posted a question
2. Which of the following factors is important for the development of attachment bonds between human infants and their mothers?
A. conservation
B. familiarity
C. egocentrism
D. stranger anxiety


3. Today's character education programs teach children to experience
A. habituation.
B. object permanence.
C. empathy.
D. maturation.


4. The process of transducing air pressure waves into neural messages that the brain interprets as meaningful sound is known as
A. sensory interaction.
B. the vestibular sense.
C. kinesthesis.
D. audition.


5. Place theory suggests that
A. structures in the inner ear provide us with a sense of the position of our bodies in space.
B. we have a system for sensing the position and movement of the various parts of our body.
C. we can locate the place from which a sound is emitted because of the distance between our ears.
D. the pitch we hear is related to the place where the cochlea's basilar membrane is stimulated.


6. Who emphasized that perceptions are learned through experience?
A. Kant
B. Gestalt psychologists
C. Locke
D. Weber


7. Humanistic psychologists focused attention on the importance of people's
A. childhood memories.
B. genetic predispositions.
C. unconscious thought processes.
D. potential for healthy growth.


8. If two identical objects are equally distant from a viewer, the brighter object appears to be
A. larger.
B. more finely textured.
C. less colorful.
D. closer.


9. Two historical roots of psychology are the disciplines of
A. philosophy and chemistry.
B. physiology and chemistry.
C. philosophy and biology.
D. philosophy and physics.


10. Sensorineural hearing loss is caused by damage to the
A. eardrum.
B. cochlea.
C. hammer, anvil, and stirrup.
D. auditory canal.


11. Dr. Santaniello conducts research on how children's moral thinking changes as they grow older. It is most likely that Dr. Santaniello is a(n) ________ psychologist.
A. social
B. clinical
C. developmental
D. industrial/organizational


12. Human factors psychologists would be most likely to aid in the design of
A. computer keyboards.
B. weight-reduction programs.
C. protective clothing.
D. classroom management techniques.


13. Piaget held that egocentrism is characteristic of the
A. sensorimotor stage.
B. preoperational stage.
C. concrete operational stage.
D. formal operational stage.


14. In one experiment, preschool children judged french fries as tasting better when served in a McDonald's bag rather than a plain white bag. This best illustrates the impact of
A. the phi phenomenon.
B. sensory adaptation.
C. perceptual set.
D. the Ponzo illusion.


15. The steadily increasing size of the retinal image of an approaching object is especially important for perceiving the object's
A. shape.
B. motion.
C. height.
D. weight.


16. Tamiko hates the bitter taste of her cough syrup. Which of the following would she find most helpful in minimizing the syrup's bad taste?
A. tasting something very sweet before taking the cough syrup
B. keeping the syrup in her mouth for several seconds before swallowing it
C. holding her nose while taking the cough syrup
D. gulping the cough syrup so that it misses her tongue


17. In Piaget's stage of concrete operational intelligence, the child acquires an understanding of the principle of
A. conservation.
B. deduction.
C. attachment.
D. object permanence.


18. Developmental psychologists study physical, cognitive, and ________ changes throughout the human life cycle.
A. cross-sectional
B. embryonic
C. genetic
D. social


19. Dr. Frankenstein has forgotten to give his monster an important part; as a result, the monster cannot transduce sound. Dr. Frankenstein omitted the
A. eardrum.
B. middle ear.
C. semicircular canals.
D. basilar membrane.


20. Infants who were exposed to the visual cliff
A. tried to climb up the cliff if their mothers were at the top.
B. gave no evidence that they could perceive depth.
C. refused to cross over the “deep” side to their mothers.
D. eagerly crossed to their mothers by means of the “bridge” provided.


21. In an experiment, children see a doll named Sally leave her ball in a red cupboard and go away. They then observe another doll, Anne, move the ball to a different location. In asking children where Sally will look for the ball upon her return, the investigators are testing the children's
A. habituation.
B. moral reasoning.
C. theory of mind.
D. stranger anxiety.


