Test 4 material

Test 4 material - Test 4 material Community Ecology...

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Test 4 material Community Ecology Structure: Physiognomic- physical structure species composition- diversity trophic- energy transfer, functional groups temporal- seasonal/diurnal activity Raunkier- lifeforms based on overwintering bud Phanerophyte- many visible buds, tips of branches includes most trees, large shrubs, warm/moist environment 2,3- Chamaephytes- on ground, shrubs and herbs -prostrate lifeform- close to soil, protects bud, cool/dry env 4- Hemicryptophyte- bud partially hidden underground, cool/moist env 5-9- Cryptophytes- buds underground Therophytes- life cycles from seed to seed, die within 1 season Growth form/leaf characterists Annual herb Broad leafed evergreen drought- deciduous shrub drops leaves in drought broad leaf deciduous succulent plants bulbous herbaceous perennial evergreen, needle leaves Animals categorized by feeding strategy -where, when, what, how species diversity number of species and relative abundances #of species = richness relative abundance- equitability Shannon Weiner- species diversity index Climate stability resource division predation disturbance productivity Pisaster seastar- with this predator, there are 15 species of prey, without, there are 8 after 2 years, and 2 after 5 years Disturbances- changes substrate/resources, creates availability of opportunity (new individuals) -wind, flood, fire, drought, humans -farming, mining, timber, stream control, pollution, war size, frequency, turnover, intensity, severity disturbance hypothesis middle is best for diversity disturbance generalization-
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affects equilibrium and diversity, harmful to individual, detrimental to population, better for diversity Trophic dynamics/production Facilitation- enhanced growth, fitness, survivorship, etc due to environmental modifications by other species Nucleation- growing in microclimate then killing the other species Biological/integrity number- Ss feeding biology- Sf fish abundance- Sa fish health- Sh index= Ss + Sf + Sa + Sh Keystone species- influence on community disproportionate to biomass- largely affects communities- not dominant Eastern deciduous forest- net primary production- 4% trophic levels- transformations in levels of energy chains are simplified webs Producers --> primary consumers --> secondary consumers --> tertiary consumers Fig. 18.17 Thermodynamics- cannot be created or destroyed, energy decreases as it is transferred Energy losses limit trophic levels in ecosystems 50% of energy is heat tax for respiration 10% passed down 40% in biomass, goes to decomposers Assimilation efficiency- energy assimilated/energy ingested x 100
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Test 4 material - Test 4 material Community Ecology...

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