#### 11-16-07 Travelling Waves

SUNY Stony Brook, PHY 131
Excerpt: ... Physics 131, Lecture 28 Abhay Deshpande Equation of a traveling wave, Superposition Principle, and Energy transport in a traveling wave Traveling waves Traveling waves ...

#### L24

SUNY Stony Brook, PHY 131
Excerpt: ... Physics 131, Lecture 24 Abhay Deshpande Equation of a traveling wave, Superposition Principle, and Energy transport in a traveling wave Traveling waves Traveling waves ...

#### 6_Waves_1

Cornell, EAS 1540
Excerpt: ... Waves Special Announcement for Interested Students TakeNote Supplemental Lecture Notes, a service at Cornell since 1985, IS AVAILABLE FOR THIS COURSE! Subscribe Today at: The Cornell Store (Cornell Card It!) @ the first floor registers CollegeT ...

#### ps10_05sol

Cornell, ASTRO 342
Excerpt: ... ! and " ! are shifted in phase relative to p! , are proportional to p! , or are different in sign from p! . Does the answer, for either u ! or " ! , depend on whether the wave is traveling left (toward -x) or right (toward +x)? Make a sketch showing velocity and pressure correlations for a wave traveling in the +x direction. Indicate where acceleration is maximum. Make a similar sketch for a wave traveling in the x direction. Solution The momentum equation can be used to relate u ! to p! . It gives after linearization !% 1 !p( "! . \$ + u ' u( = ) # !t !x & * !x Use a harmonic representation of solutions with complex notation. Let p! = Aei(kx " # t ) One finds 1 1 u! = Aei(kx # \$ t ) . " c#u More simply, 1 1 p! , " c#u showing clearly that u ! and p! are proportional if c is positive (it is always assumed to be larger than u ). If c is negative, the wave travels to the left and u ! , p! are inversely proportional. u! = Similar analysis of density perturbations, using the heat equation to relate them to ...

#### SlidesApr22

UCSD, PHYS phys 1c
Excerpt: ... ir molecules are moving rapidly and frequently colliding. The collisions provide a way for a wave (disturbance) to be communicated across a section of air. 2. Pressure, P, is the force per unit area that a gas exerts on the walls of a container. Puzzle: how can waves propagate thru this material The molecules are NOT connected like the mass-springs? Ideal gas law: PV=nRT V=volume, n=number of moles of gas molecules R=gas constant (8.3 J/mol/K) Behavior of a small section of air A series of small segments of air is thus analogous to a series of masses connected by springs: So many of the basic wave propagation properties we have calculated for the chain of springs, are true for sound waves in air. (e.g., reflections, slower wave velocities for heavier molecules) Schematic video of how a wave travels thru air Sound is a density wave traveling through air See animation posted on lecture slides page Example: speaker vibrates and disturbs the air molecules In which material is the speed of sound the gr ...

#### geo lab notes 1

Iowa State, GEOL 100
Excerpt: ... Geology 100L notes Lab 1: observing and measuring earth materials and processes. Pg 1-29 Geologist- study of earth *characterize and classify earth materials *identify relationships of cause (process) and effect (product) *form questions and hypothes ...

#### phys2080_11

Toledo, PHYS 2080
Excerpt: ... Lecture 11 Electromagnetic Waves Chapter 21.8 - 21.13 Outline Discovery and Studies of Electromagnetic Waves Properties of Electromagnetic Waves The Spectrum of Electromagnetic Waves Discovery of EM Waves A changing magnetic field generates an el ...

#### week6

East Los Angeles College, PH 115
Excerpt: ... y c and let the function f (x) represent the profile of the wave at t = 0 (e.g. the solid curve in fig.26). If the wave travels without distortion then at time t it will be represented by 23 For any function f (x), f (x - x0 ) represents the same curve, but shifted to the right by x0 . Similarly f (x + x0 ) represents the same profile but shifted to the left by x0 . Now imagine an impulse or wave travelling to the right with velocity c and let the function f (x) represent the profile of the wave at t = 0 (e.g. the solid curve in fig.26). If the wave travels without distortion then at time t it will be represented by y(x, t) = f (x - ct). 24 For any function f (x), f (x - x0 ) represents the same curve, but shifted to the right by x0 . Similarly f (x + x0 ) represents the same profile but shifted to the left by x0 . Now imagine an impulse or wave travelling to the right with velocity c and let the function f (x) represent the profile of the wave at t = 0 (e.g. the solid curve in fig.26). If t ...

