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Georgia Tech - CHAPTER 5225
  • 7 Pages Bottom_Water_Formation
    Bottom_Water_Formation

    School: Georgia Tech

    334 BOTTOM WATER FORMATION oxygen consumption to abyssal depths. Limnological Oceanography 42: 16011612. Tenberg A, De Bovee F, Hall P et al. (1995) Benthic chamber and proRling landers in oceanography. A review of design, technical solutions and function

  • 10 Pages Deep_Convection
    Deep_Convection

    School: Georgia Tech

    634 DEEP CONVECTION Malanotte-Rizzoli P and Young RE (1995) Assimilation of global versus local data sets into a regional model of the Gulf Stream system: I. Data effectiveness. Journal of Geophysical Research 24: 773}724. Malanotte-Rizzoli P (ed) (

  • 12 Pages Ocean_Circ_Water_Types_Masses
    Ocean_Circ_Water_Types_Masses

    School: Georgia Tech

    1556 OCEAN CIRCULATION / Water Types and Water Masses Water Types and Water Masses W J Emery, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA Copyright 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All Rights Reserved. problems, there is very little research directed at imp

  • 83 Pages Ocean_Circ_Thermohaline_Circ
    Ocean_Circ_Thermohaline_Circ

    School: Georgia Tech

    OCEAN CIRCULATION / Thermohaline Circulation 1549 distinctly nonsteady character of the ocean circulation. Ocean currents are remarkably variable. Variability on much shorter time scales of weeks and months, and length scales of tens and hundreds of

  • 25 Pages Hurricanes
    Hurricanes

    School: Georgia Tech

    942 HURRICANES HURRICANES F D Marks, Hurricane Research Division, Miami, FL, USA Copyright 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All Rights Reserved. Introduction `Hurricane' is the term used in the Western Hemisphere for one of the general class of strong tr

  • 3 Pages Air-Sea_Interaction_Sea_Surface_Temp
    Air-Sea_Interaction_Sea_Surface_Temp

    School: Georgia Tech

    100 AIRSEA INTERACTION / Sea Surface Temperature To take an example, in calculating the ux maps shown in Figure 4 many corrections were applied to the VOS observations in an attempt to remove biases caused by the observing methods. For example, air

  • 11 Pages Sub-sea_Permafrost
    Sub-sea_Permafrost

    School: Georgia Tech

    2902 SUB-SEA PERMAFROST SUBMERSIBLES See MANNED SUBMERSIBLES, DEEP WATER; MANNED SUBMERSIBLES, SHALLOW WATER SUB-SEA PERMAFROST T. E. Osterkamp, University of Alaska, Alaska, AK, USA Copyright ^ 2001 Academic Press doi:10.1006/rwos.2001.0008 I

  • 9 Pages Sea_Level_Variations
    Sea_Level_Variations

    School: Georgia Tech

    SEA LEVEL VARIATIONS OVER GEOLOGIC TIME 2605 SEA LEVEL VARIATIONS OVER GEOLOGIC TIME M. A. Kominz, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI, USA Copyright ^ 2001 Academic Press doi:10.1006/rwos.2001.0255 Introduction Sea level changes have oc

  • 9 Pages Ice-shelf_Stability
    Ice-shelf_Stability

    School: Georgia Tech

    1282 ICE-SHELF STABILITY ICE-SHELF STABILITY C. S. M. Doake, British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, UK Copyright ^ 2001 Academic Press doi:10.1006/rwos.2001.0005 Introduction Ice shelves are Soating ice sheets and are found mainly around the Anta

  • 11 Pages Glacial_Crustal_Rebound
    Glacial_Crustal_Rebound

    School: Georgia Tech

    GLACIAL CRUSTAL REBOUND, SEA LEVELS AND SHORELINES 1157 crust may introduce some variability, older passive margins typically have heat Sows similar to old oceanic crust, whereas young margins, such as in the Red Sea, have high heat Sow. Gas Hydrat

  • 3 Pages Ice_age
    Ice_age

    School: Georgia Tech

    ICE AGES (MILANKOVITCH THEORY) 995 ICE AGES (MILANKOVITCH THEORY) M F Loutre, Universite catholique de Louvain, Louvainla-Neuve, Belgium Copyright 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All Rights Reserved. latitude through the year, is forcing climate. Four

  • 11 Pages Moorings
    Moorings

    School: Georgia Tech

    1850 MOORINGS MOORINGS R. P. Trask and R. A. Weller, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, USA Copyright ^ 2001 Academic Press doi:10.1006/rwos.2001.0304 Introduction The need to measure ocean currents throughout the water colum

