This question has been answered by riyer on Dec 24, 2012. View Solution
sonson85 posted a question Dec 23, 2012 at 7:04pm
These questions are true or false.
Please someone help me.


When the authors write that: "DNA studies suggest that Neanderthals are not directly related to modern humans", and

that "Their subspecies appears to be at a dead end", they are saying that perhaps some evidence could appear someday

to contradict this assumption.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 2

Unfortunately for the people of the late Paleolithic Era, they spent so much time on all-consuming quests to provide for

the necessities of life that they had no time to develop speech, religion and artistic expression.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 3

'Sedentarization' means settling down in one general area and engaging in some form of agriculture.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 4

The real revolutionary aspect of agriculture was not that it was 'portable' but that more people could then not have to

sweat it out under the hot sun all day and could engage in non-farming activities such as too-making, pottery and weaving.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 5

Among the earliest religions of agricultural societies, male gods dominate, with little or no evidence of the presence of

female deities. This suggests that security rather than fertility was the most important focus of society.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 6

Mesopotamia's organized civilization grew in large part because the administrative need to plan and mobilize labor in

order to control the irrigation systems and make agriculture possible.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 7

The Epic of Gilgamesh describes the walls of the city of Uruk which were over five miles long and were protected by

some 900 semicircular towers.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 8

Religious leaders in Uruk had no role in conferring legitimacy to the rulers and were not represented in the upper classes

of society which were essentially all about trade and military strength.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 9

When it came to the status of women, civilization represented a step down for them from the time during the Neolithic

period in which women enjoyed roughly the same roles and status as men.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 10

Government and temple administrators in Mesopotamia invented writing, not to keep track of their animals, goods and

trade, but to record primarily their myths and their legal system: the Code of Hammurabi.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 11

Women in Egypt could own property, conduct business, enter contracts and bring lawsuits. This was possible because

they were able to receive the same formal education as the males.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 12

Egyptian kings were believed to be divine incarnations of the gods Horus, Ra or Osiris, and their purpose as

gods-on-earth was to care for their people and preserve justice and harmony.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 13

Egyptian kings were both controlled by as well as supported by religious tradition.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 14

Ramses II (1289-1224 B.C.E.) checked Hittite expansion with an overwhelming and crushing defeat of the Hittite

kingdom at the Battle of Kadesh.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 15

Among the ancient Hebrews, unlike other less enlightened surrounding tribes, treated their women as equals to their men.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 16

The story of the great flood in the Hebrew Bible is both original and unique to the Hebrews.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 17

The Israelites took advantage of a vacuum of power between the Egyptians and the Hittites to ravage and destroy some

areas of Canaan in the name of their tribal god Yahweh.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 18

The reason that the kingdom of Israel was formed was to consolidate the loosely organized confederation of tribes into a

force capable of defeating their chief enemy the Philistines.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 19

The strong kingdoms of Judah and Israel were able to maintain their independence for about six hundred years under their

own dynastic kings.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 20

It would be reasonable to claim that Tiglath-pileser used state terrorism in order to control his population and smother the

likelihood of revolt.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 21

Tiglath-pileser combined military and religious ideology to make warfare the mission and duty of all.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 22

The first 'true empire', the Assyrian Empire, was noted for having built an administrative system by which they could rule

over their conquered peoples.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 23

The city walls in the New Babylonian Empire were very strong and continually tested by would-be invaders, and in 539

B.C.E. a Persian army was battered and destroyed before the walls.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 24

The Babylonians would have had greater success had they just modeled their imperial system after the Assyrians.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 25

The earliest cave paintings in Europe were produced by peoples who lived by hunting game and gathering edible plants.

In this respect, they differed from humans everywhere else who lived their lives quite differently.
Answer True False

chap2
Question 1

In Greece, sexual behavior was more about a person's power relationship in society, with the socially more powerful

citizens tending to sexually exploit the relatively lower-ranking members of society.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 2

There is ample evidence to deduce that the powerful warrior civilization of the Mycenaeans ruled all of the area of

Greece in the time before the Greek Dark Ages.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 3

During the period called the Greek Dark Ages, iron began replacing bronze as the most common metal for tools and

weapons.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 4

Between 1200 until 800 B.C.E. the Aegean world experienced a period of great literary, philosophical and scientific

enlightenment.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 5

The basic result of the reforms of Cleisthenes was the destruction of older social and political patterns and the integration

of people from different backgrounds who then had to work together and find common solutions.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 6

In contrast to the alphabet that the Greeks borrowed from the Phoenicians, the central purpose of Mycenaean writing

was administrative record-keeping.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 7

Throughout its history, Athenian society was always hampered socially because it was never based upon the existence of

a free peasantry.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 8

In the eighth century B.C.E., Greek polis experienced a disastrous fall in population, leading to the near extinction of

some of the early states.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 9

According to the authors of your textbook, bisexuality was the norm in Greek society.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 10

