• 10 Pages lecture_23_after
    Lecture_23_after

    School: Penn State

    Course: THERMODYNAMICS

    CHE 220 Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics Lecture 23: Systems in Steady Flow The first law for open systems Steady state energy balance Steady state vs. equilibrium examples 1 Chemical plants have mass flow across boundaries. What

  • 2 Pages Lecture_16
    Lecture_16

    School: Penn State

    Course: THERMODYNAMICS

    Lecture 16 - Internal energy For a system of a single component, U must be a function of T, P (or T, v or P, v), since there are only two independent state functions Expand the differential of this state function, then, in T and v: dU = (U/T )V dT +

  • 2 Pages Lecture_17
    Lecture_17

    School: Penn State

    Course: THERMODYNAMICS

    Lecture 17 - 1 step model processes Many "real" thermodynamic processes (apart from irreversibility) can be modeled as composed of a succession of "one-step" processes. Important examples of these building-block processes are: workfree (no change in

  • 2 Pages Lecture_18
    Lecture_18

    School: Penn State

    Course: THERMODYNAMICS

    Part VI - Heat effects from property changes Lecture 18 - Enthalpy Example: cooling at constant pressure. Suppose we cool isobutylene at 80bar and 752.2K to 500K. a) Compute the work done. W = -P V = -P (v2 - v1 ). To compute initial and final v, nee

  • 2 Pages Lecture_19
    Lecture_19

    School: Penn State

    Course: THERMODYNAMICS

    Lecture 19 - Isenthalpic expansion Joule-Thomson process: Model for expansion of a gas through a small hole. Consider a insulated cylinder, with two opposing pistons, held with pressures P1 and P2 < P1 , and with a third, porous piston between the ot

  • 3 Pages Lecture_20
    Lecture_20

    School: Penn State

    Course: THERMODYNAMICS

    Lecture 20 - Sensible and latent heat Addition and removal of heat is a very important process in chemical engineering. For example: Chemical reaction rates typically depend exponentially on temperature, so yield depends on heating/cooling; Reactio

  • 3 Pages Lecture_21
    Lecture_21

    School: Penn State

    Course: THERMODYNAMICS

    Lecture 21 - Multistep processes w/o phase change. Haile analyzes an example process, that of compressing and heating CO2 from 25C and 1bar, to 500C and 10bar. He considers four different processes to carry out the required state change. (sketch) You

  • 4 Pages Lecture_28
    Lecture_28

    School: Penn State

    Course: THERMODYNAMICS

    Part VIII - 2nd law Lecture 28 - Carnot cycles The main results of classical thermodynamics were developed in the beginning of the 19th century, during the second industrial revolution. The "second" industrial revolution refers to the development of

  • 4 Pages Lecture_29
    Lecture_29

    School: Penn State

    Course: THERMODYNAMICS

    Lecture 29 - Limits to efficiency. Now one might expect that there should be some limitations on the efficiency of a Carnot engine, beyond the constraints of conservation of energy. For example, you might or might not be persuaded that the following

  • 3 Pages Lecture_6
    Lecture_6

    School: Penn State

    Course: THERMODYNAMICS

    Lecture 6 - Changing the State Recall "equation of state": for pure systems, only two independent properties, so a third may be given in terms of the other two. For example, v = f (T, p). How does v change when we change T and p? Recall that vt is a

  • 4 Pages Lecture_5
    Lecture_5

    School: Penn State

    Course: THERMODYNAMICS

    Lecture 5 - States on P T and P V diagrams It's easier to visualize slices of the P V T surface. P T , P V , and V T diagrams. Each have their uses. P V diagram A projection of the full P V T diagram onto the P V plane. ("Look down the T axis with o

  • 6 Pages lecture_24after
    Lecture_24after

    School: Penn State

    Course: THERMODYNAMICS

    CHE 220 Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics Lecture 24:examples of open system energy balances Flow calorimetry Mixing Adiabatic turbine Sudden expansion 1 Example 1: a flow calorimeter operates at steady state and conditions noted

  • 7 Pages lecture__8_after
    Lecture__8_after

    School: Penn State

    Course: THERMODYNAMICS

    CHE 220 Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics Lecture 8: Virial Equations Taylor series expansion Expansion for Z in density Virial coefficients Expansion for Z in pressure 1 The Taylor series expansion is used to estimate the value

  • 6 Pages march_21__2008
    March_21__2008

    School: Penn State

    Course: THERMODYNAMICS

  • 7 Pages march_24.2008
    March_24.2008

    School: Penn State

    Course: THERMODYNAMICS

  • 8 Pages march_28.2008
    March_28.2008

    School: Penn State

    Course: THERMODYNAMICS

  • 6 Pages che_220_lecture_1_after
    Che_220_lecture_1_after

    School: Penn State

    Course: THERMODYNAMICS

    CHE 220 Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics Lecture 1: What is thermodynamics? Thermodynamics and its role in chemical engineering Difference between 220 and 320 Work as energy chemical engineering has three main components. Che 33

  • 7 Pages che_220_lecture_2_after
    Che_220_lecture_2_after

    School: Penn State

    Course: THERMODYNAMICS

    CHE 220 Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics Lecture 2: The Nitty-Gritty Concepts in thermodynamics Interactions of boundaries Properties and processes Choosing the system is an important step in solving problems in thermodynamics. S

  • 5 Pages Lecture_4
    Lecture_4

    School: Penn State

    Course: THERMODYNAMICS

    Part 2 - States of Pure Substances in Terms of Measurables Lecture 4 - PvT surfaces for pure components Gibbs phase rule: We seek the number N of independent properties needed to specify a state with P coexisting phases, with C total components prese

  • 5 Pages Lectures_12-13
    Lectures_12-13

    School: Penn State

    Course: THERMODYNAMICS

    Part IV - Work Lecture 12 - PV work Recall the notion of a thermodynamic process: change of state via some external intervention. Common processes include: Adding or removing heat Expanding or compressing the system Often, the process involves requ

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