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1. The peace treaty of 1783 with England granted the United States all the land
A) drained by the St. Lawrence river.
B) of the Oregon Territory.
C) on the eastern bank of the St. Lawrence river.
D) drained by rivers flowing into the Atlantic.
E) west of the Mississippi river.

2. Both Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren
A) were unwilling to annex Texas.
B) attempted to annex Texas.
C) refused to recognize Texas.
D) warned Mexico to leave Texas alone.
E) were indifferent to annexing Texas.

3. During the Mexican War, what happened in the southwest?
A) General Taylor’s forces turned northward and attacked Mexican forces in California.
B) American settlers seized Sonoma and established the Republic of California.
C) General Stephen Kearny’s cavalry expedition from Fort Leavenworth was defeated and
captured at the Battle of Santa Fe.
D) A virtual civil war broke out between settlers favoring the United States and those
supporting Mexico.
E) The Mexican army easily defeated the initial efforts of a ragtag army of American settlers
to create an independent California.

4. According to your text, for many Americans, the ultimate justification of Manifest Destiny and
the Mexican War seemed to be the
A) prohibition on slavery in the territory gained from Mexico.
B) recognition by Europeans that America was also an imperialistic power.
C) discovery of gold in California in 1848.
D) guarantee of a transcontinental railroad route through the territory conquered from
Mexico.
E) opening of Mexican markets to American businesses.

5. The part of the Compromise of 1850 which seems to indicate unscrupulous activities was
A) admitting California as a free state.
B) taking over the debts of Texas.
C) strengthening the fugitive slave law.
D) abolishing the slave trade in the District of Columbia.
E) taking over the debts of California.

6. Which of the following statements about slavery as an economic institution in the 1840s and
1850s is true?
A) The price of slaves rose dramatically from 1820.
B) The domestic slave trade almost disappeared in these years.
C) The slave trade had little impact on slaves’ lives.
D) Ownership of slaves became more widespread than in 1820.
E) The price of slaves fell dramatically after 1820.

7. The existence of what Southern institution explains why the South had few cities and little
industry?
A) established religion
B) patriarchal families
C) slavery
D) tenant farming
E) sharecropping.

8. The development of the rich anthracite coal fields in Pennsylvania allowed
A) better utilization of water power.
B) longer railroad lines to be built.
C) canal transportation to compete with railroads.
D) steamboats to travel on canals.
E) greater flexibility in locating factories.

9. Clipper ships designed by Donald McKay were popular because they
A) carried bulky loads, the mainstay of commerce.
B) were superior to British steamships.
C) accelerated the trade in sperm oil.
D) carried the mainstay of commerce, specialty goods.
E) provided fast oceanic transportation.

10. Public aid for railroad financing before 1860
A) did not occur prior to the Civil War.
B) paid for about three-fourths of all railroad constructions.
C) was outlawed by Congress.
D) took many forms including loans, investments, and special exemptions.
E) was strongly resisted by almost all levels of government.

11. The “Young America” movement argued that
A) revolutions in other countries were dangerous.
B) democracy was unique to America and could not be exported.
C) England was the cause of all American problems.
D) all foreigners should be deported.
E) democracy would triumph everywhere.

12. The United States attempted to establish some control over a future canal across the isthmus of
Central America by negotiating with
A) France.
B) Spain.
C) Great Britain.
D) Germany.
E) Colombia.

13. Stephen Douglas staunchly believed that the slavery question in the territories of Kansas and
Nebraska should be resolved by
A) protecting slavery.
B) the Supreme Court.
C) banning slavery.
D) popular sovereignty.
E) amending the Constitution.

14. Buchanan’s reaction to the Lecompton constitution was to
A) support it because it provided for the gradual emancipation of slaves in Kansas.
B) refuse to submit it to Congress because it abolished slavery.
C) support it as a perfect example of popular sovereignty.
D) refuse to submit it to Congress because it permitted slavery.
E) support it despite the fraud perpetrated by the pro-slavery faction.