In Sparta, the krypteia were a band of youths who practiced state terrorism, killing helots as a rite of passage into adult

citizenship.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 11

The Greek myths were explanations of the origins of the natural world around them and also served to support Greek

social, political and religious traditions.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 12

Although they are traditionally ascribed to someone named Homer, the Iliad and the Odyssey were actually the work of

performers who composed poetic lines as they chanted.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 13

Sparta's basic military advantage was that it could both control a large-sized empire in the Aegean while at the same time

insure that the helots at home were kept by terror and violence from revolting.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 14

The geography of ancient Greece favored the development of small agricultural societies, but also drove the Greeks to

reach out to other areas under pressure for survival.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 15

The history of Corinth suggests that tyrants were sometimes extremely popular and produced many positive results, but

that they could also be cruel and violent.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 16

The authors of your text claim that the democratization of Greek political life was a gradual effect of the democratization

of war.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 17

Around 1200 B.C.E., a general collapse of the Greek city states occurred due to their economic and social instability as

well as becoming affected by the larger disruptions of commerce and security in the Mediterranean because of the fall of

the Hittites and troubles in Egypt.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 18

Equality of life was shared as much by Spartans as Athenians with a general sense of democratic equality being shared by

the inhabitants of both polis.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 19

Greeks generally included women in important public roles and in the central life of the community.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 20

The term 'tyrant' originally meant a conquering foreign ruler who achieved power by using foreign hoplite armies to invade

a polis and set up an unpopular regime based upon extremely violent methods. The word 'Tyrant' was never used in the

same sense as 'king' as kingship implied legitimacy.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 21

Greek sculpture emphasized of the male subject of the work which became noted for its rigid imitation of Egyptian forms,

though it failed in the sense that it tended to lack originality and individual expression.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 22

Minoan society, the authors claim, was destroyed not by invasions, but with the eruption of a powerful volcano on the

Island of Thera.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 23

Athens was by far the largest polis in the Greek world.
Answer True False .4 points
Question 24

All things considered, Greek gods pretty much just reflected the
values and weaknesses of the Greeks themselves, and like literacy and government, were generally accessible to all

citizens and not the exclusive domain of the secretive priesthood of some religious cult.
Answer True False

chap 3


At its height, the city of Athens had more slaves than citizens.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 2

The Pelopponesian War demonstrated the positive effects of unity among the Greek cities, reduced class tensions and

created an enhanced appreciation of both democracy and traditional elites.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 3

Freedom in Periclean Athens was based both upon individualism, as it is today in America, as well as an emphasis on

achieving both social and economic equality.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 4

Empiricism, whose greatest champion was Aristotle, is a philosophy rooted in the physical observation of the natural

world.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 5

During the Hellenistic period, the great city of Alexandria in Egypt became the cultural center for Greek art, science and

scholarship in the known world.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 6

In confronting the advancing armies of Persia, Greek city states did not weigh their own local interests first, but were

primarily motivated by patriotism and love of freedom.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 7

The Cynics (cynically) thought that materialism was the source of happiness and that by working hard and earning

material things, that a responsible individual could achieve greater personal freedom and have more choices in life.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 8

Athenian imperialism made possible for Athens to become extremely wealthy and powerful. But this was accomplished

at the cost of her allies, who were themselves denied the same political freedoms and rights and economically and

militarily exploited by their democratic Athenian 'protector'.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 9

In terms of science, the Hellenistic period was a disappointment with few new ideas or inventions that may have enhanced

our knowledge or appreciation of the natural world.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 10

The Athenian victory at Marathon confirmed that the hoplite phalanx was the finest infantry formation in the

Mediterranean world.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 11

To Plato, it was best that philosophers rule over others in society because unlike common ignorant and deluded citizens,

philosophers are the only ones capable of understanding reality.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 12

According to the Stoics, there is no divinely ordered universe, that people must deal with the reality of natural anarchy,

and that evil is a consequence of people becoming locked into delusional concepts about 'their place in the 'divine

plan'.p.79
Answer True False .5 points
Question 13

The real goal of the Epicureans was not so much the emphasis on seeking pleasure, but on reducing needless desires to

just those that were simple and attainable.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 14

The reason why Xerxes retreated back to Persia after the Battle of Salamis was because his land army had been

completely destroyed, he failed to attract any Greek allies, and his fighting techniques were not as effective as the Greek

hoplite phalanx.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 15

Because Athenian democracy was pretty much run by amateurs, public life was dominated by the most effective

speakers, the demagogues, who could sway crowds (and votes) with their rhetoric even though they held no elected

office.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 16

Hellenism combined the eastern aspects of centralized governments ruled over by kings together with traditional Greek

urban cultural life to produce a hybrid system with features of both civilizations.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 17

