Documents about Symbiotic Relationship

  • 1 Pages


    Penn State, BIOL 110

    Excerpt: ... to penicillin. Our symbiotic relationship with many of these gut bacteria has traditionally been referred to as commensalism. Our recent findings, however, suggest this is not correct and we need to update our understanding of our symbiotic relationship s with our gut bacteria, including Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. Cross section of a Bacteroides showing an outer membrane with attached lipopolysaccharides, a thin peptidoglycan layer, and a cytoplasmic membrane. Briefly explain why commensalism is not an adequate description of our relationship with Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. What is our symbiotic relationship with Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron? Is Bacteroides thetaiotaomicrona a gram negative or gram positive bacterium? ...

  • 2 Pages

    3-28 Notes

    Ole Miss, BISC 104

    Excerpt: ... Notes 3-28-08 Fungi are ecologically important Dutch Elm Fungus killed our American Elms Figure 16.22- Ergots are fungal growths; produce toxins 50 parasitic fungi (on humans) Pg 334. Lichens: complete association; symbiotic relationship FDA approved leeches and blow fly larvae Human Ancestry o Pg 366 o 17.41 o Primate Phylogeny o 3 groups of primates: Lemurs , lorises, pottos Tarsiers (koala bear) Anthropoids 2 groups o Monkeys o Hominoids Our ancestors: insect-eating mammals; late cretaceous period; 65mya Small; arboreal; limber shoulders; "good" hands; nails (not claws) binocular vision 7.42 o Apes larger than monkeys o 17.43 time line of human evolution ...

  • 2 Pages

    ENGRG 9-17-08_Notes

    Cornell, ENGRG 2500

    Excerpt: ... UseofCottonandIronShotupexponentially CastIron WroughtIron Blastfurnace:CastIronusescoke:resultscalled"pigs"becauseironlookslikepigs sucklingatthemother PuddlingFurnace(HenryCourt1784):WroughtIron Puddlerisaskilledworker ReskillinglaborvsDeskillingla ...

  • 15 Pages

    Lecture 14b, Nutrition in Plants-1

    Iowa State, BIOL 212

    Excerpt: ... Nutrition in Plants Lecture 15 Chapter 37 1 What Nutrients do plants need? Plants like all organisms continuously exchange energy and materials with the environment. CO2 (day) and O2 (night) from the air All other nutrients from the soil 2 3 Hydroponics Aerated water can substitute for soil for many plants Allows total control of nutrients 4 Soils Breakdown products of rocks (clay & sand) Breakdown products of dead organisms (especially plants and microorganisms) Can range from <1% to nearly 100% Living organisms 1x109 (1 billion) bacteria per cc 1 km of fungal hyphae/10 cc 5 Most roots cells obtain O2 from soil air or soil water Most metal ions are bound to soil particles Roots secrete CO2 from respiration and H+ 6 Mycorrhizae Many plants benefit from symbiotic relationship s with fungi mycorrhizae The fungi provide the plant with minerals and the plant provides the fungi sugar 7 Nitrogen The ...

  • 4 Pages

    Fungi: Good News/Bad News

    Penn State, BI SC 001

    Excerpt: ... Bi Sci 001 Wednesday February 10, 1999 Announcements: Exam next Friday February 19th. Lecture notes: Fungi: Good News/Bad News Good News about Fungi: * nature's recycler * antibiotics * edible mushrooms * production of chemicals (bioprocessing) * cheeses *soy sauce *yeast to make bread rise *yeast to make beer and wine Bad News about Fungi * Dutch Elm disease * blights, mildews, rusts and smuts in plants *athlete's foot *jock itch *candida albicans *"poison" mushrooms *ring worm *verticillium wilt on plants *ergotism (Claviceps purpurea) Infected rye and other grains harbor a toxin produced by the fungus. This toxin affects nerves and smooth muscle. Symptoms include: hysteria, hallucinations, convulsions, vomiting and diarrhea *aflatoxin (aspergillas flavis) Symbiotic Relationship s Symbiosis: A mutually beneficial relationship involving continuous, intimate contact between interacting species. Mycorrhiza: Combination of plant structures and fungal hyphae. The fungus regulates to flow of dissolved ...

  • 3 Pages

    exam two study guide

    LSU, MC 2001

    Excerpt: ... its The Internet and Indies From Guest Lectures Brett Blackledge visit Differences between newspapers, radio, and internet in regards to time to develop stories Blogs as competition for traditional media Symbiotic relationship between bloggers' news topics and traditional outlets' topics The importance of healthy skepticism in news consumption Bob Mann visit (Political Communication) Definition of political communication Portion of news that is determined by public officials Media's roles in political conversation Emotions, intellect, and campaigning Examples of political ads ...

