario is, of course, an example of various spatial scales i ...

  • 2 Pages

    DispersionPaper

    University of Texas, BIO 208

    Excerpt: ... haphazardly selected a site to place a 20 x 20 m plot and that you mapped the position of all trees the a DBH greater than _cm. Also mention that you recorded species identity and DBH for all trees. It would even be appropriate to include your scatter plot of plant locations here (see below), but save the bubble chart (which has the DBH information) for the Results section. Statistical Analysis Discuss all statistical and analytical methods. Mention your analysis for the different spatial scales (5m, 2.5m, 1m) as well as at two temporal scales (young and old, which is based on the size (DBH) of the trees). * It will help you to divide the Methods, Results and Discussion into subsections that first discuss the influence of spatial scale (5m, 2.5m, 1m) then the Influence of temporal scale (young, old). RESULTS The first paragraph of the results should include general information about the study system, such as the number of species included in the plot or the density of each tree species or at least the ...

  • 10 Pages

    EcosystemScalesandPerspectives08

    Maryland, PLSC 471

    Excerpt: ... time. For example in the BOREAS project, scientists looked at ecosystem gas fluxes and carbon balance/budgets in various ecosystems within the boreal region (vertical component) AND integrated the various forest types across the biome. They included hydrology water flow across systems, nutrient cycling on a larger scale, N and C budgets, - each small stand or "ecosystem" is affected by another ("everything is hitched together") and the horizontal flow of water, nutrients, carbon, etc. between components of the large landscape ecosystem. Thus the work was across spatial scales Changes occur due to soil type, drainage, elevation, aspect, slope, etc. Changes may be rather abrupt but generally occur along a continuum leaving "mixed" or transition regions often called ECOTOMES Fig 1.6 shows a typical horizontal continuum in the boreal region of Canada and Fig. 1.7 shows a similar horizontal look at forests in southern Michigan These topics broadly define how we may look at forests, what they are and how they wo ...

  • 1 Pages

    Assignment_1_2007

    Washington, ESS 431

    Excerpt: ... Assigned: Thurs, Sept. 27, 2007 Due: Thurs, Oct. 4, 2007 (1 week from date assigned) 1. Identify 3 changes that have occurred or are occurring in the cryosphere. 2. Write a paragraph about one of those changes. Be sure to identify which component or ...

  • 1 Pages

    Lecture 2007-01 Overview

    Arizona, BILL 182

    Excerpt: ... Lecture I: What is Life? I. Hierarchical nature of biological organization. 1. Time scales 2. Spatial scales Emergent Properties and Self-Organization. 1. Ideal Gases. 2. Social insects. II. III. Defeating the 2nd Law. 1. Order from order. 2. Order from disorder via the consumption of energy. IV. Complexity. 1. System vs. environment. 2. Complicating consequences of a. overlapping length / time scales. b. Intermediate numbers. V. Definition of Life. VI. Necessity of Evolution. ...

  • 1 Pages

    Lecture 2007-01 Overview

    Arizona, BILL 182

    Excerpt: ... Lecture I: What is Life? I. Hierarchical nature of biological organization. 1. Time scales 2. Spatial scales Emergent Properties and Self-Organization. 1. Ideal Gases. 2. Social insects. Defeating the 2nd Law. 1. Order from order. 2. Order from disorder via the consumption of energy. II. III. IV. Complexity. 1. System vs. environment. 2. Complicating consequences of a. overlapping length / time scales. b. Intermediate numbers. V. Definition of Life. VI. Necessity of Evolution. ...

  • 3 Pages

    Integrated_Science_Conceptual

    University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign, CHP 395

    Excerpt: ... Integrated Science Conceptual Approach Big Picture Relevance Question: Central Working Hypothesis: Pattern (largest emergent organization) Spatial Scale Pattern Processes (link Mechanism to Pattern) (intermediate organization) Spatial Scale Proc ...

  • 12 Pages

    Allen

    Colorado, GEOG 4430

    Excerpt: ... Ecosystems (2007) 10: 797808 DOI: 10.1007/s10021-007-9057-4 Interactions Across Spatial Scales among Forest Dieback, Fire, and Erosion in Northern New Mexico Landscapes Craig D. Allen* US Geological Survey, Jemez Mountains Field Station, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544, USA ABSTRACT Ecosystem patterns and disturbance processes at one spatial scale often interact with processes at another scale, and the result of such cross-scale interactions can be nonlinear dynamics with thresholds. Examples of cross-scale pattern-process relationships and interactions among forest dieback, re, and erosion are illustrated from northern New Mexico (USA) landscapes, where long-term studies have recently documented all of these disturbance processes. For example, environmental stress, operating on individual trees, can cause tree death that is amplied by insect mortality agents to propagate to patch and then landscape or even regional-scale forest dieback. Severe drought and unusual warmth in the southwestern USA since ...

  • 10 Pages

    444slides.01.011007

    N.C. State, MEA 444

    Excerpt: ... CLASS: MLK Jr. holiday basic forecast process and briefing overview; Dr. P briefs in-class lab exercise; Dr. P briefs NO CLASS Q&A on lab with Ben, finish lab in class; Dr. P out of town regular class; student briefings begin regular class; student briefing in-class lab; student briefing This is a class about phenomena and processes viewed through the lens of dynamical understanding applied to analysis and forecasting The primary emphasis is on the mesoscale. Lower troposphere Middle-upper troposphere Temporal and spatial scales of atmospheric phenomena Orlanski's definition of scales for atmospheric motion Definitions of scales from various historical authors Kinetic energy as a function of scale (Vinnichenko) This class: Atmospheric phenomena sorted in terms of Rossby number Much of what we call "the weather" actually has mesoscale structure "synoptic UVVs" "mesoscale radar structures" ...