The life of a female in classical Greece resembled little the life of a woman in America today because females then were

required to be under the constant protection of a male guardian and spend most of their social lives confined to restricted

parts of the home.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 18

Alexander of Macedon, is remembered more as a conqueror than as a ruler probably because he died at the age of 32,

after having proven just what a terrible ruler he was likely to be given his alcoholic binges, homosexual lifestyle and cruel

and racist treatment of the Persians at all levels of society.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 19

The only people who could legally own land in Attica were the metoikoi, or metics.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 20

The first true history, because it sought to explain things such as motives and circumstances, was Herodotus' history:

historia, about the origins and events surrounding the conflict between the Greeks and the Persians.
Answer True False

chap 3

Question 1

Contributing greatly to Rome's initial success was a combination of ruthlessness in war combined with a relative

generosity in victory towards the defeated peoples of the Italian Peninsula.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 2

The Roman Senate was much like the US Senate, an assembly of elected officials, mostly quite young, elected for limited

terms by an enfranchised electorate.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 3

In the Roman republic, power was shared at every level by two or more equals who were elected for fixed terms, and at

the top were two consuls each selected for one-year terms.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 4

Religion in Rome was about a personal relationship with the gods and was an essentially private activity carried out

wherever the numina required worship.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 5

In the end, Rome won its wars over Carthage because they were able to bury class differences, retain the loyalty of most

of their allies, and because they had gifted commanders such as Scipio Africanus.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 6

The Etruscan civilization began to weaken after they lost control of the sea, and on land were challenged by the growing

populations of Celts to the North and Romans to the South.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 7

The two basic social classes in Roman society were the plebes and the equites.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 8

Sometime around 800 B.C. E. the Italic peoples were moving onto and settling the Italian Peninsula. At the same time,

the Phoenicians began arriving and building their own cities on the coast of North Africa and on Sicily.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 9

The foundation for Roman republican government originated in Etruscan assemblies that had combined in order to

prevent any one individual from taking power.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 10

Based upon Roman foundation myths, we know that Rome was actually settled by the twin brothers, Romulus and

Remus, who became the clan fathers of all the Roman gentes.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 11

In Rome, to 'exercise the imperium' meant to deploy Roman forces beyond the traditional boundaries of the Roman state.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 12

"Greater Greece" refers to the collection of Greek colonies that populated the lower half of the Italian Peninsula and on

the Island of Sicily.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 13

Because Etruscan women played, like Greek women, a very passive and hidden role in society, Greeks generally

considered Etruscan women to be much more civilized that either Roman or Carthaginian women who they thought were

rather lewd.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 14

Each of the Roman gentes was headed by a paterfamilias who had the authority of life or death over every member of the

family.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 15

Rome won the First Punic War after 20 years of slugging it out with Carthage, mostly because they had already

destroyed Greece and could do so without worrying about their eastern flank.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 16

For Romans, the ideal soldier was a farmer who served the state and then returned to work his farm.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 17

Roman mothers were never legally related to their children, and wives and mothers were not fully a part of their husband's

families.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 18

The Etruscan civilization was the first to develop into a centralized empire on the Italian Peninsula, and it was this highly

organized and tightly knit empire that was able to project its power to defeat Carthage.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 19

Carthage depended upon its vast land-based empire for protection of its commercial empire and because of their

complete inability to compete at sea, was unable to become either stable or prosperous.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 20

In second century Rome, the corruption of extortion, bribe-taking and dishonest contractors symbolized the decline of

Roman republican virtues.
Answer True False

chap 4
Question 1

Romans, by and large, were generally more interested in human behavior and character than they were in the sciences,

though they supported the work of the Greek scientists of Alexandria.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 2

Emperor Augustus felt that Rome's declining birth rate and corruption could be blamed on the bad influence of foreigners,

especially the growing popularity of Greek homosexual practices.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 3

Octavian's power was supported by his huge wealth, the loyalty of the upper class and his control over the armies of

Rome.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 4

By the end of the first century, Christian authority was claimed to derive from the bishops' status as miracle workers who

roamed around converting pagans with numerous feats of unexplainable healing, bringing people back to life, and so on.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 5

About the the reign of the Antonines, it has been said that it was,'the period in the history of the world during which the

human race was the most poor and miserable.'
Answer True False .5 points
Question 6

Romans considered Christians to be a dangerous and subversive cult because they worshiped a Jewish and therefore

unpopular and suspicious foreign god p.125
Answer True False .5 points
Question 7

Roman emperors, acting in the role of tribunes to the people, brought them, free grain handouts, water-filled aqueducts,

and theaters and Colosseum-style entertainments.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 8

As the Christian church grew and became more organized, women, were excluded from positions of authority as the

Christian community came increasingly to resemble the Roman patriarchal household.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 9

The reason that Julius Caesar was assassinated was that he had previously killed the brother of Marcus Brutus who had

spoken against his becoming pontifex maximus.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 10