22. Renny knew the red tulip was closer to her than the yellow tulip because the red one cast a larger retinal image than the yellow one. This illustrates the importance of the distance cue known as
A. relative size.
B. interposition.
C. proximity.
D. relative height.


23. The specialist most likely to have a medical degree is a
A. clinical psychologist.
B. personality psychologist.
C. developmental psychologist.
D. psychiatrist.


24. According to Erikson, later adulthood is to integrity as young adulthood is to
A. autonomy.
B. initiative.
C. intimacy.
D. identity.


25. Which psychological perspective highlights the manner in which people encode, process, store, and retrieve information?
A. cognitive
B. behavioral
C. behavior genetics
D. evolutionary


26. Long sound waves are to short sound waves as a ________ voice is to a ________ voice.
A. loud; soft
B. soprano; bass
C. soft; loud
D. bass; soprano


27. Older adults outperformed younger adults in their responses to New York Times crossword puzzles. The superior performance of these older adults best illustrates the value of
A. habituation.
B. fluid intelligence.
C. concrete operational thought.
D. crystallized intelligence.


28. As boys with explosive tempers grow older, they are especially likely to have difficulty maintaining good jobs and happy marriages. This fact is most relevant to the issue of
A. conventional or postconventional morality.
B. fluid or crystallized intelligence.
C. stability or change.
D. concrete or formal operations.


29. After listening to your high-volume car stereo for 15 minutes, you fail to realize how loudly the music is blasting. This best illustrates
A. Weber's law.
B. accommodation.
C. sensory adaptation.
D. the volley principle.


30. En route to the visual cortex, neural impulses from the retina are first relayed to the
A. olfactory bulb.
B. thalamus.
C. hippocampus.
D. oval window.


31. Who would be most likely to agree with the statement, “Psychology is the science of mental life”?
A. Wilhelm Wundt
B. John Watson
C. Ivan Pavlov
D. virtually any American psychologist during the 1960s


32. A student who does not cheat on tests because he doesn't want to violate classroom rules is in Kohlberg's ________ stage.
A. preconventional
B. preoperational
C. conventional
D. postconventional


33. When we stare at an object, each eye receives a slightly different image, providing a depth cue known as
A. interposition.
B. linear perspective.
C. relative motion.
D. retinal disparity.


34. Underlying Alzheimer's disease is a deterioration in neurons that produce
A. epinephrine.
B. norepinephrine.
C. serotonin.
D. acetylcholine.


35. When children grow up and leave home, mothers most frequently report feeling
A. depressed.
B. bored.
C. happy.
D. anxious.


36. Under very dim levels of illumination
A. rods reach their maximum light sensitivity more rapidly than do cones.
B. rods are more light sensitive than cones.
C. it is particularly important to look straight at the objects we want to see.
D. all of these statements are true.


37. Seventy-year-old Mrs. Martinez finds that she must spice her food heavily or she cannot taste it. Unfortunately, her son often finds her cooking inedible because it is so spicy. What is the likely explanation for their taste differences?
A. Women have higher taste thresholds than men.
B. Men have higher taste thresholds than wo men.
C. Being 70 years old, Mrs. Martinez probably has few er taste buds than her son.
D. All of these are likely explanations.


38. The process of receiving and representing stimulus energies by the nervous system is called
A. priming.
B. synaesthesia.
C. accommodation.
D. sensation.


39. A person claiming to be able to read another's mind is claiming to have the ESP ability of
A. psychokinesis.
B. precognition.
C. clairvoyance.
D. telepathy.


40. Chloe can clearly sense when her sister's teasing is intended to be friendly fun or a hostile put-down. This best illustrates that Chloe has developed a(n)
A. sense of object permanence.
B. insecure attachment.
C. concept of conservation.
D. theory of mind.


41. Objects higher in our field of vision are perceived as ________ due to the principle of ________.
A. nearer; relative height
B. nearer; linear perspective
C. farther away; relative height
D. farther away; linear perspective


42. Those who believe in the value of subliminal audiotapes would be wrong to claim that
A. people are capable of parallel processing.
B. signal detection is influenced by a person's motivational state.
C. unconsciously processed information is unusually persuasive.
D. sensory transduction can occur without conscious awareness.