  • 8 Pages Open_Ocean_Convection
    Open_Ocean_Convection

    School: Georgia Tech

    OPEN OCEAN CONVECTION 2015 Okhotsk Sea products, then enter the interior of the North PaciRc. See also Bottom Water Formation. Kuroshio and Oyashio Currents. Polynyas. Sea Ice: Overview; Variations in Extent and Thickness. Thermohaline Circulation

  • 16 Pages Planetary_Atmos_Jupiter_all
    Planetary_Atmos_Jupiter_all

    School: Georgia Tech

    1730 PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES / Jupiter and the Outer Planets PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES Contents Jupiter and the Outer Planets Mars Venus Jupiter and the Outer Planets A P Showman, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA Copyright 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd

  • 81 Pages Monsoon_Overview
    Monsoon_Overview

    School: Georgia Tech

    MONSOONS / Overview 1365 Like the SAO, the theoretical understanding of the QBO is that it is forced by momentum transfer by vertically propagating waves forced in the lower atmosphere, interacting with the mean flow. The dynamical theory of the QB

  • 13 Pages Gen_Circ_Energy_Cycle
    Gen_Circ_Energy_Cycle

    School: Georgia Tech

    GENERAL CIRCULATION / Energy Cycle 829 10 30 +6.0 25 20 Pressure (hPa) Height (km) 100 15 200 300 -2.5 10 Nor can the statistics that describe the general circulation necessarily be regarded as perfectly reproducible, year after year. For example

  • 10 Pages Bio-optical_Models
    Bio-optical_Models

    School: Georgia Tech

    BIO-OPTICAL MODELS 317 Further Reading Buskey EJ (1992) Epipelagic planktonic bioluminescence in the marginal ice zone of the Greenland Sea. Marine Biology 113: 689}698. Harvey EN (1952) Bioluminescence. New York: Academic Press. Hastings JW and Mo

  • 3 Pages El_Nino_Southern_Oscillation_Obs
    El_Nino_Southern_Oscillation_Obs

    School: Georgia Tech

    ~ EL NINO AND THE SOUTHERN OSCILLATION / Observation 713 ~ EL NINO AND THE SOUTHERN OSCILLATION Contents Observation Theory asked them about atmospheric pressures in their colonies. Blanford's message reached the South Australian Government Astronom

  • 86 Pages Flooding
    Flooding

    School: Georgia Tech

    FLOODING 769 FLOODING C A Doswell III, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA Copyright 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All Rights Reserved. Introduction Flooding is arguably the weather-related hazard that is most widespread around the globe. It can o

  • 3 Pages Gaia_Hypothesis
    Gaia_Hypothesis

    School: Georgia Tech

    GAIA HYPOTHESIS 815 GAIA HYPOTHESIS T Lenton, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh, UK Copyright 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All Rights Reserved. Introduction The Gaia hypothesis postulates that the Earth's surface is maintained in a habitabl

  • 8 Pages Upper_Ocean_Mix_Processes
    Upper_Ocean_Mix_Processes

    School: Georgia Tech

    UPPER OCEAN MIXING PROCESSES 3093 warmer than the mixed layer. Intermediate temperature maxima in the Antarctic Ocean are less pronounced (up to 0.53C) but occur persistently around Antarctica. Measurements of Salinity. Satellite Remote Sensing of

  • 8 Pages Under-ice_BL
    Under-ice_BL

    School: Georgia Tech

    UNDER-ICE BOUNDARY LAYER 3071 UNDER-ICE BOUNDARY LAYER M. G. McPhee, McPhee Research Company, Naches, WA, USA J. H. Morison, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA Copyright ^ 2001 Academic Press doi:10.1006/rwos.2001.0146 Introduction Sea

  • 6 Pages Penetrating_Shortwave_Radiation
    Penetrating_Shortwave_Radiation

    School: Georgia Tech

    2136 PENETRATING SHORTWAVE RADIATION birds will forage independently soon after leaving the nest. Some pelecaniform birds will begin breeding as soon as the second year (e.g., cormorants), although three years of age seems to be the norm, while in

  • 8 Pages Wind_Buoyancy-forced_Upper_Ocean
    Wind_Buoyancy-forced_Upper_Ocean

    School: Georgia Tech

    WIND AND BUOYANCY-FORCED UPPER OCEAN 3219 h\1), only a small fraction of the sea surface is covered by stage B whitecaps (0.04 or 4%), and an even smaller fraction of that surface is covered by stage A whitecaps (0.002 or 0.2%). Yet the total area

