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study guide I - Bio 317 Study Guide I Definitions: CHAPTER...

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Bio 317 Study Guide I Definitions: CHAPTER I Oikos- Environment Gaia- Life produces its own life Biosphere- Earth Region- Continents, etc Landscapes- Energy/Nutrient exhange, across ecosystems Ecosystem- Community + abiotic factors Community- Interacting organisms, same area Population- All species in same area Species- Potentially interbreeding, similar organisms Organ systems Tissues Cells- Biotic Molecules Natural History- Study of how organisms/area influenced by climate, soil, predators, etc Physiological Ecology- Species/environment-- how/why questions Population Ecology- Size/speciation/evolution/competition/energy. Community Ecology- Species diversity, competition, succession Biogeochemical Eco- Nutrient cycle, productivity, decomposition Systems Eco- Math/Modeling Palynology- Pollen grain/spore studies Ecology- true science- objective Environmental science- Man's impact on nature Environmentalism- Aesthetics/values-- subjective People- Haeckel- "Ecology" termed in 1866 ESA- Ecological society of America- 1915 Bernd Heinrich- Small scale, bees in a field. Field research- Max realism, min control Mesocosm- ex- container in a field Microcosm- lab only EP and HT Odum- Fathers of Modern ecology Bartram, John- America's first naturalist Humboldt, A.V.- 1800s- zones of vegetation due to temp, S. America Ellen Swallow- Tech/dev having effect on environment Peter Kalm- Plant succession F.E. Clements- American Plant eco E.A. Birge, C. Juday- Limnology- Oceanography of inland bodies of water 1903- Adams- University of Chicago- Animal ecology Arthur Tansley- "Ecosystem", 1935 Cowles, Henry- Community concepts in ecosystems Shelford, V.- Beetles, insects, animal eco G.E. Hutchinson- Stats in Ecology Whittaker- Temperature vs. Precipitation Definitions- CHAPTER II- LAND Soil- Plant growth, recycling nutrients, wastes, water supply/purification, engineering medium, habitat for organisms, etc Organic Layer A- Mineral layer (top soil, clay, iron, Al, Si, etc) E- Eluviation- Leaching B- Deposital horizon- illuviation- best soil structure
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C- Bedrock Oi- Fibric horizon, SLIGHTLY decomposed Oe- Hemic horizon, 1/2 decomposed Oa- Sapric horizon, VERY decomposed Humus- Decomposing organic matter, retains water, plenty of nutrients Solum- True soil (O-->B) Regolith- O-->C Bioterbation- Transferring between layers CLORPT Climate Organism Relief (topographic) Parent material (geologic/organic precursors) Time Loam- Soil with sand and silt and clay particles Mineral constituents Sand- largest Silt- microsand, < 0.05 mm, > 0.002 mm Clay- < 0.002 mm Soil orders- Aridosols- Deserts- leaching of cations proportional to solubility- limited activity Mollisols- Dark grasslands- chemical weathering from rainfall Alfisols- Acidic- Al and Fe- Semiarid --> humid areas. Clay subsoil Ultisols- Humid, Acidic- maximum mineral weathering Oxisols- Oxic horizon. < 10% base saturation. Tropical rain forests. Spodosols- Ashes. Wet and cold, or warm in florida.
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This note was uploaded on 04/09/2008 for the course BIOL 317 taught by Professor Crawford during the Spring '07 term at VCU.

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study guide I - Bio 317 Study Guide I Definitions: CHAPTER...

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