Among the Hasidim of Jewish society in occupied Judea, the Pharisees and Zealots disagreed strongly over whether or

not they should fight the Roman occupation.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 11

When Caesar crossed the Rubicon, he set in motion a civil war against the Roman forces of Pompey that would end with

Caesar taking power in Rome.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 12

The Roman imperial government was supported by a combination of taxes, rents, forced labor, military service,

requisitions and outright extortion.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 13

Paul's theological message of the suffering of Jesus as a redemptive sacrifice for original sin offered salvation for those

who believed, prayed and were baptized.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 14

Around the first century B.C.E. the slave population of Italy was negligible, probably only around 10% of the population,

but they were treated so well, sometimes as family, that they never attempted to revolt against their owners.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 15

The Tribunes Tiberius Gracchus and Gaius Gracchus were murdered by the Senators of Rome because they attempted to

undo the needed land reforms put in place by the Roman Senate.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 16

Augustus' long rule ushered in a period of conflict in the empire known as the Bellum Romana in which Rome was

constantly at war with some neighbor or another, draining the imperial coffers of gold and raising the price of wheat

throughout the empire.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 17

Christianity began as a small Jewish sect based upon the martyrdom of its leader Joshua ben Joseph at the hands of the

local Roman procurator.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 18

Paul of Tarsus, a Roman citizen, saw Christianity as an entirely new Hellenistic, non-Jewish mystery religion that adapted

well to Roman paternalism, and so denied that Christianity was in any sense a fulfillment of Judaism or of the Old

Testament.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 19

Official Roman religious cults were challenged in the first century C.E. by mystery cults that promised eternal life and a

personal relationship with a god.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 20

After the Roman conquests of the Mediterranean region, Roman wealth became concentrated in the hands of a few, the

optimates.
Answer True False

chap 5

Question 1

Monasticism began as a rejection of worldly civilization and a return to a life of religious contemplation.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 2

The wholesale settlement of barbarians in the empire as useful allies was not the major factor in the eventual

transformation of the western Roman empire. The most important factor was the loss of pagan faith in their gods and the

resulting loss of prosperity and Roman self-confidence and strength that came, as they believed, from their gods.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 3

Under the tetrarchy, Diocletian divided Rome into quarters, and each quarter was ruled by its own king serving under

Diocletian, who then retired to his estate.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 4

The Goths were different from other Germanic tribes in the sense that their kings were military rather than religious

leaders.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 5

According to Augustine, God granted salvation to an elect, and that salvation could not simply be earned by leading a

virtuous life.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 6

Wergeld was a Germanic custom of payment by the offender to the victim which began because trials by combat and clan

feuds were so destructive to life and limb.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 7

Over the centuries, the Christian religion was transformed from a persecuted minority into a privileged majority within the

empire, and this discontinuity with the biblical call to poverty led many to become religious hermits and to join in the

growing monastic movement.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 8

In the third century, the vast territory of the Roman Empire experienced a strain on both labor and resources, as capital

for investment and existing levels of taxation failed to keep up with the reality that the empire was overextended.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 9

The origins of European serfdom began under the reforms of Diocletian in which the coloni became bound to their lands

and could not leave the villages in which they were registered to pay taxes.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 10

Rome's huge military expenditures were expensive to support, but the rest of Roman society was able to shoulder the

cost of empire because it was able to tax across a broad spectrum of Roman society and so managed to escape the

spiraling inflation usually associated with bloated military-dominated states.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 11

The Great Persecution against the evolving Christian religion began in 303 when Christians were blamed for poisoning the

water supply that ran by aqueducts into the center of Rome and filled all the baths and water fountains.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 12

It would be far more accurate to describe the western half of the Roman Empire as having been transformed rather than

having fallen.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 13

At the Battle of Milvian Bridge, clearly pagans and Christians saw the same symbol of the Chi Rho that Constantine had

painted on the soldiers' shields, and interpreted this symbol to mean the rise of Christianity and the defeat of paganism.

Answer True False .5 points
Question 14

The humiliores in Roman society were poorer than the rich honestiores class but they were not completely disadvantaged

because tax collectors squeezed the wealthy more more efficiently than they did the poor.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 15

Theological controversies in the early centuries of the church were settled typically by calling an assembly (synod) of

bishops, such as the one at Nicea in 325 C.E. and having the Pope come from Rome and educate the assembled bishops

what the true doctrine of the church was going to be.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 16

The Gothic peoples and their leaders were distrusted by the orthodox Christian clergy, because, though they were

tolerable allies, they never converted to Christianity.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 17

The Visigoths defeated Emperor Valens at Adrianople in 378 C.E. as a direct result of the Roman state having treated the

tribe as brutally when they sought assistance as the Huns did in warring against them.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 18

The eastern Roman empire was able to survive the age of barbarian invasions by returning to its Hellenistic traditions,

keeping its administration in civilian hands, and by reaffirming the strength of the imperial government. p. 151
Answer True False .5 points
Question 19