  • 8 Pages Evap_Humidity
    Evap_Humidity

    School: Georgia Tech

    870 EVAPORATION AND HUMIDITY Wiltshire KH (1992) The inSuence of microphytobenthos on oxygen and nutrient Suxes between eulittoral sediments and associated water phases in the Elbe estuary. In: Colombo G, Ferrari I, Ceccherelli VU and Rossi R (eds)

  • 80 Pages Reflectance_Albedo_Surface
    Reflectance_Albedo_Surface

    School: Georgia Tech

    1914 REFLECTANCE AND ALBEDO, SURFACE REFLECTANCE AND ALBEDO, SURFACE J A Coakley, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA Copyright 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All Rights Reserved. Introduction Albedo is Latin, meaning whiteness. The albedo of a

  • 3 Pages Radiation_Solar
    Radiation_Solar

    School: Georgia Tech

    RADIATION (SOLAR) 1859 Workshop Proceedings, Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy, pp. 4553. Ulaby FT (1981) Microwave response of vegetation. In Kahle AB, Weill G, Carter WD (eds) Advances in Space Research, COSPAR Interdisciplinary Scientific Comm

  • 7 Pages OTEC
    OTEC

    School: Georgia Tech

    OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) Marshall DP (1997) Subduction of water masses in an eddying ocean. Journal of Marine Research 55: 201}222. Marshall JC, Nurser AJG and Williams RG (1993). Inferring the subduction rate and period over the North

  • 9 Pages Upper_Ocean_Vertical_Structure
    Upper_Ocean_Vertical_Structure

    School: Georgia Tech

    3120 UPPER OCEAN VERTICAL STRUCTURE Gregg MC (1989) Scaling turbulent dissipation in the thermocline. Journal of Geophysical Research 94: 9686}9698. Langmuir I (1938) Surface motion of water induced by wind. Science 87: 119}123. Lighthill MJ and Pea

  • 4 Pages Origin_Oceans
    Origin_Oceans

    School: Georgia Tech

    ORIGIN OF THE OCEANS 2055 ORIGIN OF THE OCEANS K. K. Turekian, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA Copyright ^ 2001 Academic Press doi:10.1006/rwos.2001.0417 Introduction The oceans and the salts dissolved in them probably all formed early in t

  • 3 Pages Standard_Atmos
    Standard_Atmos

    School: Georgia Tech

    STANDARD ATMOSPHERE 2107 tion: Laboratory Models of. Convective Cloud Systems Modelling. Coupled OceanAtmosphere Models. Mesoscale Meteorology: Models. Numerical Models: Methods. Predictability and Chaos. Weather Prediction: Adaptive Observations; D

  • 14 Pages Radiosondes
    Radiosondes

    School: Georgia Tech

    1900 RADIOSONDES Further Reading Appenzeller C, Holton JR, and Rosenlof KH (1996) Seasonal variation of mass transport across the troposphere. Journal of Geophysical Research 101: 1507115078. Baumgartner S, Beer J, Suter M, et al. (1997) Chlorine 36

  • 3 Pages Planetary_Atmos_Venus
    Planetary_Atmos_Venus

    School: Georgia Tech

    PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES / Venus 1755 National dEtudes Spatiales, is planning a mission that would deliver an orbiter with a microwave sounder for continued atmospheric proling, and a network of four landers to carry out seismological and meteorologic

  • 3 Pages BL_Ocean_Mixed_Layer
    BL_Ocean_Mixed_Layer

    School: Georgia Tech

    BOUNDARY LAYERS / Ocean Mixed Layer 291 Ocean Mixed Layer L Kantha, SACLANT Undersea Research Center, La Spezia, Italy C A Clayson, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA Copyright 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All Rights Reserved. Introduction Th

  • 13 Pages Permafrost
    Permafrost

    School: Georgia Tech

    PERMAFROST 1717 See also AirSea Interaction: Momentum, Heat and Vapor Fluxes; Sea Surface Temperature. Boundary Layers: Complex Terrain; Convective Boundary Layer; Neutrally Stratified Boundary Layer; Stably Stratified Boundary Layer; Surface Layer

  • 12 Pages Snow_surface
    Snow_surface

    School: Georgia Tech

    SNOW (SURFACE) 2061 that can be swept by landfalling tropical cyclones is unlikely to remain undamaged for more than a few decades, at most. Thus, some damage can be avoided by not building in vulnerable areas. As another example, there are several

  • 10 Pages Radiative_Transfer_Ocean
    Radiative_Transfer_Ocean

    School: Georgia Tech

    RADIATIVE TRANSFER IN THE OCEAN 2321 RADIATIVE TRANSFER IN THE OCEAN C. D. Mobley, Sequoia Scientific, Inc., WA, USA Copyright ^ 2001 Academic Press doi:10.1006/rwos.2001.0469 Introduction Understanding how light interacts with sea water is a f