  • 3 Pages

    BIO 1002 Chapter 20 Fungus

    LSU, BIOL 1002

    Excerpt: ... Three variations depending on the food type* a. Saprobes: decomposers of dead material (most fungi) b. Parasites: fungi which can grow on living organisms (Dutch elm disease, Corn smut, Athletes foot, Jock itch, Yeast Infections) c. Mutualists: fungi that live interdependently with photosynthetic organisms 1) Lichens: symbiotic relationship between a fungal species and either a cyanobacteria (can photosynthesize) or unicellular photosynthetic eukaryote (protist: green algae*) 2) Mycorrhizae: symbiotic relationship between fungi and the roots if a plant * dont confuse with Symbiotic relationship between root nodules a) Fungi help send the plant water, minerals and nutrient b) Some of the sugars the plant produces are absorbed by the fungus C. Fungal Divisions 1. *Over 100,000 fungal species identified and more are added each year 2. 4 major divisions of the Kingdom Fungi- These divisions are based on the presence of septa in the fungi and on the sexual life cycle and have their own sets of rules: ...

  • 1 Pages

    PSYC 327 04.10.07 Lecture #

    Binghamton, PSYC 327

    Excerpt: ... PSYC 327 April 10, 2007 A) Reciprocity Altruism 1) "You pat my back, and ill pat yours" 2) Not always in the same kind a) beta male in polygamous relationships. Betas groom the alpha males in hopes that they may be able to mate with a female in the herem. 3) Sharing food when found in large quantities. A new animal may share food with kin. 4) when not kin: can help avoid predator, have extra pairs of eyes, and allows for a lower probability of it itself to be eaten. B) Group Selection 1) Flock A- cooperator - sentry Flock B- No cooperator -Freeloading -Hutterites C) Notes from movie -HAHA DIDN'T HAPPEN! D) Cooperation 1) Foraging and Food sharing 2) Chimpanzees are humans closest relative. 3) Interspecific mutualism 4) Symbiotic Relationship Cleaner Fish 5) Noncooperative Sitations Parasitic relationship Sea Anemone E) Cooperative Breeders 1) Plural Breeders Singular Breeders F) Asserting Dominance 1) short term coalitions long term alliaces 2) Hyena G) Eusociality 1) division of labor 2) overlapping ...

  • 5 Pages

    CHAPTER 26

    Rutgers, BIO 101

    Excerpt: ... new diploid thalli Zygomycetes reproduce sexually by forming zygospores Zygomycetes o Decomposers that live in the soil on decaying plant or animal matter Zygospores o Sexual spores Heterothallic o An individual fungal hypha is self-sterile and mates only with a hypha of a different mating type Gametangia o Serves as gametes Zygosporangium o Thick protective covering surrounding zygospores o Contains many diploid nuclei Microsporidia have been a taxonomic mystery Microsporidia o Small, unicellular parasites that infect eukaryotic cells Polar tube o Long, threadlike structure that acts as a hypodermic needle by injecting the contents of the spore into the host cell Glomeromycetes are symbionts with plant roots Glomeromycetes o Symbionts that form intracellular associations within the roots of most trees and herbaceous plants Mycorrhizae o Symbiotic relationship between fungi and the roots of plants Endomycorhizal fungi o Fungi that appear to be intracellular Arbuscular mycorrhizae o The most widespread end ...

  • 2 Pages


    Northeastern, SOA 101

    Excerpt: ... 1/23/08 Hxaro: An exchange of goods & services Market exchange (capitalism) o All key goods/services exchanged thru the market Redistribution o Goods flow to the top (agency, bureaucracy or individual) where they are redistributed Reciprocity: three specific forms o Generalized reciprocity (Ju hoansi): reciprocity is assumed, not specific Like modern nuclear family o Balanced reciprocity: definite notion of what you receive in return o Negative reciprocity: focus on getting as much/giving as little as possible Game theory/realism; competition Basseri (Iran) nomadic Chiefdom: move through the mtns seasonally; trade with settled farmers: symbiotic relationship Dislike/distrust each other: reptn potentially dangerous Stability represents maturity, culture, etc (to settled people) Opposite: settled = tied to the land, sign of weakness Example: Hells Angels- Labor Day run (California) meeting at _ State Park, price gouging- but not past a certain point or they dont pay at all Hxaro: "Canary in a Mineshaft" ve ...