#### slides19all

Lehigh, PHYS 21
Excerpt: ... p. Previous lecture Wave Equation 2 2 1 D D - 2 2 =0 x2 v t Traveling and standing waves Formulas: v = f , = 2f, k = 2/ p. sin (t - x/v) sin(t - kx) Announcements 2nd Hour Exam Tuesday Nov. 2 at 4:10 pm in Packard 101 Study Guide a ...

#### Summary16 Th Oct 30

Wilfrid Laurier, PHYS 369
Excerpt: ... Thursday, October 30, Lecture Summary Doppler shift (or Doppler effect): We can combine all four equations for the Doppler shift that we derived last day into a single equation if we define a sign convention for the velocity of the listener, vL, and ...

#### Waves

UMBC, PHYSICS 195
Excerpt: ... Waves Wave the transfer of energy without the transfer of particles Types Mechanical Waves - vibratory disturbance travels via oscillating particles (needs a mediumin which to travel) Electromagnetic Waves - travel via oscillating electric and magne ...

#### lecture_12_notes

Rose-Hulman, ECE 341
Excerpt: ... 1 EM waves incident on boundaries (oblique incidence) Now consider an EM wave, traveling in region 1, which encounters a second region at an angle other than normal. In this case, we must consider two types of polarization. 1. 2. Perpendicular polarization: E to plane of incidence (POI). Parallel polarization: E to POI E POI E to POI Definitions POI plane formed by propagation vector, , and the vector normal to the boundary between regions 1 and 2. Polarization: in general, any non-random orientation of an electric and magnetic field. In particular, polarization more usually describes the path the electric vector takes, in planes of constant phase as the wave travels . Note: Were considering only linear polarization, where the electric vector points in one direction. It reaches its maximum positive, grows smaller, becomes zero then negative, becomes maximum negative, grows smaller, becomes zero, etc. That is the vector remains on a straight linethus, linear polarization. Any TEM wave c ...

#### Fa08_7C_3

UC Davis, PHY 7C
Excerpt: ... ference (x). That is, how much further does the wave travel from slit 1 compared to from slit 2. When the wave splits through the slits, frequency and dont change, so only pathlength matters! Constructive interference occurs if one wave travels a whole number of wavelengths further than the other if x=n, =0 or 2, 4, 6, etc. Destructive interference occurs if one wave travels a half number of wavelengths further than the other if x=(n/2) (for n odd), = or 3, 5, 7, etc. so d sin = m determines type: constructive, destructive, or partial Standing Waves Fundamental Standing Waves 2nd Harmonic N = node A = antinode 3rd Harmonic Standing Waves 2nd Harmonic What type of interference occurs at a node? a) Constructive 3rd Harmonic b) Destructive c) Time-dependent d) Depends which node Standing Waves 2nd Harmonic What type of 3rd Harmonic interference occurs at an antinode? b) Constructive c) ...

#### HW2122soln

Lehigh, PHYSICS 21
Excerpt: ... Physics 21 Fall 2007 Solution to HW-21 Solution to HW-22 K 20-53 Researchers monitor global warming by measuring the time it takes sound pulses to travel underwater over large distances. At a depth of 1000 m, where ocean temperatures hold steady near 4 oC, the average sound speed is 1480 m/s, and the sound speed increases 4.0 m/s for every 1.0 oC increase in temperature. Suppose the sound waves travel 7900 km. If the smallest time change that can be reliably detected is 1.0 s, what is the smallest change in average temperature that can be measured? K 20-7 The wave speed on a string under tension is190 m/s. What is the speed if the tension T is doubled? From Eq. (3) in Waves Handout, v = sqrt(T/), so if T is doubled, v increases by sqrt(2). K 20-11 A wave travels with speed 220 m/s. Its wave number is 1.50 rad/m. What is its (A) wavelength and (B) frequency? (A) wavenumber k = 2 /, so = 2 /k (B) Use v = f . v was given, and was calculated in (A). K 20-13 The displacement of a wave traveling in the ...

#### lecture11

Maryland, PHYS 260
Excerpt: ... Lecture 11: Interference superposition of waves in same direction graphical and mathematical phase and path-length difference application to thin films in 2/3 D standing waves: superposition of waves traveling in opposite direction (not a tra ...