  • 15 Pages Aerosols_Observations_Measurements
    Aerosols_Observations_Measurements

    School: Georgia Tech

    20 AEROSOLS / Observations and Measurements Further Reading Knott CG (ed.) (1923) Collected Scientific Papers of John Aitken L.L.D, F.R.S. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. McDonald WF (1938) Atlas of Climatic Charts of the Oceans. Washington,

  • 82 Pages Energy_Balance_Model_Surface
    Energy_Balance_Model_Surface

    School: Georgia Tech

    ENERGY BALANCE MODEL, SURFACE 747 Huang E, Williams E, Boldi R, et al. (1999) Criteria for sprites and elves based on Schumann resonance observations. Journal of Geophysical Research 104: 1694316964. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Phys

  • 3 Pages BL_Surface_Layer
    BL_Surface_Layer

    School: Georgia Tech

    BOUNDARY LAYERS / Surface Layer 305 Further Reading Arya SPS (1988) Introduction to Micrometeorology. New York: Academic Press. Garratt JR (1992) The Atmospheric Boundary Layer. New York: Cambridge University Press. Geiger R (1961) The Climate Near

  • 3 Pages Air-Sea_Interaction_Momentum_Heat_Vapor_Fluxes
    Air-Sea_Interaction_Momentum_Heat_Vapor_Fluxes

    School: Georgia Tech

    AIRSEA INTERACTION / Momentum, Heat, and Vapor Fluxes 93 and Global Change, pp. 121172. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. IPCC (2001) Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis, Contribution of Working Group 1 to the Third Assessment Report of t

  • 3 Pages Air-Sea_Interaction_Freshwater_Flux
    Air-Sea_Interaction_Freshwater_Flux

    School: Georgia Tech

    AIRSEA INTERACTION / Freshwater Flux 75 combined approach may be taken into the future. The key to successful icing forecasting lies in understanding the physical processes resulting in supercooled liquid water production, how these processes relat

  • 3 Pages Static_Stability
    Static_Stability

    School: Georgia Tech

    2114 STATIC STABILITY STATIC STABILITY J A Young, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA Copyright 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All Rights Reserved. monly equal to the restoring force per displacement, or B=dz in this case. Thus, if pressure effec

  • 12 Pages Lake_Effect_Storms
    Lake_Effect_Storms

    School: Georgia Tech

    1104 LAKE-EFFECT STORMS rearrangement perturbations, which is not possible if Eulerian perturbations are used. See also Dynamic Meteorology: Balanced Flows; Potential Vorticity. Hamiltonian Dynamics. Kinematics. Numerical Models: Methods. Tracers.

  • 11 Pages Convective_Initiation
    Convective_Initiation

    School: Georgia Tech

    560 CONVECTIVE STORMS / Convective Initiation Convective Initiation S B Trier, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, USA Copyright 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All Rights Reserved. that occurs through deep tropospheric layers within

  • 7 Pages Whitecaps_Foam
    Whitecaps_Foam

    School: Georgia Tech

    WHITECAPS AND FOAM 3213 sealed lead-acid batteries, which were capable of 2}3 week's operation depending on the mode of operation. However, there are additional constraints for the in situ monitoring of sea water, i.e. systems must be made more rug

  • 6 Pages Bubbles
    Bubbles

    School: Georgia Tech

    352 BUBBLES Gemmrich JR and Farmer DM (1999) Observations of the scale and occurrence of breaking surface waves. Journal of Physical Oceanography 29: 2596}2606. Kantha LH and Clayson CA (2000) Small Scale Processes in Geophysical Flows. San Diego: A

  • 3 Pages Aircraft_Icing
    Aircraft_Icing

    School: Georgia Tech

    68 AIRCRAFT ICING contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Further Reading Brasseur G, Cox RA, Hauglustaine D, et al. (1998) European Scientific Assessment of the Atmospheric Effects of Aircraft Emissions. In: Brasseur G, Am

  • 83 Pages Parameterization_Phys_Processes_Clouds
    Parameterization_Phys_Processes_Clouds

    School: Georgia Tech

    1692 PARAMETERIZATION OF PHYSICAL PROCESSES / Clouds PARAMETERIZATION OF PHYSICAL PROCESSES Contents Clouds Gravity Wave Fluxes Turbulence and Mixing hydrodynamic equations that govern atmospheric motions. Various numerical techniques can be applied

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