Christianity grew rapidly in the fourth century solely as a result of the many miracles and uplifting preaching of the early

church fathers and their representatives.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 20

In the third through the fifth centuries, Christians argued, often violently, on the nature of Christ as either entirely human

(Arians) or entirely god (Gnostics and Monarchians).
Answer True False

chap 6


Muslims pray to and worship Muhammad who they consider the voice of Allah.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 2

According to Muslims, the Qur'an (Koran) is the final revelation from God to mankind and that Muhammad was the last

and the greatest prophet.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 3

The Abbasid Caliphate attempted to govern according to the Islamic principles found in the Qur'an (Koran) and in the

Hadith (which promulgated the Sunnah, the practices of the Prophet as preserved from oral tradition.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 4

In Byzantium, the Iconoclast Dispute revolved around the appropriateness of using painted images of saints, icons, as holy

protective armor for Byzantine soldiers in combat against Islamic forces.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 5

A formal split between the churches of Rome and Constantinople was avoided in 1054 C.E. when the Legate of the

former met with the Patriarch of the latter and they agreed that the Pope in Rome was infallible, but only when it

concerned the doctrine, not the customs of the church.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 6

The term 'Byzantine Empire' is essentially used to describe the Eastern Roman Empire, a centralized Greek-speaking

bureaucratic state but still ruled according to the principles of Roman law.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 7

The political and religious sect known as Shia Islam believes that the only legitimate leadership of the Umma and of Islam

was someone who had to have been born of the Quraish tribe, within the holy city of Mecca, and during the holy month

of Ramadan.

Answer True False .5 points
Question 8

By uniting the Mediterranean world with Arabia and India, the 'Abbasid Empire created the greatest trade network that

had ever been seen.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 9

The Umayyad Caliphate, with its capital city in Damascus, failed because it tried to rule over the growing Islamic empire

through the leftover model of the Byzantine secular government, and failed to base its rule on Islamic spirituality and

principles.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 10

Most of Europe's legal systems today have as their foundation the Justinian Code which was a revised version of existing

Roman legal traditions.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 11

The reason that eunuchs became so powerful at the Byzantine court was that the Byzantines believed that these men were

purified of the sin of lust and so pure enough of thought to be in the company of God's representative on Earth, the

Emperor of Byzantium.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 12

In Byzantium, soldiers were given a farm with which to support their families, and on the soldier/farmer's death, his

military obligation was passed to his son.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 13

In the seventh century, the center of Orthodox Christianity was Rome because the Bishop of Rome (the Pope) had long

been considered the senior bishop to his brother bishops in Alexandria, Jerusalem, Antioch and Constantinople, and so

his word was considered infallible.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 14

Islamic scientists were not generally interested in the works of Plato and Aristotle because they had been pagans; they

were however much interested in the advanced scholarship of European universities and in the literary output of Christian

monasteries.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 15

In 1453, the Ottoman Turks conquered Constantinople, but not before this great city, the largest Christian city in the

world, had been pillaged by Christian crusaders in 1204 in the Fourth Crusade.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 16

After the Hijra in 620 B.C., the Umma grew in power in Medina, finally capturing Mecca in 629 C.E., and then grew to

become a 'supertribe' open to all people who would submit to Allah (God) and accept the words of His prophet.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 17

Byzantium was undivided and was centrally governed by an efficient bureaucracy. Without anything resembling provinces,

military districts were governed by satraps, subordinate local kings, as was the case with the Persian Empire.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 18

The basic element of the Byzantine imperial system were the thousands of villages throughout the empire. These handled

legal affairs and taxation, and the villages dealt directly with the imperial bureaucracy.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 19

It could be fairly be said that the entire eastern Roman empire was more divided than unified by its Christianity.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 20

Under Muhammad, females saw their status in society decreased, as they now had to wear 'modest' clothing such as

Arab women still wear today, nor could they own property, enter into contracts, divorce their husbands or save their

children from the still-allowed infanticide.
Answer True False .

chap 7

In the sixth and seventh centuries, a plague killed as much as one-third of Europe's population.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 2

By the ninth century, the basic unit of Western economy was the large Roman latifundia that dotted the European

landscape, surrounded by walls and overpopulated by immense numbers of the descendants of slaves, and ruled over by

armed comes and their armed and violent retinue of tonsured monastics.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 3

France and England are both named after Germanic tribes: Franks and Angles.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 4

Emperor Charlemagne wanted to replace pagan art forms with Christian representational art so that he could use the

images to frighten and terrorize pagans into converting.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 5

The last Merovingian king was deposed by Pippin III in a conspiracy with Pope Zacharias who legitimized the overthrow

of the last of the anointed kings of the Merovingian Dynasty, marking the first union of royal legitimacy and ecclesiastical

sanction in European history.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 6