43. In the early 1960s, the cognitive revolution in psychology involved a renewal of interest in the scientific study of
A. mental processes.
B. hereditary influences.
C. unconscious motives.
D. learned behaviors.


44. Authoritarian parents are especially likely to be
A. inflexible.
B. educated.
C. permissive.
D. trusting.


45. Mrs. Pearson cut Judy's hot dog into eight pieces and Sylvia's into six pieces. Sylvia cried because she felt she wasn't getting as much hot dog as Judy. Piaget would say that Sylvia doesn't understand the principle of
A. object permanence.
B. conservation.
C. egocentrism.
D. accommodation.


46. Four-year-old Jennifer mistakenly believes that her mother would like to receive a toy doll as a Christmas present. This best illustrates Piaget's concept of
A. accommodation.
B. object permanence.
C. conservation.
D. egocentrism.


47. The Ames illusion involving two girls who are perceived as very different in size can best be explained in terms of
A. shape constancy.
B. retinal disparity.
C. the principle of continuity.
D. the misperception of distance.


48. Adults who are born blind but later have their vision restored
A. are almost immediately able to recognize familiar objects.
B. typically fail to recognize familiar objects.
C. are unable to follow moving objects with their eyes.
D. have excellent eye-hand coordination.


49. Dr. Robinson conducts research on the relationship between brain chemistry and intellectual functioning. Which psychological specialty does Dr. Robinson's research best represent?
A. social psychology
B. clinical psychology
C. biological psychology
D. industrial/organizational psychology


50. Evidence that some cones are especially sensitive to red light, others to green light, and still others to blue light is most directly supportive of
A. Weber's law.
B. the Young-Helmholtz theory.
C. the gate-control theory.
D. the opponent-process theory.


51. If two objects are assumed to be the same size, the object that casts the smaller retinal image is perceived to be
A. moving faster.
B. less hazy.
C. more distant.
D. closer.


52. According to the opponent-process theory, cells that are turned “on” by
A. green light are turned “off” by blue light.
B. yellow light are turned “off” by red light.
C. green light are turned “off” by red light.
D. red light are turned “off” by blue light.


53. Given normal sensory ability, a person standing atop a mountain on a dark, clear night can see a candle flame atop a mountain 30 miles away. This is a description of vision's
A. difference threshold.
B. jnd.
C. absolute threshold.
D. feature detection.


54. Psychologists who study ESP are called
A. clairvoyants.
B. telepaths.
C. parapsychologists.
D. levitators.


55. Viewing the light reflected by any object relative to the light reflected by surrounding objects is most necessary for experiencing
A. the Ponzo illusion.
B. retinal disparity.
C. perceptual adaptation.
D. lightness constancy.


56. Objects are brought into focus on the retina by changes in the curve and thickness of the
A. rods and cones.
B. lens.
C. bipolar cells.
D. optic nerve.


57. The body structures that enable reproduction are the
A. primary sex characteristics.
B. secondary sex characteristics.
C. teratogens.
D. frontal lobes.


58. Primary sex characteristics are to ________ as secondary sex characteristics are to ________.
A. male testes; adrenal glands
B. female ovaries; deepened male voice
C. male testes; female ovaries
D. adrenal glands; underarm hair


59. Adults are ________ likely to divorce in their early forties than in their early twenties. They are ________ likely to commit suicide in their early forties than in their early seventies.
A. less; less
B. more; more
C. less; more
D. more; less


60. Lenore had been blind from birth. Immediately after corrective eye surgery, she could visually perceive figure-ground relationships. This fact would serve to support the position advanced by
A. Kant.
B. parapsychologists.
C. Aristotle.
D. Locke.


61. If an adult who was blind from birth gains the ability to see, that person would have the greatest difficulty visually distinguishing
A. circles from squares.
B. the Sun from the Moon.
C. red from green.
D. a white cloud from the blue sky.