  • 7 Pages


    University of Florida, ZOO 3003C

    Excerpt: ... transform elements releasing energy example: ? Assimilatory and dissimilatory processes are often linked, one providing energy for the other 11 12 2 9/26/2007 What was a reaction we talked about in fueling where inorganic phosphate was assimilated? 13 14 15 16 17 18 3 9/26/2007 19 20 Nitrogen fixation Use of nitrogen gas (N2) as a nitrogen source. Occurs in prokaryotes only Some prokaryotes enter into symbiotic relationship s with leguminous plants 21 22 TB Sinorhizobium meliloti Gram-negative Nitrogen fixer symbiot of Alfalfa Martinus Beijerinck 1851-1831 Discovered Nitrogen fixation 23 24 4 9/26/2007 1. Overall reaction of nitrogenase N2 + 8H+ + 8e- +16 ATP Nitrogenase 2NH3 + H2 + 16 ADP +16 Pi The formation of H2 is a by-reaction 25 26 TB Nitrogenase reductase is inhibited by oxygen But some nitrogen fixers are aerobic bacteria -How does it work? Anabaena 27 28 Anabaena xxx 29 30 5 9/26 ...

  • 32 Pages


    Northeastern, BIO 103

    Excerpt: ... Chapter 23 The Fungi The Fungi 2 Outline Characteristics Structure Reproduction Evolution Sac Fungi Yeasts Club Fungi Smuts and Rusts Imperfect Fungi Symbiotic Relationship s The Fungi 3 Characteristics of the Fungi Kingdom Fungi contains 80,000 spp Mostly multicellular eukaryotes that share a common mode of nutrition Heterotrophic Cells release digestive enzymes and then absorb resultant nutrient molecules Some are parasitic Several have mutualistic relationship The Fungi 4 Structure of Fungi Body (thallus) of most fungi is multicellular mycelium (yeasts are unicellular) Consists of a vast network of thread-like hyphae - Septate fungi have hyphae with cross walls - Nonseptate fungi are multinucleated - Hyphae grow from tip Cell walls of chitin, like insect exoskeleton Excess food stored as glycogen as in animals Possibly evolved from red algae - both lack flagella Give the mycelium a large surface area per unit volume Mycelia and Hyphae of Fungi ...

  • 2 Pages

    terms thermo to barbie

    Harvard, SOC-ANAL 50

    Excerpt: ... independence Symbiotic relationship ? Oppenheimer says pastoral nomads conquest of agriculturists causes state emergence Examples: Mongols (pastoral nomadic empire); gypsies/Bedouins ...

  • 3 Pages


    Wisconsin, BIOCORE 301

    Excerpt: ... xample. Many found in symbiotic relationship s Can move by flagella, filaments, rolling Have distinct cell walls: peptidoglycan One early classification tool for bacteria is the Gram Stain Technique (Figure 27.3) Two groups-Gram Positive and Gram-Negative Result of difference in the cell walls of the different groups Bacteria The outer layer of Gram-negative bacteria protects them from many antibiotics, making this quick technique very useful 3 basic shapes (spheres, rods, spiral); many are motile In addition to being mutualistic partners, bacteria are very important to humans Bacterial genetic material is easily exchanged, making some forms useful in genetic engineering Important to people: Use in fermentation, in GMOs and bioremediation, but also cause of many illnesses Crucial to nutrient cycles, important detritivores Soil respiration very important-Biosphere 2 Prokaryotes only living nitrogen fixer-crucial for nitrogen cycle Modern molecular techniques have led to a much greater understanding of th ...

  • 1 Pages

    Book Notes

    SMU, ANTH 2302

    Excerpt: ... Book Notes Quiz is over pgs 211-330 Chapter 8 Theories about the Origins of Food Production A. Early Hypotheses 1. Neolithic Revolution: coined by Vere Gordon Childe. Proposed that a major economic revolution took place in Southwest Asia during a period of severe drought; this climatic crisis caused a symbiotic relationship between humans and animals in fertile oases. 2. Braidwood thought that Childe's theory was wrong and that human capacity and enthusiasm for experimentation made it possible for people to domesticate animals. B. Multivariate Hypotheses 1. Population pressure: Hunter-gatherer societies had to abandon gathering because their populations had reached the limit that their food resources could support. There is no evidence for high population densities in Southwest Asia or Mesoamerica though. 2. Social Theories: Barbara Bender thought that some hunter-gatherer societies were becoming more complex socially, with far more elaborate hierarchical social organizations. An expansion of trade and of ...