During the late ninth and tenth centuries, all the powers of government, the courts and military force became the private

possession of the Catholic Church that now had absolute spiritual and physical coercive power over all levels of society,

especially kings who ruled with the permission and blessing of the Pope.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 7

The Synod of Whitby in 664 was called in order to iron-out the differences in the way that pagans would be treated by

the church in its conversion doctrines. The Romans converted by the sword, giving potential converts the choice of

conversion or decapitation, while the Celtic church followed a policy of peaceful conversions.
The Synod of Whitby mandated that peaceful methods be followed up if necessary by methods such as slow boiling or

the popular 'water torture'.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 8

The real power in the Frankish kingdom was held by regional strongmen called dukes.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 9

In the early Middle Ages the peasantry of Europe gradually became Christian, as bishops founded parish churches in the

villages of large estates and the faith gradually radiated into the countryside.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 10

England was transformed into Britain, the 'land of the Britons' by an invasion of Celtic tribes from Brittany, and so the

Roman traditional urban life of exploitation and brutality was replaced by the values of peace, quietude and Irish

monastic Christianity.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 11

The main goal of members of the Frankish aristocracy was wealth and power.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 12

Cluniac monks thought of themselves as God's spiritual 'shock troops' and so they fought against evil, with their prayers

as their armed cousins did with their swords.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 13

Pope Gregory the Great (590-604) was unable to fill the power vacuum left by receding Byzantine forces, was unable to

feed the desperately hungry Roman population during periods of famine or to comfort them through the dark years of

plague and warfare as most were still pagan, and so laid the foundations for a very weak and pusillanimous medieval

papacy.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 14

Clovis the leader of the tribe of Salian Franks, converted to Christianity in the hopes that God would help him smite his

enemies, and also with the expectation that the local Gallo-Roman aristocracy would support him, which they did.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 15

In 613, in Visigothic Spain, all Jews were commanded either to accept Christian baptism or leave the kingdom, and Jews

were often happy in 711 when Muslims conquered the Visigothic kingdom and brought some measure of religious

toleration.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 16

Was it really possible to crown Charlemagne emperor in the year 800 because Byzantium was being ruled by a mere

female?
Answer True False .5 points
Question 17

The aristocratic lifestyle of the early Middle Ages focussed on study of the classics, sartorial display, romantic intrigue and

riding to the hounds.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 18

The kingdom of the Franks was the ancestor of both France and Germany.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 19

Aristocrats during the early Middle Ages considered themselves more as partners rather than the subjects of their kings.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 20

In the early Middle Ages, kings were considered the absolute source of law, which was no longer tribal tradition or

custom, but was based entirely upon the sometimes cruel whims of each tribal chieftain.
Answer True False .

chap 8

In the 11th century most people were serfs but in spite of their low economic status, they led secure and peaceful lives,

working on their lords' estates, and receiving a free, basic education at the local parish school run by the local parish

priest.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 2

Thomas Aquinas's major contribution to theology was his division of Christian doctrine from Aristotelian philosophy, in

which he argued that reason and faith could never be reconciled as each one was derived from a different way of

knowing the world.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 3

The typical peasant's diet in the Middle Ages, was composed of: wild boar, wild turkey, potatoes, tomatoes, corn and

beans. p. 202
Answer True False .5 points
Question 4

In the eleventh century, Flanders, dealing with a population explosion as well as a lack of grazing land, opted to invest in

the production of wagon wheels and metal tools of all varieties, and soon this became Europe's first major industry.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 5

Duke William of Normandy sailed with an army in 1066 from France to conquer England because he needed

'lebensraum' for the exploding French population and needed more land to accommodate the demands of a growing

military elite.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 6

It was during the pontificate of Pope Innocent III that the papacy reached the low mark of its power, with corrupt popes

having mistresses, illegitimate children, homosexual affairs, and owned slave galleys and led military forces as if they were

common princes. Slowly, the papacy would regain power until the sixteenth century when popes no longer displayed the

bourgeois materialism of their predecessors..
Answer True False .5 points
Question 7

The warrior aristocracy justified its privileges in society through its training as a Latin-educated elite, that could not only

fight but compose poetry, sing ballads, write legal documents and peacefully resolve disputes.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 8

The crusades were religious wars of conquest authorized by popes and generally directed primarily against Europe's

Muslim enemies.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 9

By the twelfth century, commerce was considered by everyone to be a completely dishonorable occupation, these

'bourgeois' as they were called because they lived in the 'bourgs' or towns, were thought to be men driven by profit over

either honor or faith. Churchmen condemned their greed; nobles condemned their cowardice.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 10

The rise of centralized monarchies and the decline of the age of independent warriors whose violence was seen as

wasteful and futile, led to a decline in the brutal and vicious holy crusades against Muslims and 'heretical' Christians.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 11