62. Which of the following types of cells are located in the brain's occipital lobe?
A. rods and cones
B. bipolar cells
C. hair cells
D. feature detectors


63. Damage to the hammer, anvil, and stirrup is most likely to cause
A. prosopagnosia.
B. sensorineural hearing loss.
C. phantom limb sensations.
D. conduction hearing loss.


64. Compared with younger adults, older adults take ________ time to solve perceptual puzzles and ________ time to remember names.
A. more; more
B. less; less
C. more; less
D. less; more


65. Older people are NOT increasingly susceptible to
A. pneumonia.
B. Parkinson's disease.
C. common cold viruses.
D. dementia.


66. According to Erikson, achieving a sense of identity is the special task of the
A. toddler.
B. preschooler.
C. elementary schoolchild.
D. adolescent.


67. Dmitri is a typical 6-month-old. When he looks into a mirror he is likely to
A. recognize the image as himself.
B. show no interest and ignore what he sees.
C. reach toward the image as if it were another child.
D. be somewhat frightened and turn away.


68. Infant motor development is typically characterized by individual differences in ________ of the major developmental milestones.
A. both the sequence and the age-related timing
B. the sequence but not the age-related timing
C. the age-related timing but not the sequence
D. neither the sequence nor the age-related timing


69. Who would have been most likely to ignore mental processes and to define psychology as “the scientific study of observable behavior”?
A. Watson
B. Freud
C. Wundt
D. James


70. During which stage of cognitive development do children acquire object permanence?
A. sensorimotor
B. preoperational
C. concrete operational
D. formal operational


71. Which theory emphasizes that personal expectations and motivations influence the level of absolute thresholds?
A. signal detection theory
B. frequency theory
C. opponent-process theory
D. place theory


72. People are more likely to perceive a figure and ground illustration as reversible if they are told it is reversible. This best illustrates the importance of
A. interposition.
B. retinal disparity.
C. perceptual adaptation.
D. top-down processing.


73. The perceptual tendency to fill in gaps in order to perceive disconnected parts as a whole object is called
A. interposition.
B. closure.
C. continuity.
D. proximity.


74. Rods are
A. more light-sensitive and more color-sensitive than are cones.
B. less light-sensitive and less color-sensitive than are cones.
C. more light-sensitive and less color-sensitive than are cones.
D. less light-sensitive and more color-sensitive than are cones.


75. According to Piaget, the ability to think logically about abstract propositions is indicative of the stage of
A. preoperational thought.
B. concrete operations.
C. formal operations.
D. fluid intelligence.


76. Which of the following is TRUE of adolescence today as compared to a century ago?
A. Menarche occurs later in life, and adult independence occurs later in life.
B. Menarche occurs earlier in life, and adult independence occurs earlier in life.
C. Menarche occurs later in life, and adult independence occurs earlier in life.
D. Menarche occurs earlier in life, and adult independence occurs later in life.


77. As individuals progress through their teen years into early adulthood, their selfconcepts typically become
A. less personalized and unique.
B. more fluid and changeable.
C. less integrated.
D. more positive.


78. The tendency to perceive a moving light in the night sky as belonging to an airplane rather than a satellite best illustrates the impact of
A. kinesthesis.
B. retinal disparity.
C. perceptual set.
D. the phi phenomenon.


79. When Tommy's mother hides his favorite toy under a blanket, he acts as though it no longer exists and makes no attempt to retrieve it. Tommy is clearly near the beginning of Piaget's ________ stage.
A. sensorimotor
B. formal operational
C. concrete operational
D. preoperational


80. According to Piaget, people are first able to reason abstractly and think hypothetically during the ________ stage.
A. preoperational
B. postconventional
C. formal operational
D. concrete operational


81. Which theory assumes that top-down processing can influence a person's absolute threshold for a particular stimulus?
A. place theory
B. frequency theory
C. signal detection theory
D. opponent-process theory


82. Calvin, who is trying to impress his psychology professor with his knowledge of infant motor development, asks why some infants learn to roll over before they lift their heads from a prone position, while others develop these skills in the opposite order. What should Calvin's professor conclude from this question?
A. Calvin clearly understands that the sequence of motor development is not the same for all infants.
B. Calvin doesn't know what he's talking about. Although some infants reach these developmental milestones ahead of others, the order is the same for all infants.
C. Calvin needs to be reminded that rolling over is an inherited reflex, not a learned skill.
D. Calvin understands an important principle: Motor development is unpredictable.