15. In The Impending Crisis of the South, Hinton R. Helper
A) demanded the reopening of the African slave trade.
B) alarmed Southerners when he argued that without re-opening of the international slave
trade, the South would face a severe labor shortage.
C) treated John Brown as a saint.
D) supported the Crittenden amendment to the Constitution.
E) alarmed Southerners when he argued that slavery was ruining the South’s economy and
social structure.

16. According to your text, the Civil War was fought to
A) destroy slavery.
B) please the abolitionists.
C) preserve the Union.
D) punish the South.
E) profit northern manufacturers.

17. Thaddeus Stevens, Charles Sumner, and Benjamin Wade were leaders of the
A) Radical Republicans.
B) Copperheads.
C) War Democrats.
D) Lincoln Republicans.
E) Peace Democrats.

18. Even though he did not defeat Lee, McClellan managed at least to stop his 1862 invasion of the
North at
A) First Manassas.
B) Antietam.
C) Gettysburg.
D) Second Manassas.
E) Shiloh.

19. How did blacks react to the Emancipation Proclamation?
A) They were suspicious about Lincoln’s motives.
B) They saw it as a beacon promising future improvement.
C) They were overjoyed by its immediate abolition of slavery.
D) New York City blacks rioted for four days in their anger at its shortcomings.
E) They were largely indifferent to it because it had no immediate impact.

20. In his second inaugural address, Lincoln
A) urged tolerance and mercy toward the South.
B) promised to free the slaves.
C) made no efforts to calm Southern fears about his administration.
D) reiterated the themes and goals of his first inaugural address.
E) claimed he would not interfere with slavery in the states where it already existed.

21. Andrew Johnson has been described as
A) extremely friendly toward black rights.
B) an eager defender of traditional southern aristocrats.
C) hating all things southern.
D) a consummate politician and party man.
E) specializing in opposition and alienating members of his own party.

22. During the bitter days of Reconstruction, most Northerners
A) believed in giving blacks the vote.
B) opposed true equality for blacks.
C) were not concerned at all about blacks.
D) completely supported the radicals.
E) supported political equality, but not social equality for blacks.

23. As a result of black demands for economic independence and the shortage of capital, the South
developed the agricultural system known as
A) sharecropping.
B) gang labor.
C) tenant farming.
D) wage-crop economics.
E) crop rotation.

24. In 1872 Horace Greeley and the Liberal Republicans focused on the issue of
A) guaranteeing civil rights and economic aid to former slaves.
B) defending laws to help unions and farm organizations.
C) ratifying the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments.
D) granting women the vote.
E) supporting civil service reform and low tariffs.

25. After the Compromise of 1877, the former slaves
A) gained economic and political power in the South.
B) were condemned to poverty and indignity in the interests of sectional harmony.
C) made no more dramatic political or economic gains until after World War II, but also
suffered no economic or political losses.
D) continued to share in America’s growing wealth and power.
E) made dramatic political or economic gains up until World War I, but suffered major
economic or political losses after 1920.

Bonus questions (1 point each).
26. According to your text, among the most basic justifications for secession for the South were the
A) exaggerated sense of honor and code of the duel that defined Southern masculinity.
B) traditional states’ rights arguments.
C) refusals of Lincoln and the Republicans to support constitutional guarantees to protect
slavery where it already existed.
D) fears of the overpowering Northern economy.
E) promises of aid from England and France.

27. After secession began in 1860, the proposed constitutional amendment which would have
guaranteed the future existence of slavery south of the old Missouri Compromise line was the
A) Compromise of 1860.
B) Crittenden Compromise.
C) Douglas Amendment.
D) Lincoln-Buchanan Compromise.
E) Constitutional Union Compromise.

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The peace treaty of 1783 with England granted the United States all the land
A) drained by the St. Lawrence river.
B) of the Oregon Territory.
C) on the eastern bank of the St. Lawrence river.
D)...