A 'youth' in medieval aristocracy was a young noble who had received his sword of knighthood, yet had not married, nor

acquired lands.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 12

The institution of the English Parliament may have come from the custom under King Edward I, of seeking consensus

(and funds) by summoning his barons, bishops and representatives of the towns and shires to participate in a "parley".
Answer True False .5 points
Question 13

The great significance of the Magna Carta, in demanding royal respect for the rights of vassals and of London burghers,

was that the pope, speaking through his Archbishop and assembled noble supporters, was more important than the king.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 14

The church disliked lay investiture because it considered that it had the right to determine who was chosen as bishop and

not some local king or even the emperor.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 15

A woman's domestic tasks in the Middle Ages might include: wool carding, spinning, weaving, gardening, watching

children and brewing beer.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 16

In only 300 years, from the 11th to the 14th century, the population of Europe actually almost doubled from 38 to 74

million people.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 17

King John of England lost his lands to Phillip II, King of France, because he failed to appear when summoned, as

required by feudal custom, as he was a vassal of the King of France for the lands of Normandy, Anjou, Maine and

Touraine.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 18

The titanic battles begun between Emperor Henry IV of the Holy Roman Empire, and Pope Gregory VII, eventually

resulted without any kind of compromise between the empire and the church and this rift eventually ended with a

complete separation of church and state and banishment of the Pope from the Holy Roman Empire.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 19

Because of the Frankish custom of dividing up land between the surviving males, in medieval days, noble women were

expected to have a small number of children, and often women used traditional and effective, though dangerous, methods

of birth control bought from 'wise women' to avoid being constantly pregnant.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 20

A fief, complete with serfs, was something that a vassal might expect from his lord
in exchange for fealty.
Answer True False .

chap 10

Question 1

The sale of indulgences by the church was a lucrative source of revenues as people bought a reduction of time that their

souls would have to spend in purgatory.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 2

The church was finally reunified during the Great Schism, but Western Christendom remained a bit confused at having

two popes. This confusion was finally cleared up with the Council of Pisa when they went back to just the one pope.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 3

The Hundred Years' War that plagued the 14th century, began over property rights in Gascony, was prolonged by

disputes in Flanders as well as by a succession dispute over the French crown between France and England.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 4

In the 14th and 15th centuries, politics centered on the ambitions of powerful nations and what really mattered was

natural resources, agrarian productivity and economic activity.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 5

Clearly, even though there are no good statistics on this point, the deadly Black Plague still managed to kill off far fewer

people than the horrendously destructive wars and numerous heartbreaking famines of this already luckless 14th century.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 6

In the later Middle Ages, the veneration of the Eucharist and particularly the communion wafer, involved the belief that the

wafer was the actual body of Christ.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 7

Unfortunately for John Hus, he was to be the 'entertainment event' at the Council of Constance where he was tried for

heresy and burned at the stake for having attacked church wealth and morals.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 8

By the end of the thirteenth century, peasants were living on the edge of disaster where even a late frost, a bad harvest or

the devastation of a band of hungry mercenaries, could mean famine and population decline.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 9

Joan of Arc's role in turning the tide of the Hundred Years' War may be attributed to this powerful woman's great military

skills as the general commanding the army that saved the city of Orleans.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 10

The Golden Bull of 1356 emphasized the subordination of German rulers and set up a system of elections for the imperial

crown wherein the emperor would be elected by seven princes of the empire but only after they had received a papal

blessing for the candidate.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 11

The major cause of the numerous social insurrections after the plague, was the crushing of rising popular expectations for

a better future.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 12

The chivalric traditions of warfare were destroyed first by the use of archers and pikemen, then by the use of gunpowder

and cannon at the Battle of Formigny in 1450.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 13

During the fourteenth century, magic was believed to exist in a wide variety of forms, but those that practiced magic were

automatically considered to be evil, in league with the Devil, and so hunted down by religious authorities for torture and

burning alive. Things would improve in the 15th century after the publication of 'Witches' Hammer'.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 14

The ultimate cause of the Hundred Years' War was the code of chivalry that trapped leaders into pursuing honorable but

destructively violent policies.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 15

The Jacquerie was a bourgeois conspiracy directed against the nobility and their allies the clergy by French merchants in

the city of Paris, led by Etienne Marcel who resented their brutal exploitations. These revolts were ended by a

compromise between the parties in which the bourgeois of Paris would be represented in a French 'parlement'.
Answer True False .5 points
Question 16

The Black death was all the more terrifying because although people knew how it was caused and how it was

transmitted, everyone believed that it was a punishment from God for their sins.
Answer True False .5 points

Question 17

One of the effects of the Hundred years' War in England is that it created powerful aristocratic families with their own

armies.
Answer True False .5 points

Question 18

The multiple popes of the Great Schism opposed consiliarism because it suggested that an assembly of the church could

actually and correctly determine the true doctrine of the church and of God's will, when popes knew that only they could

determine God's will free from error. It was not about supreme authority or power.
Answer True False .5 points