#### ReadMeFirst,1140Exp10,Overview

Uni. Worcester, PH 1140
Excerpt: ... Worcester Polytechnic Institute PH 1140 Experiment #10: Acoustic Wave Resonances ReadMeFirst, Experiment #10, Overview In today's experiment you will be studying acoustic wave resonances in open and halfclosed tubes a situation, as it turns out, which builds rather nicely on the stringresonance experiments that you have previously done. But the equipment cost for outfitting 14 identical stations for this experiment is rather pricey, so while we are still weighing the pros and cons of this experiment instead of some alternatives, we're going to try to make the important points through a one-set-up, group-participation-experiment. So hang on, maybe take some notes and for sure write down results when so instructed, and chime in when given the opportunity to participate. The guiding theory, v = f (where f is the frequency of the wave, is the wavelength of the wave, and v is the speed with which the wave travels through its supporting medium), is as true for acoustic waves as for waves on a string under tensio ...

#### Waves1

Delaware, MAST 602
Excerpt: ... Study Guide Questions Lecture: Wind-Generated Waves Reading: p. 192-217 of Knauss (1997) 1. What is the balance of forces (I.e., momentum balance) for linear (i.e., small amplitude) surface gravity waves in the horizontal (s) and vertical (z) directi ...

#### Lecture18_Siesmology

Georgia Tech, EAS 1600
Excerpt: ... EAS 1600 Introduction to Environmental Sciences Recall: The Earth's interior can be roughly divided into 3 zones: the crust the mantle; and the core inner (solid) core outer (liquid) core Unlike the ocean and the atmosphere, we are not able to direc ...

#### LO15.Earthquake

Minnesota, GEO 1001
Excerpt: ... Geo 1001: Earthquakes and Society Reading: 247-255, 259-261 Seismology is the study of earthquakes Myth vs. Reality 1906 San Francisco Earthquake: Scientific Results Earthquakes occur on faults Elastic rebound theory of earthquakes Scientific Resul ...

#### PHYS 101 Pre-Lab #5

Tulane, PHYS 101
Excerpt: ... 10/17/07 PHYS 101-20 Lab #5 Velocity of Sound Objective: To use resonance points of a sound wave traveling through an open tube to measure the speed of sound in air. A standing wave is a stationary pattern produced by the interference of waves bouncing back and forth in a confined space. If a sound source is brought close to the top of a tube, a sound wave travels down the tube, reflects off of the water surface, and returns towards the top of the tube. The wave moving down and the wave moving up form an interference pattern that can be constructive or destructive. Constructive interference causes amplitude, a large increase in volume, which is caused by resonance. Equations: 1) x = L + /2 + L 2) = [4/(2n-1)] L 3) V = f x = distance wave travels = wavelength L = tube length n = some integer V = velocity (m/s) f = frequency (hertz) To begin the experiment, fill a tube and metal cup, connected together with a rubber hose, with water. Bring the water level to around 5 cm from the top of the tube. Strike ...

#### earthquakes 16

USC, GEOL 240Lxg
Excerpt: ... Earthquake 16 November 6th, 2007 Review: Local magnitude = richter magnitude, based on 1 second shear waves. Amplitude on seismograph is 10x bigger for every earthquake. Moment magnitude = does not measure magnitude of ground shaking but energy relea ...

#### hw13

BYU, ECE 563
Excerpt: ... ECEn 563 Computational Electromagnetics Homework #13 Due Oct. 21, 2008 at the beginning of class Implement the polyarc method described in the notes for meshing shapes with flat or curved sides. Compute the bistatic scattering width for a square PEC ...

#### sg17

Arkansas, PHYS 2054
Excerpt: ... Chapter 17 Study Guide for Waves in one Dimension 17.1 Representation of waves Skill 17.1 Understand the difference between transverse and longitudinal waves. Mechanical waves can be classified into two types: transverse and longitudinal. Transverse waves cause a displacement of the material in the medium that is perpendicular to the direction of propagation. Example: A water wave is an example of a transverse wave. As the water wave propagates, we see the water rise and fall, but it does not move in the direction the wave travels (If you don't believe this, look at what happens to a leaf floating on the surface of a swimming pool when a wave reaches it. You will notice that it just moves up and down). Longitudinal waves cause a displacement of the material in the medium that is parallel to the direction of travel. Example: Whenever you displace one end of a spring and let go, you get a longitudinal wave travelling in the spring. This works because each coil in the spring pushes on the one next to it, ...

#### Lecture26

University of Florida , PHY 2061
Excerpt: ... Lecture 26 Refraction and interference Chapter 39/41 - Tuesday April 24th Discussion of exam statistics Review of traveling waves Refraction and Snell's law Wave superposition and wave interference Two slit interference Final exam is Tuesday May 1st ...