83. People were shown the same top half of a photographed face paired with two different bottom halves of photographed faces. They were especially likely to recognize that the top halves of the faces were identical if they
A. had been exposed to artificially inverted visual fields.
B. were deprived of visual experience during infancy.
C. perceived objects as having constant size.
D. lacked normal color vision.


84. Professor McClure believes that young children are frequently able to make morally correct decisions because humans are endowed with an inborn knowledge of basic ethical principles. The professor's belief is most consistent with the views of
A. Aristotle.
B. Plato.
C. John Locke.
D. B. F. Skinner


85. Piaget claimed that children understand the world primarily by observing the effects of their own actions on other people, objects, and events during the ________ stage.
A. concrete operational
B. sensorimotor
C. formal operational
D. preoperational


86. Most people's earliest memories do not predate ________ of age.
A. 6 months
B. 1 year
C. 2 years
D. 3 years


87. Stereotypes are mental conceptions that can strongly influence the way we interpret the behaviors of individuals belonging to specific racial or ethnic groups. A stereotype is most similar to a
A. feature detector.
B. perceptual adaptation.
C. perceptual set.
D. difference threshold.


88. In Erikson's theory, the sense of integrity achieved in late adulthood refers to the feeling that
A. one's life has been meaningful.
B. one is healthy and not dependent upon others.
C. one is acting ethically.
D. one's life is full of close friendships.


89. Dr. Tiao conducts basic research on the effects of head injuries on people's problemsolving and abstractreasoning skills. Which psychological specialty does her research best represent?
A. developmental psychology
B. biological psychology
C. industrial/organizational psychology
D. personality psychology


90. For effective mastery of course material, the text emphasizes the value of
A. spaced practice and overlearning.
B. speed reading and massed practice.
C. introspection and psychoanalysis.
D. all of these answers.


91. William James was primarily concerned with the _______ of the mind.
A. functions
B. elements
C. disorders
D. biological origins


92. The classic gate-control theory suggests that pain is experienced when small nerve fibers activate and open a neural gate in the
A. basilar membrane.
B. semicircular canals.
C. olfactory bulb.
D. spinal cord.


93. Perceiving objects as unchanging even as illumination and retinal images change is known as
A. interposition.
B. prosopagnosia.
C. perceptual constancy.
D. sensory adaptation.


94. A subliminal message is one that is presented
A. below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness.
B. in a manner that is unconsciously persuasive.
C. with very soft background music.
D. repetitiously.


95. Clinical psychologists specialize in
A. constructing surveys.
B. animal research.
C. providing therapy to troubled people.
D. providing drugs to treat behavioral disorders.


96. Compared with middle-aged adults, older adults experience
A. positive emotions with less intensity and negative emotions with more intensity.
B. positive emotions with more intensity and negative emotions with less intensity.
C. positive emotions with less intensity and negative emotions with less intensity.
D. positive emotions with more intensity and negative emotions with more intensity.


97. An older person who can look back on life with satisfaction and reminisce with a sense of completion has attained Erikson's stage of
A. generativity.
B. intimacy.
C. isolation.
D. integrity.


98. Dr. Matsuko's major research interest is the long-term effects of child-rearing practices on the psychological adjustment of offspring. It is most likely that Dr. Matsuko is a ________ psychologist.
A. cognitive
B. developmental
C. biological
D. psychodynamic


99. The visual cliff is a laboratory device for testing ________ in infants.
A. size constancy
B. accommodation
C. depth perception
D. perceptual adaptation