Question 19

William of Ockham was an English Franciscan monk who promoted secular governments deriving their legitimacy from

the people, and who also exposed Christian Aristotelianism as nothing more that a linguistic exercise. His criticism of

abstract speculation as a source of knowledge empowered the development of scientific observation of individual

phenomena.
Answer True False .5 points

Question 20

John Wycliffe seems to have been protected from being burned as a heretic by the fact that his message against church

wealth and luxury resonated with the English monarchy and nobility.
Answer True False .

chap 10

Question 1

Florentine prosperity was built on banking and wool, and Florentine bankers were once the wealthiest and most powerful

in the world, however, the plague and numerous wars depopulated Florence with a 40% loss of life, and expensive wars

forced the Florentines to continuously devise new methods to avoid bankruptcy.
Answer True False .5 points

Question 2

The 'science of politics' the authors of your text claim, began with Brunelleschi and the publication of his book: The

Courtier in 1513.
Answer True False .5 points

Question 3

The production and consumption of luxuries soared during the Renaissance because wealthy people had acquired a deep

love of the arts, specifically painting, sculpture and architecture and invested what wealth they had in an attempt to

encourage struggling artists and benefit their communities with beautiful works.
Answer True False .5 points

Question 4

Wealthy individuals in Renaissance Italy commissioned art only as a tax haven, and did not have any influence on the art

world itself. This allowed artists and craftsmen to work in their own separate social context, separate from the

relationship of artist and patron, and so the product was both imaginative and individualistic.
Answer True False .5 points

Question 5

The political history of the Italian peninsula during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries is one of peace and prosperity

with the Renaissance radiating its spiritual vision of the uplifted and perfectible man throughout society. p.265
Answer True False .5 points

Question 6

Renaissance humanism was quite anti-religious, and was secular in its outlook. This may be seen reflected in the secular

humanism of today.
Answer True False .5 points

Question 7

Starvation was rare because most people weakened by hunger were much more likely to succumb to some ever-present

disease than to famine.
Answer True False .5 points

Question 8

What made Machiavelli remarkable is that his work did not separate Christian ethical considerations from the advice that

he gave rulers, so as a result, his advice sometimes instructed would-be rulers to be considerate of their enemies, be true

to their friends and not to conquer their neighbors, all of which was not helpful in the local climate of fierce and brutal

inter-city warfare.
Answer True False .5 points

Question 9

By the beginning of the fifteenth century, the Italian city-states were the center of power, wealth and culture in the

Christian world.
Answer True False .5 points

Question 10

By the late Middle Ages, Italy was far less urban than other parts of Europe and so suffered more from the depredations

of agricultural setbacks..
Answer True False .5 points

Question 11

Florence prided itself upon being a republic, and most of the time it was ruled democratically, with one notable family, the

Medici, having an important economic but not at all political role in Florentine life.
Answer True False .5 points

Question 12

At the end of the Middle Ages, in rural populations, social distinctions centered around who owned the land whereas in

urban populations, social distinctions centered around what occupations people did for a living.
Answer True False .5 points

Question 13

For men during the Renaissance in Italy, marriage and parenthood generally took place at an extremely young age, and

male heads of households now had to compete with the rising status of females in their homes, their shops and in the state.
Answer True False .5 points

Question 14

The most likely future for a young man in Renaissance Italy was for him to become apprenticed around the age of 10-13

to learn the trade of his father, and if he was a farmer's son, learn how to work the farm.
Answer True False .5 points

Question 15

More than any other Italian city-state, Venice was the most affected by the loss in 1453 of Constantinople to Mehmed II

and the Ottoman Empire
Answer True False .5 points

Question 16

Renaissance painting, sculpture and architecture have the common element of expressing the ideals and aspirations of the

society at the time. The new element was, in contradistinction with medieval forms, a celebration of the here and now

rather than the hereafter, and on humanity and its capacity to grow in its knowledge and through its efforts to improve its

own condition.
Answer True False .5 points

Question 17

Florence, Milan and Venice were the three most important of the Italian city states with each ruled by a king, but claimed

by the Pope.
Answer True False .5 points

Question 18

We owe quite a bit to renaissance humanists for developing the philological methods involved to determine the accuracy

and authenticity of many ancient texts, and especially to Lorenzo Valla for exposing an ancient forgery called 'The

Donation of Constantine".
Answer True False .5 points

Question 19

The Most Serene Republic of Venice owed its great prosperity to its military defeat of its smaller neighbors and to the

conquest and establishment of numerous well-defended forward bases throughout the Mediterranean. p.266
Answer True False .5 points

Question 20

The Renaissance economy was essentially defined by the concentration of wealth in the hands of a small group of Italian

families, and how that wealth was used.
Answer True False
answered the question Dec 24, 2012 at 7:28pm
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