  • 3 Pages

    Scale

    Humboldt State University, IT 431

    Excerpt: ... considering proximity to cover, branch architecture, etc. The above scenario is, of course, an example of various spatial scales in the context of a habitat selection hierarchy like weve discussed earlier in the course. In this example you can see how different ecological factors affect the selection of trees at various spatial scales (perceptions). Spatial scale also varies for humans and can greatly influence our interpretation of an animals habitat ecology. This time, imagine youre a person designing a study of porcupine habitat ecology, and you need to make two study design decisions: (a) your study area boundary, and (b) the size of individual plots within your study area. If you choose a large study area (e.g., all of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem), your inferences about porcupine ecology will likely be more relevant to other porcupine biologists than if you choose a small study area (e.g., a single drainage within a National Forest). On a given budget however, a large study area will li ...

  • 13 Pages

    8Satr_Devona_Marcos

    UCSC, BIO 161

    Excerpt: ... Effect of M. pyrifera density on S. atrovirens density, habitat preference and aggregate behavior By: Devona Yates and Marcos Grabiel KFE - Bio 161 Presentation Outline Intro/System Our Questions Methods Results Discussion Kelp Forests Provide vi ...

  • 3 Pages

    Things to review for the midterm and sample que...

    UCSC, BIO 161

    Excerpt: ... ographically is Macrocystis found? c) What limits the distribution and abundance of Macrocystis? i. Biological factors ii. Physical factors 12) 13) Explain what questions can be addressed by sampling fish populations and assemblages at each of these three spatial scales : a. Inside MPAs only b. Inside and outside a single MPA c. Inside and outside several MPAs 14) What criteria would you consider when designing a study to evaluate the effects of an MPA by comparing fish populations and assemblages inside and outside of one or more MPAs? 15) Describe three potential applications of MPAs to the management of fisheries. 16) Describe (1) differences in the geologic structure of rocky reefs north and south of Monterey Bay and (2) possible influences on the biota associated with these reefs. 17) Give four examples of invertebrate species that contribute to the physical structure of kelp forest habitat. 18) Give four examples of each of the following three attributes of an ecosystem, (1) structure, (2) function, (3 ...

  • 3 Pages

    Things to review for the midterm and sample que...

    UCSC, BIO 161

    Excerpt: ... geographically is Macrocystis found? c) What limits the distribution and abundance of Macrocystis? i. Biological factors ii. Physical factors 13) Explain what questions can be addressed by sampling fish populations and assemblages at each of these three spatial scales : a. Inside MPAs only b. Inside and outside a single MPA c. Inside and outside several MPAs 14) What criteria would you consider when designing a study to evaluate the effects of an MPA by comparing fish populations and assemblages inside and outside of one or more MPAs? 15) Describe three potential applications of MPAs to the management of fisheries. 16) Describe (1) differences in the geologic structure of rocky reefs north and south of Monterey Bay and (2) possible influences on the biota associated with these reefs. 17) Give four examples of invertebrate species that contribute to the physical structure of kelp forest habitat. 18) Give four examples of each of the following three attributes of an ecosystem, (1) structure, (2) function, (3) s ...

  • 3 Pages

    1_17

    Colorado, GEOG 1001

    Excerpt: ... arbon Cycle - Carbon is one of the basic elements of life and forms a part of all living things. The biosphere has >1/2 million carbon compounds which are in a continuous state of creation, transformation and decomposition. The main carbon cycle involves conversion from carbon dioxide living matter CO2 This cycle is initiated by fixation of atmospheric CO2 through photosynthesis into carbohydrates. It is utilized and some is eventually respired back to the atmosphere as CO2 (probably involves 1% of total planetary carbon). Most carbon stored as coal, oil, or gas which is liberated slowly. Other cycles include: Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Sulphur The study of biogeochemical cycles is important for better understanding how these important elements move through ecosystems, how and where they are stored, how long they are stored, how sensitive the cycles are to disturbance, and their relevant temporal and spatial scales . DEFINITION OF ECOSYSTEM 1. Any unit that includes all of ...

  • 8 Pages

    lab03_instructions

    Texas A&M, GEOG 361

    Excerpt: ... iously these technologies, while still not perfected, have enabled image interpretation to much more easily employ multiple spatial scales in the analysis. In the past, an interpreter would commonly be restricted to the view of the earth at one specific map scale (e.g., 1:2,500) while today using Google Earth it is possible to zoom from a map scale of 1:100,000 to 1:1,000 allowing a skilled interpreter to synthesize information of the landscape across multiple spatial scales . Figure 1. Elements of Image Interpretation http:/rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect10/elements_of_interp_pryamid.jpg The purpose of this lab to improve your image interpretation skills by identifying features in the landscape through the use of the fundamental elements of photo interpretation (illustrated in Figure 1). This is accomplished using the amazing new geospatial technology of Google Earth. 1 This lab assumes students are versed in the basics of image interpretation that have been covered in the class lecture. Additional information on ...