Test 2 Material:
Water Vapor density/saturated water vapor density x 100 = relative humidity
Isosmotic- equal water flowing in and out
Hyperosmotic- more water out than in. water flows in, more solute in organism than environment.
Hypoosmotic- more water in than out. water flows out, more solute in environment.
Plants- excess water = anaerobic effects, buildup of NH4, H2S, CH4
Animals- drown, lose insulation/nests
Water potential- free energy of solution relative to pure water.
dagger thing – pure water = 0
dagger thing + pure water + solutes = -x
hypotonic --> hypertonic
water = high water potential --> lower potential
Components- osmotic- solutes
pressures- + and – pressure
Pure water = 0 megapascals
dry air = -100 megapascals
SPAC- soil, pressure, air continuum
Guttation- root pressure forces h2o out of leaves
animals- food and drink, absorption, h2o gain. lost by evap, secretion
sharks- trimethyl amine oxide- urea in cells, hyperosmotic, water diffuses in
Most marine invertebrates are isoosmotic. Osmoregulation takes energy.
Bony fish- hypoosmotic- fish lose water, and take in salt water, excreting salt through urine, MgSO4
Fresh water- gills take IN water and salt
Plant adaptations- water balance, input through roots, out through stomates, reg by stomates
Avoidance/tolerance- short growth cycle, dormancy, succulence (CAM), phreatophyte (roots deep under)
Thick cuticles, small stomates, sunken stomates, pubescence, leaf rolling
Water use efficiency. Poikilohydric- water status changes with humidity- resurrection fern
Animal adaptations- input from food drink metabolism, output in urine feces breathing, reg through
Avoidance/tolerance- migration, dormancy, nocturnal, opportunity, reduced sweat glands, SA/V ratio,
longer loop of henle to absorb water
Kangaroo rat- moisture cannot exit nose. strong urine, dry feces, nocturnal, metabolic water only, dry